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FROM 1635 TO 1 845. 


' For out of the old fieldes, as men saithe, 
Cometh the new come from yere to yere, 
And out of old bookes in good fiuthe 
Cometh this new science that men lere.' 


Lives there a man with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself nath said, 
T hu it my otcn, my native land?' 




No. 56 COF.XHILL. 




THOSE who are familiar with ancient mythology, will recollect the story of the 
f good Isis who went forth wandering and weeping to gather up the parts and 
fragments of her murdered and scattered Osiris, fondly yet vainly hoping that 
she might recover and recombine all the separate parts, and once more view 
her husband in all his former proportions and beauty.'* With equal assiduity, 
but with far less lamentation, has the compiler of 'the following pages been for 
many years engaged at intervals, in collecting the scattered fragments of t Quid 
Newberry.' and has arranged his imperfect materials in the form which they 
now exhibit to the reader. No one can be more sensible than himself, of its 
deficiences, its want of symmetry and proportion, which the reader may, if 
he chooses, attribute as much to the want of skill in the artist, as to the lack of 

* Quarterly Register. 


the requisite materials. Throughout the whole of this compilation he has en- 
deavored to make a broad distinction between fact and tradition, and to relate 
nothing as fact, which he does not believe to be true. Strype in his annals 
says, ( I have chosen to set down things in the very words of the records and 
originals, and of the authors themselves, (rather than in my own, without 
framing and dressing them in more modern language,) whereby the sense is 
sure to remain entire as the writers meant it. whereas by affecting too curious- 
ly to change and model words and sentences, I have observed the sense itself 
to be often marred and disguised. 7 This is the course that the compiler has 
taken. He has endeavored to give as accurate a representation as possible, of 
the character of the inhabitants of Newbury and their transactions, for over two 
hundred years, and has been desirous, in the language of Tacitus, i sine ira, 
sine studio/ without fear, favor, or affection, neither l to extenuate, nor aught 
set down in malice.' He is well aware that his statements in many places do 
not agree either with the tradition, or the belief, of many of the inhabitants 
of the town, or with history. Where he has been obliged to differ from com- 
mon opinion, he has done so for reasons, which to him appeared entirely satis- 
factory, and has been pleased to rind that the instances have been very few 
where fact and tradition do not substantially agree. It is however much to be 
lamented, that so small a number of the first settlers were in the habit of re- 
cording the transactions of the day, and that the journals or diaries of those 
who made a record, should have been in so many instances lost or destroyed. 
Mr. Anthony Somerby, the first school-master of Newbury, the ancestor of all 
of that name in this country, and one of our best and most useful citizens, 
kept a diary of passing events, as I have been informed by those who have 
seen it, but of which no trace can now be found. An aged lady, one of his 
descendants, informed me that he versified the whole book of Job. Numerous 
instances might be given where valuable papers in large quantities, have 
been destroyed, because they were 'so old that nobody could read them.' 
4 All are not such,' and among the many persons, who have in various ways 
rendered valuable assistance in the compilation of this work, the author can- 
not forbear mentioning the names of Messrs. Robert Adams, reverend William 
S. Bartlet, Daniel Dole, Moses Davenport, George Danforth, doctor Ebenezer 
Hale, doctor E. G. Kelley, Tristram Little, Josiah Little, Moses Petti ngill, 
esquire, Horatio G. Somerby, of Boston, and Charles Toppan, of Philadelphia, 
to whom he tenders his warmest acknowledgments for the interest they have 
manifested in the work, and the aid they have afforded toward its completion, 
and to all others not mentioned by name, who have rendered any assistance. 
If, as is undoubtedly the case, he has made any mistakes, or omitted any 
necessary or valuable information, he will be greatly obliged to any person or 
persons, who will correct those mistakes, or supply those omissions, as it is his 
intention still to continue to collect information, in order that some future his- 
torian may be able to supply his deficiences, and at some future day may pre- 
pare a work, which will do justice to the reputation of i Ould Newberry.' The 
sources whence the compiler of the present history has derived his materials, 
a r e almost innumerable, and to specify them all, would require a small volume. 
The principal are the colonial, province, state, county, town, church, and parish 
records. The town records have been well kept, and with the exception of a 
few missing leaves of the first book, are full and accurate. The records of the 


first church commence in 1674, the preceding transactions of the church, having 
been to all appearance intentionally destroyed ; a loss very much to be regret- 
ted, but which hafc in part been supplied by copious quotations from the county 
records. Some persons may suppose, that too many pages are occupied with 
the ecclesiastical affairs of the town. li, should be remembered that in no 
other way could the peculiar traits in the character of our ancestors be fully 
developed. It was the religious doctrines that they had embraced, and the 
consequent principles of religious and civil liberty, which they could not enjoy 
in their own land, that induced such a company of gentlemen, merchants, and 
mechanics, to emigrate from the populous and cultivated towns of their father 
land, to this then wilderness, and exchange, as many of them did, the sword, 
the awl, the needle, and the yard -stick, for the hoe, the axe, the anvil, and the 
plough ; and to omit a sufficient allusion to their religious principles and their 
actual development in practice, would be to narrate effects, and not notice the 
causes which produced them. No one can justly appreciate the character of 
our forefathers, and the sacrifices they made for their posterity, without a knowl- 
edge of those principles, which, like a main-spring, set every thing in motion. 
But enough has been said on this subject. Our attention for a few pages will 
be given to affairs more secular. 

The town of Newbury was originally one of the largest towns in the county. 
It was about thirteen miles long, and about six miles broad in the widest place, 
and contained about thirty thousand acres, of which nearly two thousand are 
covered with water. 

In 1764, it was divided into two towns, Newbury and Newburyport. In 
1771, a province valuation was taken, and in 1781, a valuation was taken by 
the state, in which Newbury and Newburyport stood thus. 

Newbrny. Newburyport. 

750 875 Polls ratable. 

10 7 " supported by the town. 

75 51 " not supported by the town. 

437 430 Dwelling houses. 

36 60 Shops separate or adjoining other buildings. 

26 38 Tan houses, slaughter houses, &c. 

393 210 Barns. 

14 45 All other buildings of 5 value and upward. 

1450 113 1-2 Acres of tillage land. 

2380 86 3-4 " of English and upland mowing. 

10,802 113 1-2 " of pasturage. 

192 7176 Tons of vessels, of 5 tons burthen and upward. 

592 74,131 Stock in trade. 

341 146 Horses and mares, 3 years old and upward. 
562 30 Oxen, 4 years old and upward. 
1468 1741 Cows, 4 years old and upward. 
645 160 Swine, 6 months old and upward. 
318 5149 Ounces of silver plate. 
57,726 24,668 Debts due to any persons. 
2825 Monies on hand. 

Newburyport also in 1781. had ten distil and sugar houses, three jope walks, 


thirty-nine ware-houses, and eighty-seven thousand nine hundred superfi- 
cial feet of wharf. Newbury also had in 1781, sixteen grist, saw, fulling, and 
slitting mills, one thousand one hundred and six acres of fresh meadow, three 
thousand one hundred and sixty-seven acres of salt marsh, made one thousand 
four hundred and thirteen barrels of cider, had eight hundred and fifty-two acres 
of wood land, three hundred and three acres of unimproved land, and thirty-five 
acres of land unimprovable, had ten colts, two years old, fourteen colts one 
year old, three hundred and one neat cattle three years old, three hundred and 
ninety, two years old, three hundred and fifty-five, one year old, and two thousand 
three hundred and seventy-six sheep and goats. In 1819, West Newbury was set 
off and incorporated as a separate town. The state valuation for 1840, is as fol- 
lows : 

Newbury. Newburyport. West Newbury. 

859 1249 404 Ratable Polls 16 years old and upward. 

182 304 32 Male polls not taxed nor supported by the town. 

18 56 4 U u u supported by the town. 

401 832 301 1-2 Dwelling houses. 

6 1 Rope walks. 

3 1 Grist mills. 

9 53 4 Shops within, or adjoining to dwelling houses. 

74 103 79 other shops. 

4 1 Tan houses. 

238 4 Ware houses and stores. 

6 1 Rope walks. 

4 Cotton factories, 11.046 spindles, and 280 looms 

in the same. 

2 1 Woolen factories. 

240 800 ' Spindles. 

376 318 2195-12 Barns. 

80 1-8 161 141 All other buildings and edifices of the value of 

$20 and upward. 

453,812 Superficial feet of wharf. 

2,397 1-2 13,456 Tons of vessels and small craft of 5 tons bur- 

then and upward. 
2,011 1-2 41 2496 1-2 Acres of English and upland mowing. 

346 1084 1-2 Acres of fresh meadow. 

6,947 3-4 88 1-2 4,084 1-2 Acres of pasturage. 
888 1-4 - 279 Acres of woodland. 
201 1-2 190 Acres of unimproved land. 

The three towns also raised in 1840, eight hundred and eleven bushels of 
wheat, one thousand two hundred and forty bushels of rye, six thousand and 
seventy-three bushels of oats, fifteen thousand six hundred and thirty-five bush- 
els of Indian corn, and three thousand one hundred and sixty-six bushels of 
barley. There were also in Newbury, three thousand eight hundred and twenty- 
five and one half acres of salt marsh, and two thousand eight hundred and sixty- 
five and one half tons of salt hay cut on the same. Newbury also had two 
carding machines, two fulling mills, and one and a half saw mills. 

Since the first settlement of the town, that part of it now called Newburyport, 


has witnessed great changes, not only in its business, but in its external appear- 
ance. In the printed programme of the procession, which honored general 
Washington with an escort in 1789, a conspicuous place was assigned to the 
1 distillers,' whg were then a numerous body of men. At that time there were 
ten or twelve distilleries in the town, and six rope walks. Now there are but 
one of each, and manufacturing, a new and rapidly increasing business, is tak- 
ing the place of the West India trade, by which it once rose to great wealth. 

In 1796, doctor D wight thus writes : 

1 Newburyport is probably the smallest township in the state, including only six 
hundred and forty acres. It lies on the . southern shore of the Merrimac. The 
town is built on a declivity of unrivalled beauty. The slope is easy and ele- 
gant : the soil rich, the streets, except one near the water, clean and sweet ; 
and the verdure, wherever it is visible, exquisite. The streets are either paral- 
lel, or right angled, to the river ; the southern shore of which bends, here, to- 
wards the south east. None of them are regularly formed. Still there is so 
near an approximation to regularity as to awaken in the mind of a traveler, 
with peculiar strength a wish that the regularity had been perfect. For my- 
self I was not a little mortified to see so fair an opportunity of compassing this 
beauty on so exquisite a spot finally lost. As it is, however, there are few towns 
of equal beauty in this country. . . . The houses taken collectively, make 
a better appearance than those of any other town in New England. Many of 
them are particularly handsome. Their appendages also unusually neat. In- 
deed, an air of wealth, taste and elegance, is spread over this beautiful spot, to 
which I know no rival. . . . From the tower of the church belonging to 
the fifth Congregation, a noble prospect is presented to the spectator. On the 
west and south, spreads an extensive champaign country, ornamented with 
good farmers' houses, orchards, and cultivated fields, and varied by a number 
of beautiful hills. Behind them rise, remotely, two mountains, finely connect- 
ing 'the landscape with the sky. On the north flows the Merrimac, visible 
about four miles ; exhibiting two islands in its bosom, near the point, where it 
first appears ; and joining the ocean between two sand banks, on which are 
erected two movable Light houses. On the North shore stand the towns of 
Salisbury and Amesbury. Behind this the country rises gradually, parted into 
a variety of eminences ; one of them, which from its appropriation by the sav- 
ages, is called Powow hill, particularly handsome. Over all these ascends at 
the distance of twenty-five miles, the round summit of Agamenticus. North 
eastward, the Isles of Shoals appear at the distance of eight leagues, like a 
cloud in the horizon. Eastward the ocean spreads inimitably. At a small dis- 
tance from the shore. Plum Island, a wild and fantastical sand beach, is thrown 
up by the joint power of winds and waves into the thousand wanton figures of 
a snow drift. Immediately beneath is the town itself, which with its churches 
and beautiful houses, its harbor and shipping, appears as the proper centre of 
this circle of scenery, and leaves on the mind a cheerfulness and brilliancy, 
strongly resembling that, which accompanies a delightful morning in May. 

1 Newbury contains five parishes, in which are five congregations and a so- 
ciety of Friends. It is all settled in plantations, formed especially along the 
Merrimac of excellent land under good cultivation. The surface is generally 
pleasant, and remarkably so on the borders of the river from some of the emi- 
nences.' These eminences, of which the doctor speaks, are principally in 


West Newbury, and are called Pipe-stave, Crane-neck, Archelaus. Old-town, 
and Indian hills. With the exception of the summit of Old-town hill, the land 
on all the swells in Newbury, is of the first quality. The Indian-hill farm, 
owned by colonel Benjamin Poore, is in a high state of cultivation, and received 
in 1843, the premium of two hundred dollars, from the committee of the 
agricultural society, who deemed it the best managed farm in the county. 
Newbury has also the honor of having the first incorporated academy in the 
state, the first toll-bridge, the first chain bridge, the first incorporated woolen 
factory; and the first vessel that displayed the American flag in the river 
Thames, was the Count De Grasse, commanded by captain Nicholas Johnson, 
of Newburyport. Many other interesting facts might be mentioned, for which 
I have no room. I will only add, for the information of the reader, that a brief 
sketch of the life of doctor John Clark, whose portrait is prefixed to this work, 
may be found in Thacher's Medical Biography. See also page 391. The wood 
cut of the first parish meeting-house, built in 1700, and demolished in 1806, is 
not an exact representation. It was drawn from the recollection of one person, 
by another, who never saw it. f The roof was originally constructed with four 
gable ends or projections, one on each side, each containing a large window, 
which gave light to the upper galleries, where the young people sat. The 
children sat on a seat in the alley, fixed to the outside of the pews. Before 
the pulpit and deacon's seat, was a large pew containing a table, where sat the 
chiefs of the fathers. The turret was in the centre, and the bell was rung and 
tolled in the centre of the broad aisle. Originally, the space within was open 
to the roof, where were many ornaments of an antique sculpture and wainscot, 
and was, in the day of it, a stately building, but long before it was torn down, 
a steeple was substituted for the turret, the dormar windows were removed, 
and the roof thus made plain,' # as it appears on the third page. The reader 
of the following pages, will make the following corrections. Page 244, < June 
seventeenth, 1774,' should be placed in 1775. On page 270, for 'captain 
Michael Smith,' read l captain Samuel E. Bailey.' On page 363, for * tattle,' 
read l cattle.' On page 285, add : reverend Daniel P. Pike, pastor.' Other errors 
the intelligent reader will undoubtedly notice, in the following sketch of Ould 

* Reverend doctor Popkin. 



1 OULD NEWBERRY,' as it was anciently called, was settled, incor- 
porated, and paid its first tax, in the spring of 1635. It derives its 
name from Newbury, a town in Berkshire, England, situated in the 
south part of the county, on the river Kennet, fifty-six miles west 
from London. It was so named in honor of the reverend Thomas 
Parker, who had for some time preached in Newbury, England, 
before his arrival in America. Till its incorporation in 1635 it was 
called by its Indian name, Quascacunqucn, a name, which the 
natives gave, riot to the whole territory, (as the word signifies a 
' waterfall,') but to < the falls,' on what is now called the river Parker, 
on whose banks the first settlers fixed their habitations. As different 
dates have been assigned by different persons for the first settlement 
of the town, some placing it in 1633, others in 1634, and others in 
1635, I will here mention all the facts and assertions I have been 
able to find on the subject, and the reasons which induce me to 
suppose, that, if any, no permanent settlement was here made till 
early in the spring of 1635. In the Newbury records, under the 
year 1752, I find the following entry, which, as far as I can learn, is 
the origin of all the assertions, any where to be found, that Newbury 
was settled in 1633. 

1 For religion's sake, as I trust, our forefathers left their native shore; they 
bid adieu to their stately buildings and goodly seats, and many of them look a 
final farewell of their friends, and shipped themselves and families on board 
the ship Hector for New England, and by the grace of God, they arrived in this 
wilderness in the year 1633, and this place was then called by the natives 
Quascacunquen. Our fathers began with courage to clear, manure, and till 
the land ; the Lord was pleased to bless their industry, and the earth brought 
forth increase, and also the Lord added to their families and increased their 
number; and in the year 1635, on the third month, called May, the great and 
general assembly was pleased to incorporate them into a town, and invested 
them with town 'privileges, and called the name thereof Newbury; and our 
fathers be<?an the year of births and deaths, as by record do appear, on the first 


of March; and it hath been so continued, from time to time, until this day. nnd 
now, by an act of Parliament, we aiv ordered 1o Itcunr the' year on the iirst of 
January, and in humble obedience to the crovrn and dignity, I shall proceed 
accordingly; viz. January ye lirst, 1752. 

JOSEPH COFFIN, Town Clerk.' 

From the preceding statement, any person, without examination, 
would be induced to believe that ' our lathers,' the first settlers of 
Newbury, all came here in the year 1(333, in the ship Hector. That 
this was not the case, we have abundant proof. In the first place, 
the word, Hector, the name of the ship in which it is said they came, 
is not in the original record, but was inserted there by some subse- 
quent hand, and cannot be true, as we have abundant evidence that 
a large majority of the lirst settlers of Newbury, came to New Eng- 
land at different times and in different ships, between the last of 
April, 1634, and July, 1635, as we shall hereafter see. In the next 
place, we have no proof that the Hector came to New England till 
1636, when Mr. Thomas Milward, who afterward settled in New- 
bury, came over as mate of that ship, as will be seen under that 
year. It is, however, possible, that the Hector came to New Eng- 
land in 1633, as, oat of eight ships that arrived in ' this wilderness ' 
in that year, the name of one only is not known. In the year 1634, 
twenty-two ships arrived in New England. Of these, we know the 
names of nearly all, but the name of the Hector is not among them. 
Those, therefore, who have supposed that their ancestors came to 
Newbury in 1633, in the Hector, must, in the absence of all proof, 
place no dependence on the apocryphal tradition, part of -which 
has been interpolated by some anonymous writer. 

I now proceed to give my reasons for believing, that the territory 
which was afterward incorporated by the name of Newbury, was 
not settled till the spring of 163o. Possibly, there might have been 
a few interloping fishermen, who occupied a part of the coast, and 
the banks of the Merrimac and Quascacunqucn during the fishing 
season, but who were not among the permanent settlers of Newbury. 

Governor Winthrop, in his invaluable History of New- England, 
vol. 1, pp. 98, 99, thus writes, under date of seventeenth of January, 

i The governor, having intelligence from llie east, that the French had bought 
the Scottish plantation near cape Sable, and that the fort and all the ammunition 
were delivered to them, and that the cardinal, having the managing thereof, had 
sent some companies already, and preparation was made to send many more the 
next year, and clivers priests and Jesuits among them called the assistants to 
Boston, and the ministers and captains, and some other chief men, to ad rise 
what was lit to be done for our safety, in regard the French were like to prove 
ill neighbours. (beinir papists :) at which meeting it was agreed that a plantation 
and a fort should forthwith be begun at Natascott, partly to be some block in 
an enemy's way, (though it would not bar his entrance.) and especially to pre- 
vent an enemy from taking that passage from us ; and also, that a plantation 
should be beo'un at Aira warn, (beinir the best place in the land for tillage and 
cattle,) least an enemy, finding it void, should possess and take it from us. The 
governor's. son, (bein^ one of the assistants.) was to undertake this, and to take 
no more out of the hay than t\vo!vo mm : the rest to be supplied at 1h.- coming 
of the next ships. 7 


Referring to this subject, governor Hutchinson remarks: 

' Tt appears that the Massachusetts people took possession of the country at a 
very critical time. Ricliliri]. in all probability, would have planted his colony 
nearer the sun. if he could have found any place vacant. De Monts and com- 
pany had acquired a thorough knowledge of the coast from cape Sables beyond 
cape Cod in 1604; indeed, it does not appear that they went round or to the 
bottom of Massachusetts bav. Had they once gained footing there, they would 
have prevented the English.'* 

From these quotations it is evident, that it was the determination 
of the Massachusetts colony, to extend their settlements eastward as 
fast as possible, and, as it was of great importance that the first set- 
tlers especially should be men of the right stamp, in 1630, Septem- 
ber seventh, ' all persons were forbidden,' by the court, ' to plant 
within the limits of their patent without leave.' ' A warrant shall 
forthwith be sent to Agawam, to command those who are planted 
there, forthwith to come away/f Again, the court, April, 1633, 
' ordered that no person whatsoever shall go to plant or inhabit at 
Agawam, [now Ipswich.] without leave from the court, except those 
that are already gone with Mr. John Winthrop, junior, namely, 
Mr. [William] Clerk, Robert Coles, Thomas Howlett, John Biggs, 
John Gage, Thomas Hardy, Mr. [John] Thorndike,' and three 
others, names not given, all of whom had removed to Agawam the 
preceding month. 

In the course of the year 1G33, eight ships with passengers, 
arrived in New England." In 1034 twenty-two ships arrived, of 
which six arrived in May, fifteen in June, and one in November. 
These ships brought a large number of passengers, who soon found 
places to settle. In one of the ships, that arrived in May, came 
' Mr. [Thomas] Parker, a minister, and a company with him, being 
about one hundred, [and] went to sit down at Agawam, and divers 
others of the new comers.' J 

So great, in fact, was the influx of emigrants to New England, 
that in many places they could not be accommodated. i Those 
of Newtown, [now Cambridge,] complained of straitness for want 
of land, especially meadow, and desired leave of the court, Mav, 
1634. to look out either for enlargement or removal, which was 
granted; whereupon they sent men to see Agawam and Merrimack, 
and gave out they would remove.' They, however, went the next 
year, (October, 1633,) to Connecticut. 

Hubbard, in his history of New England, page 192, states, that 
* the plantation at Agawam, was from the first year of its being 
raised to a township, [August, 1634,] so filled with inhabitants, 
tli at some of them presently swarmed out into another place a little 
farther eastward. Mr. Parker was at first called to Ipswich to join 
with Mr. Ward ; but he choosing rather to accompany some of his 
countrymen (who came out of Wiltshire in England,) to that new 

* Hutthinson. vol. 1. page 30. "t General court record. 

J Winthrop, vol. 1. page 133. Winthrop, vol. 1. page 132. 


place, than to be engaged with such as he had not been acquainted 
withal before, removed with them and settled at Newbury, which 
recess of theirs made room for others, that soon after supplied their 

Now, as it is well known that Messrs. Parker, Noyes, Woodbridge, 
and company, did not remove to Quascacunquen till May, 1635, 
the inquiry naturally arises why they did not remove to that place 
before, especially as Agawam was ' filled with inhabitants,' the 
situation of Quascacunquen being one of the best in the country, and 
the general court extremely anxious to extend their settlements as 
fast as possible. The answer to these questions may be found in 
Edward Winslow's ' Hypocrisie Unmasked ; whereunto is added 
a Brief Narration, (occasioned by certain aspersions,) of the true 
grounds or cause of the first planting of New England,' and so forth ; 
lately reprinted in the ' Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers of the 
Colony of Plymouth,' by reverend Alexander Young, Boston. As 
no copy of the original work, which was printed in small quarto in 
1646, was to be found in America, Mr. Young procured a transcript 
of the work from one in the British Museum. On pages 402, 3, and 
4, of that extremely valuable and ably edited collection, I find the 
following : 

f The next aspersion cast upon us, is, that we will not suffer any that differ 
from us never so little, to reside or cohabit with us ; no, not the presbyterian 
government, which differeth so little from us. To which I atiswer, our practice 
witnesseth the contrary. For 't is well known that Mr. Parker and Mr. Noyce, 
who are ministers of Jesus Christ at Newberry, are in that way and so known, 
so far as as a single congregation can be exercised in it ; yet never nad the 
least molestation or disturbance, and have and find as good respect from magis- 
trates and people, as other elders in the congregational or primitive way. 7 
1 So also 'tis well known that before these unhappy troubles arose in England 
and Scotland, there were divers gentlemen of Scotland that groaned under the 
heavy pressures of those times, wrote to know whether they might be freely 
suffered to exercise their presbyterial government amongst us; and it was 
answered affirmatively that they might. And they sending over a gentleman 
to take a view of some fit place, a river called Meromeclc, near Ipswich and 
Newberry aforesaid, was showed their agent, which he well liked, and where we 
have since four towns settled, and more may be for aught I know ; so that there 
they might have had a complete presbytery, and u-hither they intended to have 
come. But meeting with manifold crosses, being half seas through, they gave over 
their intendments ; and as I have heard, these were many of the gentlemen that 
first fell upon the late covenant in Scotland.' 

Cotton Mather, in his Magnalia, vol. 1, page 73, makes a similar 
statement, but neither he nor Winslow gives the date of the letter, or 
the time when the agent arrived. This deficiency is supplied, not 
only by Winthrop, but by the court records. The former, vol. 1, 
page 135, says, ' we received letters from a godly preacher, Mr. 
Levinston, a Scotchman in the north of Ireland, whereby he signi- 
fied that there were many good Christians in those parts resolved to 
come hither, if they might receive satisfaction concerning some 
questions and propositions, which they sent over.' This was in 
July, 1634. The court records for September state, vol. 1, p. 128, 


'it is ordered, that the Scottishe and Irish gentlemen, who intends 
to come hither, shall have liberty to sett doun upon any place upp 
Merrimack river, not possessed by any.' From all these quotations 
it is evident, that the general court, in September, 1634, had granted 
to this expected company, through their agent, a township of land 
at the mouth of Merrimack river, and ; whither they intended to 
have come;' that, after receiving satisfactory answers to their 
1 questions and propositions,' they embarked for New England, and, 
after performing about one half their voyage, * they gave over their 
intendments,' in consequence of the ' manifold crosses ' they met, 
and returned home. Now, when it is recollected, that ' the court 
had forbidden all persons to plant within the limite of their patent 
without leave,' and that the territory now r called Newbury had 
actually been granted to a company of ' good Christians ' who had 
1 resolved to come hither,' and that the settlers at Agawam, [Ipswich,] 
must have known these facts, the reason is obvious why they neither 
took possession of the territory, nor asked permission so to do. 
Neither is it at all probable that they had heard of the failure of the 
intended expedition till the next spring. The reasons for this opinion 
are these. Of the twenty-two ships, which arrived in New England 
during the year 1634, one only arrived after June, and that was the 
1 Regard,' which came in November. This opinion is corroborated 
by the following extract from the Ipswich records, namely: 

' December 29th, 1634. It is consented unto that John Perkins, junior, shall 
build a ware, [fish trap,] upon the river of QuasycuiiGf. [now river Parker.] and 
enjoy the profitts of it. but in case a plantation shall there settle, then he is to 
submit himself unto such conditions, as shall by them be imposed.' 

This conditional grant certainly implies, that no settlement had 
then been commenced, and the probability, that a plantation in that 
place would soon be established, when their jurisdiction would of 
course cease. There are also other proofs. On the tombstone of 
Henry Sewall, now standing in the burying yard of the first parish 
in Newbury, is the following inscription. 

1 Henry Sewall. sent by his father. Henry .Sewall, in the ship Elizabeth and 
Dorcas, arrived at Boston 1634, wintered at" Ipswich, helped begin this plantation 
1635, furnishing English servants, neat cattle, and provisions. Married Mrs. 
Jane Dummer March 25, 1646. and died May 16. 1700. His fruitful vine, being 
thus disjoined, fell to the ground January following. Ps. 27 : 10.' 

This inscription was undoubtedly written by his son, judge 
Samuel Sewall, in whose diary I find the following. ' Newbury 
was planted in 1634. My father has told me so, -who was one of 
the first inhabitants.' The reverend Samuel Danforth, 'a great 
antiquary,' in his almanac for 1647, states that ' Newbury was begun 
in 1634.' Captain Edward Johnson, in his ' Wonder-working 
Providence,' written in 1651, states, that ' Messrs. Parker and Noyes 
began to build the tenth church at a place called Newbesry in the 
latter end of the year 1634.' These apparent contradictions can be 


easily reconciled, if we bear in mind the fact, that the year, with otif 
puritan forefathers, began on the twenty-fifth of March, and not on 
the first of January, as the custom now is. Not satisfied with 
renouncing all rites and ceremonies, not, in their opinion, clearly 
warranted by the bible, they attempted a reformation in the calendar 
by repudiating the names of the months, and of the days of the 
week, as of heathenish origin, and altogether unsuitable to be used 
by chris'.ians, for, in the language of Johnson, in his ' Wonder- 
working Providence,' ' the practice was designed of purpose to 
prevent, the heathenish and popish observation of days, months, and 
years, that they may be forgotten among the people of the Lord.' 
They also commenced their year in March, the twenty-fifth of 
that month being new year's day. In order, however, to accom- 
date all who did not desire this reformation, a double date 
was used between January first and March twenty-fifth. Thus 
twelfth mo. 1634-5, meant either February the twelfth month, 1634, 
or February the second month, 1635, according to the different 
opinions of the reader. ' The latter end' of 1634 might mean, and 
probably did mean, the time between January first, and March 
twenty-fifth, which would then be considered, as the beginning of 
1635. From all these considerations, the probability, therefore, is, 
tli at. no settlement was made in Quascacunquen, before the year 
l()-3o, as it is not probable that the first settlers removed in the depth 
of winter, as the land was then, according to all accounts, covered 
with a thick and heavy growth of timber. Horses and .carts, as a 
means of conveyance, could not then be used, as nothing but a narrow 
and winding footpath led from Agawam to Quascacunquen. The 
most rational supposition, and one which accords with all the 
information we have on the subject, either traditional or recorded, 
is, that they, with Henry Sewall, 'wintered at Ipswich,' and made 
preparations for a removal in the spring. The first notice we have 
of their determination, is given by Winthrop, volume 1, page 160, 
in these, words : 'at this general court, [May, 1635,] some of the 
chief of Ipswich desired leave to remove to Quascacunquen, to 
begin a town there, which was granted them, and it was named 
Newberry/ In the colonial records, it is thus noticed. 

1 Mai; 6th. 1 635. Quascacunquen is allowed by the court to be a plantation, and 
it is referred to Mr. [John] Humphrey. Mr. [John] Endicott, captain [Nathaniel] 
Turner, and captain [William] Tra'sk, or any three of them, to set out the 
bounds of Ipswich and Quascacunquen, or so much thereof as they can. and 
tli; 1 name of the said plantation shall be changed, and shall hereafter be called 

' Further it is ordered, that it shall be in the power of the court to take order 
that the said plantation shall receive a sufficient company to make a competent 

From the preceding quotations, it is apparent, that the first inhab- 
itants of 'Newberry' obtained 'leave of the general court' to 
reniove to Quascacunquen, settled there, and were incorporated as 
a township in the spring of 1635. If any persons, prior to that 


period, had commenced a settlement within the territorial limits of 
1 ould Newbcrry,' of which we have no positive proof, they must 
have been considered as intruders, or ' squatters,' or they supposed, 
as in the case of John Perkins, that the northern limit of Agawam 
was the river Merriraack. Indeed, we are told that when Agawam. 
was settled, in 1633, it was bounded on the north by the Merrimack, 
and on the West by Cochichawick, [now Andover.] The jurisdic- 
tion of Masconomo, the sagamore of Agawam, extended from 
Naumkcag river to the Merrimack. William Wood, in his ' New 
England Prospect,' thus speaks : ' Agawam is the best place but one, 
which is Merrimack, where is a river twenty leagues navigable. 
All along the river side is fresh marshes, in some places three 
leagues broad.' ' These two places may contain twice as many 
people as are yet in New England, there being as yet scarce any 
inhabitants in these two spacious places.' He was in America in 
1633, and set sail for England on the fifteenth of August of that 
year. At that time we know of thirteen persons only, who were in 
Agawam, besides John Winthrop, junior, namely, the twelve who 
came with him, and ' Thomas Sellan,' who on 'June eleventh was 
admitted as an inhabitant.' There were probably fishermen in 
various places on the banks of the Quascacunquen and the Merri- 
mac, 'where,' says Wood, 'much [sturgeon] is taken, pickled, and 
sent to England, twelve, fourteen, eighteen feet long.' He, as it will 
be seen, is not remarkable for his accuracy, either respecting the navi- 
gation of the Merrimack, the width of the fresh marshes on its banks, 
or the length of the fish in its stream. We will there fore leave him and 
return to the first settlers of Newbury. Uniform tradition asserts 
that they came by water from Ipswich, through Plum island sound, 
and up the river Quascacunquen, [now river Parker,] to the place 
they had selected as their future habitation. Tradition asserts that 
they landed on the north bank of the river, about one hundred rods 
below the spot where the bridge now stands, and that Nicholas 
Noyes was the first person who leaped ashore. This company 
was few in number, and probably consisted of Mr. Henry Sewall 
and servants, William Moody, his wife and four sons, Anthony 
Short, Henry Short and wife, ]Mr. John Spencer, IMr. Nicholas 
Easton, his wife and son John, Richard Kent, senior, and Stephen 
Kent, brothers, with their wives, Richard Kent, junior, and James 
Kent, brothers, Mr. Thomas Parker, Mr. John Woodbridge, IMr. 
James Noyes, his wife, and brother Nicholas Noyes, Thomas 
Brown, Richard Brown, George Brown, Mr. James Browne and 
wife, Thomas Coleman, Franc-is Plumer and wife, with his two 
sons Joseph and Samuel, with a few others, whose names are not 
known with certainty. For a short time the business of the town 
was transacted in committee of the whole, but the population 
increasing rapidly, fifteen ships with passengers, having arrived in 
June, one in August, one in November, and one in December, 
bringing with them many families, who immediately settled in 
Newbury, ; the plantation' soon received ; a suliicien! company to 


make a competent toune,' according to the order of the general 
court, which in the same month, May, 1635, ordered the same men, 
namely, Humphrey, Endicott, Turner, and Trask, to set out a farm 
for Mr. Dummer, about the falls of Newberry, not exceeding the 
quantity of five hundred acres, provided it be not prejudicial to 
Newberry.' At the same time ' liberty was granted to Mr. [Richard] 
Dummer and Mr. [John] Spencer, to build a mill and weire at the 
falls of Newberry, to enjoy the said mill and weire with such privi- 
leges of ground and timber as is expressed between them and the 
toune, to enjoy to them and their heires forever.'^ The court also 
ordered that ' no dwelling hous.e shall be built above a half mile 
from the meeting house in any new plantation, without leave from 
the court, except mills and farm houses of such as have their 
dwellings in toun.' ' John Humphrey, esquire, and captain Turner, 
were ordered to set out the bounds between Salem and Ipswich, and 
Ipswich and Newbury, before midsummer next, and also to view, 
and inform the next general court if there may not be another 
toune settled conveniently betwixt them, and it is agreed that the 
bounds of said tounes shall be six miles apiece into the country.' 
At the same court, [May, 1635,] 'it was ordered, that Mr. [Richard] 
Dummer, and Mr. Bartholomew, shall set out a convenient quan- 
tity of land within the bounds of Newberry, for the keeping of the 
sheep and cattle that came over in the Dutch shipps this yeare, and 
to belong to the owners of said cattle.' These 'owners' were 
Richard Saltonstall, Richard Dummer, Henry Sewall, and ' divers 
other ' gentlemen in England.' With the exception of the lands 
above mentioned, the first settlers of 'ould Newberry,' granted, 
surveyed, and settled the lands according to their own judgment. 
For a short time, a year or more, the business of the township was 
transacted in committee of the whole. Mr. John Woodbridge was 
chosen their first town clerk, and Richard Kent and Henry Short, 
lot layers. All their records pertaining to grants of land, are full 
and complete, having been very accurately copied into a new set of 
books, now called the ' Proprietors' Books,' which for many years 
have been kept separate from the town records. As there are a few 
leaves wanting in the first volume of the transactions of the town, 
the deficiency in that respect, must be supplied from other sources. 
In the records of the court at Salem, I find the following. 

c I John Pike do testifie that I was present at the gathering of the church at 
Newbury, and I did hear our reverend pastor preach a sermon on the eighteenth 
of Matthew, seventeenth verse ; i And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it 
unto the church : but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as 
an heathen man and a publican,' wherein he did hould forth that the power of 
discipline belonged to the whole church, yt the matter of the church ought to be 
visible saints joyned or gathered together, that the manner of their joyning 
together ought to be by covenant, yt the end of it is for the exercisinge and 
enjoyinge of the ordinances of Christ togeather. He strongly proved his doc- 
trine by many places of the scripture, both in the old and new testament. The 

* Court records, page 152. 


\vhirh sermon togeather with the scriptures did much instruct and confirme us 
in that waye of church discipline which as I understood he then preached for 
namely, the congregational waye, some noates of the said sermon, which 1 
then took from his mouth I have here ready to shew if you please. The ser- 
mon being ended the brethren joyned together by express covenant, and being 
joyned they chose their pastor, Mr. Parker, who accepted the call, and joyned 
with them" according to the covenant aforesaid ; and those that afterward joyned 
to the church, consented to the said covenant explicit. The brethren of the church 
acted in these admissions of ye members, expressing their voats therein by lifting 
up the hande, and soe continued together lovingly a considerable number of 
yeares untill other doctrine began to be preached amongst us.' 

1 Per me JOHN PIKE. 

c Sworne in court, 30 March, 1669. 

/Robert Pike also testifies that the meeting was on the sabbath and in the 
open air under a tree.' 

'At the same time that Mr. Parker was chosen pastor, Mr. James Noyes was 
chosen teacher.' 

Similar testimonies were given by John Emery and Thomas 
Browne. The cause of these testimonies' being given, was a con- 
tention in the church, which was carried to the court at Ipswich, as 
will be seen under the years 1669, 1671, and 1672. They give us 
the place and the manner in which the church was formed, but not 
the time. It could not have been earlier than the month of June, as 
John Pike, Robert Pike, and John Emery, did not arrive in New 
England till that month. Tradition states that Mr. Parker preached 
his first sermon under the branches of a majestic oak, which stood 
on the north bank of the river, about one hundred yards below 
where the bridge now stands, and which, like the auditory it once 
shaded, has long since crumbled into dust. Under the same tree, 
probably, the church was gathered, and their spiritual guides set 
apart .by them for their appropriate work. A meeting-house was 
also built. That, tradition informs us, stood on the lower green, a 
few rods northwest from the spot where captain Enoch Plumer's 
house now stands. The first grave yard was near it, as appears 
by a petition to the general court in or about the year 1647. 

A house for the ministers was built, a large number of house lots, 
planting lots, and meadow lots were granted. How many houses 
were erected and how many families were in Newbury during the 
first year, there is no record to inform us. Houses were erected on 
both sides of the river Parker, and on Kent's island, and as then 
meadow land was very valuable, and in fact almost essential to their 
very existence as a support for their cattle, many were built on the 
margin of the meadows, not only on the banks of the river Parker, 
then called i the Great river,' but also on the banks of the < Little 
river,' as far as Trotter's bridge, and in various other places, so that 
in a very short time the law prohibiting any person from erecting ' a 
dwelling house above half a mile from the meeting-house without 
leave of the court,' was entirely disregarded. The principal settle- 
ment was around the meeting-house on the lower green, and there 
was to be, as the first settlers supposed, the future commercial 
metropolis of Newberry. During this year sir Henry Vane and 


reverend Hugh Peter arrived in Massachusetts, grand juries were 
established by law, the circulation of brass farthings was prohibited, 
and musket bullets were to be used instead. This year, August fif- 
teenth, i about midnight the wind came up at northeast, having blown 
hard at south and southwest the week before, and blew with such 
violence with abundance of rain that it blew down many hundreds 
of trees, overthrew some houses, drave ships from their anchors. 
In the same tempest a bark of Mr. Allerton's was cast away upon 
cape Ann, and twenty-one persons drowned. Among the rest, a 
Mr. Avery, a minister in Wiltshire, with his wife and six small 
children, was drowned.' ' This Mr. Avery,' says Cotton Mather, 
* went to. Neiuberry, intending there to settle, but being urged by 
magistrates and ministers to settle in Marblehead, he embarked with 
his own family, and his cousin Mr. Anthony Thacher's, all of 
whom were lost except Mr. Thacher and his wife.' 

The ship angel ' Gabriel,' in which came passengers John Bailey, 
senior, and John Bailey, junior, who afterward settled in Newbury, 
was 4 lost at Pemaquid,' now Bristol, in Maine, and ' the Dartmouth 
ships cut all their masts at St. George.' ' The tide rose at Narra- 
ganset fourteen feet higher than ordinary and drowned eight Indians 
flying from their wigwams.' ^ ' The effects of this tempest, one of 
the most violent and destructive probably that the country has ever 
experienced, were visible,' says Morton in his Memorial, i many 

In September of this year the court assessed 200 on the towns 
in the colony. Of this rate Newberry paid 7 10s., Ipswich 14, 
Salem 16, Charlestown 15, Boston 25 10s., and so forth. 

In the court records, under date of November, 1635, is the follow- 
ing, namely : 

f Whereas Thomas Coleman hath covenanted with Richard Saltonstall and 
divers other gentleman in England and here for the keeping of certain horses, 
bulls and sheepe in a general stock for the space of three years, and now since 
his coming hither hath been exceedingly negligent in discharging the trust 
committed to him, absenting himselfe for a long time from the said cattle and 
neglecting to provide something for them, by reason whereof many of the said 
cattle are dead already and more damage likely to accrue to the said gentlemen : 
it is therefore ordered that it shall be lawful for the said gentlemen to divide 
the oates and hay provided for said cattell among themselves, and soe every one 
take care of their own during the winter.' 

The tract of land, which was set apart as the place for pastur- 
ing these cattle, was near the falls of Newbury. Of this land, Mr. 
John Spencer had a mill lot of fifty acres, Mr. Richard Dummer 
three hundred acres, Mr. Henry Sewall five hundred acres, Mr. John 
Clark four hundred acres, ' beginning at the mouth of cart creek.' 
Of Mr. Henry Sewall we are told in the life f of his son, judge 
Samuel Sewall, Mr. Cotton would have him settle in Boston, but 
he preferring an inland situation on account of his cattle, he re- 

* Winthrop, vol. 1, pp. 165, 166. t Quarterly Register, February, 1841. 


moved to Newberry.' How lars:e the number was who owned stock 
in the cattle community, and which was so soon dissolved by the 
negligence of shepherd Coleman, we have no means of knowing. 
All we know is that there were ' divers gentlemen,' not only here, 
but 'in England,' each of whom soon found that he could best take 
care of ' his owne cattle.' lu the division of the land throughout 
the town, the first settlers recognized the scripture rule, ' to him that 
hath shall be given,' and the wealth of each of the grantees, as well 
as others of the first settlers, can be very nearly estimated, by the 
number of acres of land, which were granted them.^ This was 
according to the rule agreed upon in London, in 1 629, by c the assist- 
ants of the company,' who settled Massachusetts. They gave to 
each adventurer two hundred acres for every d50 he put into the 
common stock, and so in proportion. < Such adventurers as send over 
any person, were to have fifty acres for each person, whom they 
send.' Every person, who transported himself and family to New 
England at his own expense, should have fifty acres. 

This year, second of September, ' Francis Plumer was licensed 
to keep an ordinary,' f that is, a tavern. 

Mary Brown, daughter of Thomas Brow T n, the first white child 
born in Newbury. was born this year. May thirteenth, 1656, she was 
married to Peter Godfrey, and, 'having had a good report as a maid, 
a wife and a widow,' she died April sixteenth, 1716, in her eighty- 
first year. 


This year the general court enacted, that ( every particular town- 
ship should have power over its own affairs, and to settle mulcts 
upon any offender, upon any public order not exceeding twenty 
shillings," and liberty to chuse 'prudential men, not exceeding seven, 
to order the affaires of the towne.' 

The town of Newbury, availing itself of this privilege, chose, l by 
papers,' the following men, namely : !NIr. Edward Woodman, Mr. 
John Woodbridge, Henry Short, Mr. Christopher Hussey, Richard 
Kent, Richard Brown, and Richard Knight. They were at first called 
by the name of ' the seven men,' then ' towne's men,' then ' towne's men 
select,' and finally ' select men,' as they are still called. They 'were 
chosen,' says the reverend Richard Brown, in his diary, 'from quarter 
to quarter by papers to discharge the business of the town, in taking 
in, or refusing any to come, into town, as also to dispose of lands 
and lots, to make' lawful orders, to impose fines on the breakers of 
orders, and also to levy and distrain them, and were fully impow- 
ered of themselves to do what the town had power for to do. The 
reason whereof was, the town judged it inconvenient and burden- 
some to be all called together on every occasion.' 

About this time it is probable the town made some regulations 

* See appendix, A. t Colonial records. 


concerning the manner, in which their town meetings or meetings 
of the ' freemen ' should be held. As the town records are lost prior 
to the tenth of June, 1G37, and as the manner of proceeding in the 
neighboring towns was essentially the same, the following from the 
Salisbury records will supply the deficiency : 

In the year 1640 the town ' ordered that in the first of every 
meeting there shall be a moderator chosen by the companie. He 
shall have power to interrupt and call to accompt any that shall 
exceed in speaking and in case of fayling herein he shall be fyned 
at the discretion of the companie, and in case the moderator shall 
refuse so to doe he shall for such offence pay two shillings ^tnd 
sixpence; Also that every freeman shall speak by turne, and not 
otherwise, and shall signifie when he is to speak by rising or putting 
off his hatt, and his speech being ended, shall signifie it by putting 
on his hatt or sitting downe, and in case he be interrupted by the 
moderator and shall refuse to cease shall forfeit for every such offence 
one shilling. Also that no person shall depart from meeting without 
leave on the like penalty/ 

In Hampton, New Hampshire, the regulations adopted in 1641 
were somewhat different. 

4 1. The moderator was to be chosen at the end of every meeting 
for the next succeeding one. 2. The moderator, if the elders were 
not present, was to open the meeting with prayer. 3. He was then 
to state some proposition or call on some one to do it. 4. When 
any person addressed the moderator he was to stand up or put 
off his hat, and no other person was to speak at the same time, 
or be talking of any other thing (when a matter is in agitation) 
within the meeting roome. The clerk was to call over the ' freemen ' 
and note the absent.' 

Such substantially were the rules and regulations, adopted by the 
first settlers of Newbury in their town meetings, as will in part ap- 
pear hereafter. 

This year ' another windmill was erected at Boston, and one at 
Charlestown ; and a watermill at Salem, and another at Ipswich, and 
another at Newbury.' ^ 

This mill, the first erected in Newbury, was built at ' the falls,' on 
the river Parker, by Messrs. Dummer and Spencer, in accordance 
with the grant from the general court, and an agreement with the 
town in 1635. 

February eleventh, Newbury neck was leased to Richard Dummer 
for two years. 

This year, the general court passed the following sumptuary law, 
to which, and other similar laws, allusion will be frequently made. 

* No person after one month shall make or sell any bone lace or other lace to 
be worne on any garment upon pain of five shillings the yard for every yard so 
made or sold, or set on, provided that binding or small edging laces may be 
used on garments or linen.' 

* Winthrop, vol. 1, p. 196. 


Joshua Woodman, son of Mr. Edward Woodman, was the first 
white male child born in Newbury. He died the thirtieth of May, 
1703, in his sixty-seventh year. 

This year, the third of March, the general court laid a tax of .300 
on Massachusetts, of which Newbury was to pay 11 5s., Salem 
24, and Boston 37 10s., and 'ordered that courts in Essex county 
should be held quarterly, two in Salem, one in Ipswich to which 
Newbury shall belong.' 

May twenty-fifth, ' Newbury men were fined sixpence apiece for 
choosing and sending a deputy to the court, who is no freeman.' ^ 
iNIilitary men were to be ranked in three regiments, of which one 
is to consist of Saugus, Salem, Ipswich, and Newbury. Mr. John 
Spencer was chosen captain for Newbury. Mr. Richard Dummer 
and Mr. John Spencer were chosen magistrates. 

In the month of March, 16ai, ' Mr. [John] Endicott of Salem 
was called ' before the court ' to answer for defacing the cross in 
the ensign ; but, because the court could not agree about the thing, 
whether the ensigns should be laid by, in regard that many refused 
to follow them, the whole cause was deferred till the next general 
court ; and the commissioners for military affairs, gave order in the 
mean time, that all the ensigns should be laid aside. 1 f 

At the next court, Mr. Endicott was ordered to be ' sadly admon- 
ished ' for cutting the cross out of the king's colors, ' and to be 
disabled for one year from bearing any publick office.' He was 
instigated to do this by Roger Williams, who considered it as 
c a relique of antichristian superstition.' In 1635, each military 
company was to have colors, the cross to be left out. The objec- 
tion to the cross in the ensign, was, that it was idolatrous and sinful. 
It was deemed of so much consequence, that ' the ministers 
promised to take pains about it, and to write into England to have 
the judgments of the most wise and godly there.' In this state of 
feeling, Mr. ' Thomas Milward, mate of the ship Hector,' and who 
was afterward one of the proprietors of Newbury, ' spake to some 
of our people aboard his ship, [June, 1636,] that we had not the 
king's colours at our fort, we were ah 1 traitors and rebels,' and so forth.J 
Such language could not, in the opinion of our fathers, be tolerated. 
He was accordingly sent for, the words proved against him, and he 
committed. He was discharged on signing the following submis- 
sion, which may be found in the colonial records, 1, 179. 

' Whereas I, Thomas Millerd have given out most false and reproachful 
speeches against his majesty's loyal and faithful subjects dwelling in the Mas- 
sachusetts Bay in America, saying that they were all traitors and rebels and 
that I would affirm so much before the governor himselfe, which expressions I 
do confess (and so desire may be conceived) did proceed from the rashness and 
distemper of my own brain, without any just ground or cause, so to think or 
speak, for which my unworthy and sinful carriage being called in question, I do 
justly stand committed. My humble request thereforels, that upon this my full 
and ingenuous recantation oJ this my gross failing, it would please the governor 

* See appendix. t Winthrop, vol. 1, p. 156. \ Winthrop, vol. 1, pp. 187, 1S8. 


and the rest of the assistants to accept of this my humble submission to pass by 
my fault 7 and to dismiss me from farther trouble and this my free and voluntary 
confession I subscribe with my hand this ninth June 1636. 


Shortly after this, Mr. Millerd moved to Newbury, and became 
one of the proprietors of the town. He is called in our records 
( Mr. Thomas Mil ward, mariner.' This scruple concerning the use 
of the cross in the colors, continued many years, as we shall hereafter 
show. The whole country was agitated by the controversy, and in 
addition to this, the theological difficulties, and prosecutions growing 
out of the ' revelations ' of Mrs. Hutchinson, ' that master-piece of 
woman's wit,' as Johnson calls her, began to create a great excitement. 

The Pequods, about this time, were beginning to be troublesome, 
and i cattle,' says Winthrop, ' were grown to high rates ; a good cow 
cost 25 or 30 ; a pair of bulls or oxen, 40. About thirty ploughs 
were used in Massachusetts this year, and much rye was sown.' 

In November, the town ordered, that 'John Woodbridge should 
have 5 a year and be free from all rates and payments, while he is 
the towne register.' * The general court empowered Richard Dum- 
mer and John Spencer to build a house at Winnicowett at the ex- 
pence of the colony. The architect was Nicholas Easton who soon 
after removed to Newport and built the first English house there. 
The house at Winnicowett was called the Bound- House,' and was 
situated in what is now called Seabrook.^ 


In April, one hundred and sixty men, under the command of 
captain Stoughton, were raised to go against the Pequods. Of this 
number Newbury raised eight, Ipswich seventeen, Salem eighteen, 
Lynn sixteen, and Boston twenty-six. It will serve to give the 
reader some idea of the all-pervading influence of the theological 
discussions, which were then agitating the whole community, 1o 
inform him, on the authority of Neal, that, these very troops deemed 
it necessary to halt on their march to Connecticut, in order to decide 
the question, whether^ they were under a covenant of grace or a 
covenant of works, deeming it improper to advance till that momen- 
tous question was settled. These soldiers were to have twenty 
shillings per month, lieutenants 4, and captains 6. In May Mr. 
John Spencer was discharged from being captain. This was 
probably owing to his religious tenets, he being an adherent of 
Mrs. Hutchinson. ' Mr. Edward Woodman was chosen lieutenant, 
and Mr. John Woodbridge, surveyor of the armes at Newbury.' 
In the same month the election was held at Newtown, (now 
Cambridge,) in the open air. Then the law required all the 
1 freemen ' from all the towns in the province, to meet at the general 

* Belknap, vol. 1, p. 38. 


court of elections, and choose the magistrates, including the gover- 
nor and lieutenant governor. This practice continued till 1663. 
In order to prevent the re-election of sir Henry Vane as governor, 
and to strengthen the friends of governor Winthrop, Henry Sewall, 
junior, Nicholas Noyes, Robert Pike, Archelaus Woodman, Thomas 
Coleman, Thomas Smith, James Browne, John Cheney, Nicholas 
Holt, and John Bartlett, went from Newbury to Cambridge on foot, 
(forty miles.) qualified themselves to vote by taking the freeman's 
oath^ seventeenth of May, 1637, or, in other words, * were made 
freemen.' ^ Winthrop was chosen governor, and sir Henry Vane 
and the friends pf Mrs. Hutchinson were in a minority. 

On the morning of May twenty-sixth, the fort of the Pequods 
was attacked with fire and sword, and their whole tribe, four or five 
hundred in number, extinguished, in that and the subsequent 
attack by captain Stoughton the latter end of June. 

In August, a synod of ministers, messengers of churches, and 
magistrates, was held in Newtown, (Cambridge,) and condemned 
above eighty erroneous opinions. The general court then took up 
the business, and proceeded to disfranchise, or banish, or disarm, 
many of those who held these erroneous opinions. ' A great 
number,' says Hutchinson, 'removed out of the jurisdiction.' The 
court ordered about sLxty of the inhabitants of Boston to be 
disarmed, and several of other towns; among them were three 
belonging to Newbury, Mr. Richard Dummer, Air. John Spencer, 
and Mr. Nicholas Easton. Spencer returned to England, Easton 
went to Rhode Island, but Dummer remained in Newbury. In 
June, two ships arrived with passengers. With them came Mr. 
Hopkins, I\Ir. Eaton, and Mr. Davenport, and many others, of good 
note. Great pains were taken to induce them to settle in Massa- 
chusetts. ' The court offered them any place they would pitch 
upon.' ' The town of Newbury offered to give up their settlement 
to them,' but they chose to remove to Connecticut, where they 
built New Haven, and so forth. 

' It was ordained in a lawful meeting, November fifth, that 
whosoever is admitted into the towne of Newbury as an inhabi- 
tant thereof, shall have the consent and approbation of the body of 
freemen of sayd towne.' f 

' The seven men, mentioned in 1636, were again chosen by 
papers,' were desired to serve 'for one quarter longer and shall 
labor in the case according to what the Lord shall direct to doe 
according to what is prescribed/ if 

The preceding directions to the selectmen, remind me of the 
following extract, which may be found in Friend's records, in 
Rockingham county, New Hampshire. 

'Hampton, 1707. This meeting not having unity with John Collins 7 testi- 
mony desires him to be silent till the Lord speak by him to the satisfaction of the 

* Judge Sewall's diary. f Town record. J Town record. 


In October, Richard Singleterry, William Palmer, John Moulton, 
Thomas Moulton, Nicholas Busbee, and Abraham Toppan, were 
admitted as inhabitants of Newbury. The following is a specimen 
of the form of admission. 

( Abraham Toppan being licensed by John Endicott esqr. to live in this 
jurisdiction was received into the towne of Newberry as an inhabitant thereof 
and hath heere promised under his hand to be subject to any lawful order, that 
shall be made by the towne.' * 


In the same month, fourteen individuals were fined 4 155. l for 
defect of fences whenever they shall be called on.' ^ 

' In September, William Schooler, a vintner from London, was 
hanged in Boston for an alleged murder. He lived with another 
fellow at Merrimack, and there being a poor maid at Newbury, one 
Mary Sholy, who had desired a guide to go with her to her master, 
who dwelt at Pascataquack, he enquired her out and agreed for fifteen 
shillings to conduct her thither. But, two days after, he returned, 
and being asked why he returned so soon, he answered that he had 
carried her within two or three miles of the place, and then she would 
go no further. Being examined by the magistrates at Ipswich, and 
no proof found against him, he was let go. About half a year after, 
the body was found by an Indian ten miles short of the place he 
said he left her in. About a year after, he was again apprehended, 
examined, arraigned, and condemned,' f on circumstantial evidence. 

In November, the church petitioned the general court for relief, 
who passed the following order, namely : 

1 November 2rf, 1637. Whereas it appeareth unto this court that the inhabitants 
of the towne of Newbury owe divers persons neare the sum of 60, which hath 
been expended upon publick and needful occasions for the benefit of all such 
as do, or shall, inhabit there, as building of houses for their ministers &c. whereas 
such as are of the church there are not able to bear the whole charge and the 
rest of the inhabitants there do or may enjoy equal benefit thereof with them, 
yet they do refuse against all right and justice to contribute with them. It is 
therefore ordered that the freemen of the said towne or such of them as shall 
assemble for that end, or the greater number of them, shall raise the said sum 
of 60 by an equal or proportionable rate of every inhabitant there, having 
respect both to land or other personal estate, as well of such as are absent, as of 
those dwelling there present, and for default of payment shall have power to 
levy the same by distress and sale thereof by such persons as they shall appoint, 
and the same being so collected shall satisfy their said debts, and if any remain- 
der be, the same to be employed on other occasions by the towne. 7 $ 

November. l The inhabitants of Newbury haveing been moved 
to leave their plantation, the court granted them Winnicowet, [now 
Hampton,] or any other plantation upon the Merrimack below the 
first falls, and to have six miles square, and those that are now 
inhabitants and shall remove within one yeare, shall have three 
yeares immunity, (as Concord hath,) the three yeares beginning the 
first of first month next, namely, March first, 1638.' f 

* Town record. t Winthrop. | Colonial records. 



January ISfh. c The lease of the neck of land to Mr. Dummer 
for two years being expired, the towne doth take it into their own 
hands and intendeth to dispose of it at their pleasure.' =fc 

* It was ordered that Richard Knight, James Brown and Richard 
Kent shall gather up the first payment of the meetinghouse rate and 
the towne rate within one fourteenight on the penalty of six shillings 
and eight pence apiece.' ^ 

February 1st. ' John Emery shall make a sufficient pound for 
the use of the towne two rod and a halfe square by the last of the 
present month if he cann.' ^ 

' It is agreed that Mr. \Voodman shall have a house lott between 
Mr. Eastoii's and the river provided that if there shall be a fort 
built by the waters side hereafter that then his lott shall give way.'^ 

February 24th. ' It was voted, that Thomas Cromwell, Samuel 
Scullard, John Pike, Robert Pike, and Nicholas Holt, are fined two 
shillings and sixpence apiece for being absent from towne meeting 
at eight o' clock in the morning, having due and fitt warning.' * 

' Having taken into serious consideration the weight of managing 
all publick affaires and being desirous that those whom God 
hath fitted and icho necessarily are called forth unto such publick 
services, may not be overburdened with expense of time and other 
charges, which necessarily attend such publick busynesses, but 
rather should be encouraged to the end that they may bear that 
burden, and faithfully discharge that service to which they are called, 
and considering likewise the practice of other townes and places in 
this government in putting their shoulders to help bear up and 
sustain this common worke, either in person or estate, or both, wee 
have therefore thought fitt to settle some way and course in this 
behalfe to the end that such publick busynesses may be carried on 
without murmuring by any, who shall be appointed thereunto, and 
have for the present thought fitt that those, who are sent for deputyes 
and grand jurors shall be allowed two shillings and sixpence, for 
foure dayes. in which they goe and returne, and twelve pence a day 
for every other day, which they necessarily attend towne's sen-ice, 
if the county find the charges of diett, otherwise more as shall be 
thought fitt upon due consideration.' ^ 

April 14th. i It is ordered that Richard Brown, the constable, 
shall cause a sufficient pound to be made by the twenty-first of this 
moneth to impound swyne and other cattell, in the place, that shall 
be shewed him and of that largeness which shall be thought fitt.' 

April 19th. Two constables and two < surveyors of the high 
waves ' were chosen ' for one whole yeere.' 

^This,' says \Vinthrop, * was a very hard winter. The snow lay 
half a yard deep about the Massachusetts from November fourth to 

* Town records. 


March twenty-third, and a yard deep beyond Merrirnack and so the 
more north, the deeper.' 

April 2lst. ' Henry Short, John Cheney, Francis Plumer, Nicholas 
Noyse, and Nicholas Holt are fined two shillings and sixpence 
apiece for being absent from the towne meeting, having lawful 
warning, and so forth.' # 

It was ordered that ' Nicholas Batt shall keep the herd of cows ' 
eight months from the sixteenth of March till the sixteenth of 
November for eighteen pounds, ' nine pounds in money ' and forty 
bushels of corne, ' provided he is to keep them one Lord's day, and 
the towne, two.' ^ 

May 5th. ' It is ordered that John Pike shall pay two shillings 
and sixpence for departing from the meeting without leave and 
contemptuously.' % 

William Morse was the keeper of the ' towne's heard of goates,' 
and, 4 as part of his wages,' he was to have three pence for every 
goate above a yeere old,' and Nicholas Batt was to have twenty-two 
pence for every cow or heifer either in money or corn at seven 
shillings the bushel.' 

June 1st. ' Being this day assembled to treat or consult about 
the well ordering of the affairs of the towne, about one of the 
clocke in the afternoone, the sunn shining faire, it pleased God 
suddenly to raise a vehement earthquake coming with a shrill clap 
of thunder, issuing as is supposed out of the east, which shook the 
earth and the foundations of the house in a very violent manner to 
our great amazement and wonder, wherefore taking notice of so 
great and strange a hand of God's providence, we were desirous of 
leaving it on record to the view of after ages to the intent that all 
might take notice of Almighty God and feare his name.' f 

June 19th. ' It is agreed that Richard Singleterry and William 
Allen shall have each of them four acres of planting ground 011 
Deer island, provided the island be not [over? ] twelve acres.' 

1 The court having left it to the liberty of particular townes to 
take order and provide according to their discretion for the bringing 
of armes to the meeting house, it is for the present thought fitt and 
ordered that the town being divided in four several equal parts, sayd 
part shall bring compleat armes according to the direction of those, 
whom the towne hath appointed to oversee the busynesse in order 
and manner as folio weth, namely, John Pike, Nicholas Holt, John 
Baker, and Edmund Greenleafe being appointed as overseers of 
the busynesse, are ordered to follow this course, namely. They 
shall give notice to the party of persons under their severall divisions 
to bring then: armes compleat one Sabbath day in a month and the 
lecture day following in order successively one after another and the 

* Town records. 

t Town records. ' It came,' says Winthrop, f with a noise like continued thunder, 
or the rattling of coaches in London. The noise and shakings continued about four 
minutes.' ' The course of it,' says Hutchinson, ' was from west to east. It shook the 
ships, threw down the tops of chimnies, and rattled the pewter from the shelves.' 'This 
was a very great earthquake and shook the whole country.' 



persons afore mentioned shall cause every person under their severall 
divisions to stand sentinell at the doores all the time of the publick 
meeting every one after another either by himself in person or by a 
sufficient substitute to be allowed by the overseer of the ward. And 
further it is ordered that the sayd overseers shall diligently mark and 
observe any that shall be defective in this respect, having lawfull 
warning, and they together with the surveyour of the armes shall 
collect or distrain twelve pence for every default according as hath 
been thought fitt by order of the court in this case provided.' * 

Trumbull, in his McFingal, thus alludes to this practice of the 
early settlers in Connecticut, as well as Massachusetts : 

1 So once, for fear of Indian beating, 
Our grandsires bore their guns to meeting ; 
Each man equipped on Sunday morn 
With psalm book, shot, and powdei horn, 
And looked in form, as all must grant, 
Like th' ancient true church militant, 
Or fierce like modern deep divines, 
Who fight with quills like porcupines.' 

July 6th. * Whereas there hath bin notice taken of much disorder 
in publick towne meeting by reason of divers speaking at one and 
the same time, some walking up and -downe, some absent, and 
divers other miscarriages, it is henceforth ordered that if any person 
shall offend against any order prescribed in this case, there shall |be 
exact notice of such offence in this respect, and hee shall be 
censured accordingly.' * 

* Mr. Woodman, Mr. Rawson, Abraham Toppan and John Knight 
were chosen [selectmen] for one whole quarter and till new be 

4 There is granted to goodman Goffe some fresh marsh, where 
Richard Kent mowed hay on this side of Mr. Greenleaf 's farme,' and 
so forth. 

August 6th. l Whereas it is agreed with Mr. Richard Dummer of Newbury 
by the persons, whose names are underwritten, hereunto subscribed that in case 
Mr. Dummer doe make his mill fitt to grynd corne and doe maintaine the same, 
as also doe keep a man to attend gryndirig of corne, then they for their part will 
send all the corne that they shall have ground and doe likewise promise that all 
the rest of the towne (if it'lye in their power to promise the same) shall also 
bring their come from tyme to tyme to be ground at the same mill. And it is 
further agreed that (the aforementioned conditions being observed by Mr. 
Dummer) there shall not any other mill be erected within the sayd towne. 






To this the town agreed and assented, at a public meeting, October 
sixth, 1638. 

* Town records. 


August Wth. ' Thomas Hale and John Baker are appointed hay 
wards till the town shall appoint new.' ^ 

4 The towne hath appointed that a rate of twenty-six pounds 
shall be made speedily and gathered within one fourteenight for the 
finishing of the meeting house.' f 

4 At a general towne meeting, twenty-eighth of September, 1638, 
it was granted that Mr. [doctor] Clarke in respect of his calling should 
be freed and exempted from all publick rates either for the county or 
the towne so long as he shall remayne with us and exercise his 
calling among us.' # 

November 19th. A rate of twenty-six pounds was ordered to be 
made l for the officers,' [that is, ministers,] ' rating all lands as they 
are divided at ten pence or five pence the acre.' ^ 

4 It is ordered that Edward Rawson shall supply the place of Mr. 
Woodbridge and be the publick notary and register for the towne 
of Newbury and whilst he so remains, to be allowed by the towne 
after the rate of five pounds per annum for his paynes.' * 

May Tilth. * Newbury was fined six shillings and eight pence for 
defects in the roads.' f 

1 Anthony Emery was fined twenty shilings for a pound breach 
and to give thirteen shillings and fourpence to Thomas Coleman 
for his charges.'' f 

c Newbury was fined five pounds for want of a pair of stocks, and 
time given till next court to make them.' f 

' There came over this summer,' says Winthrop, ' twenty ships 
and at least three thousand persons, so as they were forced to look 
out new plantations. One was begun at Merrimack, and another 
at Winicowett,' [now Hampton.] 

Mr. Edward Rawson, Mr. John Woodbridge, and Mr. Edward 
Woodman, were chosen commissioners for small causes in Newbury. 

In a book printed in London, 1638, and entitled, ' a true relation 
of a battell fought in New England between the English and Pequot 
salvages/ I find the following sentence : 

1 They that arrived out there this year [1638] out of divers parts of Old England, 
say they never saw such, a field of four hundred acres of all sorts of English 
grain as they saw at Wintertown there, yet that ground is not comparable to 
other parts of New England, as Salem, Ipswich, Newbury, and so forth.' 


March 13th. l Plum Island is to remain in the court's power ; 
only for the present, Ipswich, Newbury and the new plantation 
[Rowley] between them may make use of it, till the court shall see 
cause otherwise to dispose of it.' J 

In the spring of this year, Mr. Ezekiel Rogers, who had arrived 
in New England in December, 1638, with about twenty families 
from Yorkshire, having received an addition to his company of 

* Town records. t Colonial records. J Colonial records, vol. 1, p. 205. 


about forty families, settled down on that tract of land, which was 
incorporated by the name of Rowley in the following September. 
This tract belonged partly to Ipswich and partly to Newbury, * and 
because some farms had been granted by Ipswich and Newbury, 
which would be prejudicial to their plantation, they bought out the 
owners, disbursing therein about eight hundred pounds.' * 

The proprietors' records of Newbury give us the following account, 
the date not being recorded : 

1 The towne being assembled together and being desirous to manifest theyr 
earnest desires and willingness to give due incouredgpnent unto the worthy 
gentilmen, who desire to set down between us and Ipswich as to part with such. 
a portion of land as cannot any way be expected from them, or they may 
without endangering their present necessityes afford. Hoping on good grounds 
it may fully answer their desires and expectations they have determined as 
followeth : 

1 By the common and general suffrages of the body of freemen, none excepted, 
there was granted to the said gentilmen all the upland and meadow and marish 
between us and Ipswich incompassed by the line heer underwritten, namely : 

1. That their line shall begin from the head of the great creek between the great 
river and Mr. Dummer's, running due west as we come to the great creek being 
the bounds of John Osgood's farm, which issues into Mr. Easton's river and above 
that creek all the lands southward of Mr. Easton's river, and from that river 
from the path leading to the falls to run a due west line into the country a mile 
and afterwards to run on a north west line so as it come not within half a mile 
of the side line of Mr. Dummers farm. Likewise it comes two miles distant 
of Merrimack. Provided that if after they have entered by buildings or 
otherwise on this part of land granted to them and leave off from going on with 
a plantation or a towne between us that then the grants abovesaid shall be void 
to all intents and purposes and to remaine the proprietyes and inheritances of 
the towne of Newbury in as ample a manner as before the grant hereof in all 
respects/ f 

c Another plantation was begun upon the north side of the 
Merrimack called Salisbury, another at Winicowett, called 
Hampton.' J 

The reverend Stephen Bachiler and his company, who had 
received permission from the general court, October, 1638, when 
united together by church covenant, commenced a settlement at 
"Winicowett. He was at this time residing in Newbury. On ]\Ir. 
Rawson's request, the place was called Hampton. The following 
persons, residents of Newbury, went with ]\Ir. Bachiler. John 
Berry, Thomas Coleman, Thomas Cromwell, James Davis, William 
Easton, William Fifield, Maurice Hobbs, Mr. Christopher Hussey, 
Thomas Jones, Thomas Marston, William Marston, Robert Marston, 
John Moulton, Thomas Moulton, W r illiam Palmer, William 
Sargent, and Thomas Smith. Smith, however, soon returned to 
Newbury. A few went to Salisbury. Those who remained deemed 
it necessary to make some preparations for defence. They again 
contemplated building ' a fort by the water's side ' just below where 
Parker river bridge now stands. It was probably never built. The 
records say, c it is ordered and determined by the body of freemen 

* Winthrop, vol. 1, 294. f Proprietors' records. J Winthrop, vol. 1, p. 289. 


that there shall be a walk of sixteen feet broad on the topp of the 
great hill from one end to the other, and a way of four feet broad 
through Stephen Kent his lott.' This ' walk ' ran east and west, and 
the ' way ' north and south from the green to the top of the ' hill.' 
Near the centre of this walk the place is still pointed out, where, 
tradition informs us, ' a sentry box, or watch house, was erected.' It 
is highly probable, from appearances, that the tradition is ^correct. 
The position is a commanding one, and a far better place to ' stand 
sentinell,' than ' at the doores ' of the meeting house * all the time of 
the publick meeting.' 

June. ' There was at this time,' "says Winthrop, ( a very great 
drouth all over the country, both east and west, there being little or 
no rain from the twenty-sixth of April to the tenth of June.' 

In consequence of the complaints against excessive wearing of 
lace, and other superfluities, the general court, September, 1639, 
1 ordered that hereafter no garment shall be made with short sleeves, 
whereby the nakedness of the arme may be discovered in the 
wearing thereof, and such as have garments already made with 
short sleeves shall not wear the same unless they cover the armes to 
the wrist with linnen or otherwise. And that hereafter no person 
whatsoever shall make any garment for weomen or any of the sex 
with sleeves more than half an ell wide (twenty-two and a half 
inches ! ) in the widest place thereof and so proportionable for 
bigger or smaller persons.' 

The court also forbade the wearing of 'immoderate great breeches, 
knots of rybands, shoulder bands, rayles, rases, double ruffs and 

1 Edmund Greenleaf was ordered to be ensign for Newbury and 
allowed to keep a house of entertainment.' ^ 

' Mr. was fined ten shilings and sixpence for selling strong 

water without license.' ^ 

' John Bayley,' senior, of Salisbury, afterward of Newbury, ' was 
fined five pounds for buying lands of the Indians without leave of 
the court, with condition if he yield up the land to be remitted.' ^ 

4 Richard Bartlett petitioned the general court and was granted 
twenty pounds according to his petition.' ^ 

' Mr. Edward Rawson is allowed five hundred acres of land at 
Pecoit so as he go on with the business of powder, if the salt-petre 
come.' * 

The people of Newbury having built a l ministry house,' a meeting 
house, which was soon used as a school house, had their ferry 
established at ' Carr's island,' and become an orderly community, 
began not only to lay out new roads, but, as they were rapidly ex- 
tending their settlement farther north, to take special care of the 
town's timber by prescribing a penalty of five shillings for every 
tree cut down on the town's land without permission. Nearly 
the whole of what is now called West Newbury, or that part above 

* Colonial records. 


Artichoke river, was called * the upper woods/ The common land 
in the southerly part of the town was divided into the 'ox common,' 
the ' cow common,' the ' calf common,' and so forth. The sheep 
and the goats, of which the inhabitants had many, each had their 
prescribed limits, each flock were under the charge of a keeper, and 
were obliged to be folded at night to protect them from the wolves. 
The town also received a valuable addition to its population in the 
persons of Anthony Somerby, their first schoolmaster, Henry 
Somerby, Mr. John, Mr. Richard, and Mr. Percival Lowle, who had 
been merchants of Bristol, Mr. William Gerrish, and Richard Dole 
of Bristol, who had also been engaged in mercantile transactions 
before coming to Massachusetts. Not far from this time, though 
the date cannot be fixed with certainty, captain John Cutting, 'ship 
master,' and Mr. Thomas Milward, ' mariner,' who in 1640 owned 
a ' shallop' and was engaged in the fisheries at cape Ann, came to 
Newbury. Mr. Richard Dole commenced business as a merchant 
near the ' river Parker,' and was always called ' marchant Dole.' The 
town granted lots of land which were called the 'fishermen's lots.' 
John Knight had a lot of land granted him on condition that he 
'follow fishing.' To encourage the fisheries the general court 
enacted that all estates, employed in catching, making, or transporting 
fish, should be free from all duties and taxes, and forbade ' all 
men after the twentieth of the next month to employ any basse or 
cod-fish for manuring of ground, and shall forfeit for every hundred 
weight of fish so employed in manuring of ground, twenty shillings.'^ 
' All ship-builders and fishermen during the season for business 
were excused from ah 1 trainings.' f At that time it does not appear 
that the inhabitants of Newbury had ever sent any vessel over 
Newbury bar. Their commerce centred in 'the river Parker,' 
and came up by the way of Ipswich. ' Merrimack,' says Hubbard, 
' is another gallant river, the entrance into which, though a mile over 
in breadth, is barred with shoals of sand, having two passages, that 
lead thereinto, at either end, of a sandy island, that lieth over against 
the mouth of sayde river. Near the mouth of that are two other 
lesser ones, about which are seated two considerable townes, the 
one called Newberry, the other Ipswich, either of which have fayre 
channels, wherein vessels of fifty or sixty tons may pass up safely to 
the doores of the inhabitants whose habitations ar>: pitched neere the 
banks on either side' $ 

The first vessels built in Newbury were undoubtedly erected on 
the banks of the ' river Parker,' and were designed for the fishery, 
and for the ' coasting trade.' At that time the channel of the river 
was much deeper than it now is, or vessels of fifty or sixty tons 
' could not pass safely up to the doors of the inhabitants.' The river 
Parker was once celebrated for the abundance of the fish in its stream. 
' There was,' says Hubbard, 'a noted plantation of them' [Indians] 
at the falls of the river of Newberry, by reason of the plenty of fish, 

* Colonial records. i Hutchinson. J Hubbard, p. 17. 


that ' at almost all seasons of the year used to be found both in winter 
and summer.' =& In the will of Richard Kent, who died in 1654, I 
find the following bequest. * Also I give the first salmon that is 
caught in my weir yearly to Mi*. Noyes, and the second to Mr. 
Rogers till my son be nineteen years of age,' and so forth. After 
that, his son might do as he saw good. 

This year Anthony Somerby came to Newbury, and was em- 
ployed to teach school. It is thus noticed on the town records : 

'There was granted unto Anthony Somerby in the year 1639 for his encour- 
agement to keepe schoole for one yeare foure akers of upland over the great river 
in the necke, also sixe akers of salt marsh next to Abraham Toppan's twenty 


This year emigration to New England almost entirely ceased, in 
consequence of the political change in the affairs of England. 

4 This sudden stop,' says Hutchinson, ' had a surprizing effect on 
the price of cattle.' Cows which had for some time sold for twenty- 
five or thirty pounds, could now be bought for five or six pounds 
each. The whole number of neat cattle in New England was 
estimated at twelve thousand, their sheep at three thousand. The 
number of passengers, who had arrived from the beginning of the 
colony in two hundred and ninety-eight ships, were estimated at 
twenty-one thousand and two hundred, about four thousand families, 
and if is probable, in the language of Hutchinson, that, since 1640, 
4 more persons have removed out of New England to other parts of 
the world than have come from other parts to it.' The number of 
new settlers in this and subsequent years was small. Among them 
may be mentioned Robert Adams, Henry Jaques, George Little. 

The great influx of provisions, the cessation of emigration, with 
various other causes, occasioned a scarcity of money, and of course 
a great abatement of the price of all commodities. As neither 
* money nor beaver,' says Winthrop, ; were to be had,' the court 
ordered that ' Indian corn at four shillings, rye at five shillings, and 
wheat at six shillings should pass in payment of all new debts.' ' Men 
could not pay their debts though they had enough.' i And he that 
three months before was worth one thousand pounds could not, if 
he should sell his whole estate, raise two hundred pounds.' 

Notwithstanding the distresses of the times, Winthrop informs us 
that ' it was a common rule that most men walked by in all their 
commerce to buy as cheap as they could and sell as dear,' and 
complains of it as a * notorious evil.' 

' Most men ' at the present day are probably liable to the same 
charge, ' notorious' as the ' evil' may be. 

' Henry Sewall, senior, was bound over to his good behaviour in 
sixty-six pounds, thirteen shillings, and fourpence, for contemptuous 
speeche and carriage to Mr. Saltonstall.' ^ 

* Colonial records. 


4 Mr. John Woodbridge, presented for releasing a servant, is 
discharged by paying two shillings and sixpence.' ^ 

This summer Air. John Ward and some inhabitants of Newbury 
petitioned for a place of settlement. 

In the court records is the following, namely : 

4 At a general court held at Boston the thirteenth of the third 
month, 1(340, [thirteenth of May, 1640,] the desires of Mr. Ward and 
Newbury men, is committed to the governor, deputy governor and 
Mr. Winthrop sen. to consider of Pentucket and Cochichawick, and to 
grant it to them, provided they return answer within three weeks from 
Ihe twenty-first present and that they build there before the nextcourte.' 
The names of the < Newbury merT' who with Mr. Ward settled Pen- 
tucket, (now Haverhill,) are these. William \Yhite, Samuel Gile, 
James Davis, Henry Palmer, John Robinson, Christopher Hussey, 
John Williams, and Richard Littlehale, with four others. 

The same month, in consequence of the great loss which governor 
Winthrop had suffered 'in his outward estate,' through the unfaith- 
fulness of his bailiff, 'the elders' agreed, 'that supply should be sent 
in from the several towns by a voluntary contribution.' * The whole 
came not to five hundred pounds whereof near half came from 
Boston, and one gentleman of Newbury, INIr. Richard Dummer, 
propounded for a supply in a more private way, and for example 
himself disbursed one hundred pounds.' f 

4 This unexampled liberality to Winthrop in his distress,' says 
Mr. Savage, in a note, ' is a more satisfactory proof of the high esti- 
mation in which he stood than could be afforded by the most elab- 
orate eloquence of eulogy. But the generosity of Dummer is above 
all praise. His contribution is fifty per cent, above the whole tax 
of his town, and equal to half the benevolence of the whole 
jnetropolis ; yet he had been a sufferer under the mistaken views of 
Winthrop and other triumphant sound religionists.' 

The state tax this year was 1200, of which Boston paid 179, 
Ipswich 120, and Newbury 65. 

May, 1640. ' Mr. Edward Woodman, Mr. Christopher Batt, and 
John Cross are appointed (when the way is settled) to settle the 
ferry, if they think meet.' ^ 

July 3t/, 1640. The town of Salisbury granted to George Carr, 
shipwright, the island, which still bears his name. 


This general court desired the elders would make a catechism 
for the instruction of youth in the grounds of religion.' In compli- 
ance with this desire, Mr. James Noyes, of Newbury, composed ' a 
short catechism for tho use of the children there.' For a copy of 
the work, which was reprinted in 1714, see appendix, B. 

k Mr. John Woodbridge, Mr. Edward Woodman, and Mr. Edward 

* Colonial records. t Winthrop, vol. 2, p. 4. 



Rawson, appointed commissioners for small causes in Newbury.' * 
* Mr. Rawson instead of Mr. John Oliver.' 

1 At a court holden at Ipswich the twenty-eighth of month, 

1641, George Carr is appointed to keep the ferry at Salisbury at the 
island where he now dwelleth for the space of two years provided 
that he find a sufficient horse boate and give diligent attendance. 
The ferriages are as follows, namely. For a man present pay two- 
pence, for a horse sixpence, great cattle pay sixpence, calves and 
yearlings pay two-pence, goates one penny, hoggs two-pence. If 
present pay be not made that hee must book any ferriage, then a 
penny apiece more. If any be forced to swim over their horses for 
want of a great boat, they shall pay nothing. Per curiam.' f 

Johnson, in his ' Wonder-working Providence,' published in 1651, 
thus speaks : ' over against this towne [that is, Salisbury,] lyeth the 
towne of Newberry on the southern side of the river, a constant 
ferry being kept between, for although the river be about half a mile 
broad, yet by reason of an island, that lies in the midst thereof, it is 
the better passed in troublesome weather. The people of this 
towne have of late placed their dwellings so much distance the one 
from the other that they are likely to divide into two churches.' 

The difficulty, as will be seen, was settled without a division. 
f* * This court,' (February second, 1641,) says Winthrop, i having 
found by experience that it would not avail by any law to redress 
the excessive rates of labourers' and workmen's wages and so forth 
(for being restrained, they would either remove to other places, 
where they might have more, or else being able to live by planting 
and other employments of their own, they would not be hired at 
all) it was therefore referred to the several towns to set down rates 
among themselves. This took better effect, so that in a voluntary 
way, by the counsel and persuasion of the elders, and example of 
some, who led the way, they were brought to more moderation than 
they could be by compulsion. But this did not last long.' J 

If the town of Newbury at this time passed any laws regulating 
the wages of laborers, or the price of goods, the record is lost. To 
supply the deficiency we shall again quote from the Salisbury 

1 April 5th, 1641. At a general meeting of the freemen it was ordered that 
the year shall be accompted thus : from the first of November to the last of the 
first month [March] shall be winter months and the seven other, summer months, 
and all labourers for the winter months shall have no more but sixteen pen'ce 
per day, and for the summer months twenty pence per day, and all carpenters 
shall have two-pence per day more than labourers, that is eighteen pence per day 
in winter, and twenty-two pence per day in summer.' l Also that mowers shall 
have no more but two shillings per day, and if they mow per the acre they shall 
not exceed two shillings per acre. 

'Also that no man shall sell clabords of five foot in length for more than three 
shillings per hundred, and if shorter according to proportion, and if they cleave 
by the hundred they shall not exceed sixpence per hundred for five foot in 

* Colonial records, f Court records, [i. t, county court.] \ Winthrop, vol, 2, p. 25. 


'Also that noe man shall sell ani sawn bord for more that five shillings per 
hundred, and for the sawing no more than three shillings and sixpence per 
hundred, and for slitt work no more than four shillings and sixpence per hundred. 

* Also that butter shall nott be sould for above sixpence per pound. 

1 Also that milk shall be sould for three half pence a quart, new milk, and one 
penny skimmed milk ale measure.' 

From the above extracts it is evident, that what are now called 
clap-boards, were originally boards that were ' cloven,' and not ' sawn,' 
and were thence called ' clove-boards,' and in process of time 
cloboards, claboards, ' clap-boards.' 

The Hampton records give us a similar tariff of prices with this 
addition. ' A cart, four oxen and a man five shillings for the winter 
months and six shillings and eight-pence for the summer months.' 

Early this year, through the agency of Hugh Peter, ' a man of a 
very public spirit and singular activity on all occasions,' ^ a ship of 
three hundred tons was built at Salem, and soon after another at 
Boston of one hundred and sixty tons, called the Trial. All for- 
eign commodities at this time ' grew scarce, and our own of no 
price.' * Corn would buy nothing and no man could pay his 
debts, and so forth. These straits set our people on work to provide 
fish, clapboards, plank, and to sow hemp and flax (which prospered 
very well) and to look out to the West Indies for a trade for cotton.' * 
* This year about three hundred thousand dry fish were sent to the 
market.' * The town of Rowley made laudable efforts to raise 
hemp and to some extent succeeded- 

; These straits,' the settlement of Hampton, Salisbury, and Haver- 
hill, the establishment of a ferry at Carr's island, and the addition to 
the population of five or six wealthy men, who had been educated 
as merchants, all undoubtedly conspired to extend the limits of their 
settlement, and to make the centre of their village two or three 
miles farther north. This, however, was not effected without much 
difficulty, as we shall hereafter see. 

The general court, determining that the whole of New Hamp- 
shire came under their jurisdiction, as a line to run east from three 
miles north of the head of Merrimack river would take in the whole 
of that state, passed a law accordingly, the ninth of October, 1641. 


The winter of 1641-2 was unusually severe. ' All the bay was 
frozen over, so much and so long, as the like, by the Indians' rela- 
tion, had not been for forty years. It continued from the eighteenth 
of November to the twenty-first of February so as horses and carts 
went over in many places where ships have sailed.' f 

4 February 23d, a generall towne meeting. By the generall con- 
sent of all the freemen the stinting of the commons was referred to 
Henry Short, Mr. [Edward] Woodman, Edward Rawson, Thomas 

* Winthrop, vol. 2, p. 24, 31. t Winthrop, vol. 2, p. 60. 


Hale and Mr. [John] Woodbridge, according to their best judg- 
ments and discretions.' 

Accordingly, twelfth of March, 1642, they determined, that the 
several numbers or rights ' shall perpetually belong to the several 
persons to whom they are allotted and to no other persons whatso- 
ever, except he gett them by purchase or some other legal way,' and 
that 'all the commons within the limits of the towne shall be equally 
divided into three several parts and that the same number of cattle 
that are allowed in the stint of the cows and oxen shall be allowed 
in the heifer common and a third like quantity of young cattle 
above Mr. Rawson's farme.' The number of persons was ninety- 
one. One right was assigned to the ' towne house,' one ' to lye at 
the towne's appointment,' one to ' the ferry lott ' and three 'for them 
that shall be schoolmasters successively.' This ' stint ' allowed 
five hundred and sixty-three cattle in each of the three pastures, 
namely : the cow common, the ox common, and the heifer common. 
The highest number of ' rights ' was sixty-two and a quarter to 
R. Dummer, the lowest, Lewis and Mattox, one. 

On March twenty-first ' the town also ordered that all commons 
and waste grounds above Mr. Rawson's farme and so to and above 
Mr. Dummer's farme to our line next Rowley line shall lie perpetu- 
ally common, according to the former order for common, the 
meadows only excepted within the verge.' ^ 

This tract of land, which was thus ' ordered to lie perpetually 
common,' comprehended not only a part of Newbury, but nearly the 
whole of what is now called West Newbury, now containing some 
of the best farms in the county, but then considered, with the 
exception of 'the meadows,' as 'waste grounds,' fit only for 
' perpetual commons.' In 1686, six thousand acres, a tract more 
than nine times as large as the whole of the territory of Newbury port, 
situated above Artichoke river, in what was then called ' the upper 
woods,' was divided for the first time among the inhabitants. It 
was then called ' the upper commons.' 

From the first settlement of the town till this year, the inhabitants 
had made the ' lower green,' on the banks of ' the great river,' as 
they called it, their central place of business. At this time, however, 
a majority of them had determined on a removal from the ' old 
town ' to the ' new town.' Their reasons for this removal will be 
given from the records in their own words, though it is probable that 
some pages are lost. It thus commences : 

1 Whereas the towne of Newbury well weighing the streights they were in 
for want of plough ground, remoteness of the common, scarcity of fencing 
stujfe, and the like, did in the year 1642 grant a commission to Mr. Thomas 
Parker, Mr. James Noyes, Mr. John Woodbridge, Mr. Edward Rawson, Mr. 
John Cutting, Mr. John Lowle, Mr. Edward Woodman and Mr. John Clark, for 
removing, settleing and disppseing of the inhabitants to such place as might in 
their judgements best tend to theyr enlargements, exchanging theyr lands and 
making such orders as might bee in theyr judgments for the w r ell ordering of 

* Tristram Coffin's manuscript. 


the towne's occasions and as in their commission more largely appeareth, the 
said deputed men did order and appoint John Merrill, Richard 'Knight, Anthony 
Short, and John Emery to go to all the inhabitants of the towne, taking a true 
list of all the stock of each inhabitant and make a true valuation of ^all their 
houses, improved land, and fences that thereby a just rule might be made to 
proportion each inhabitant his portion of land about the ne\v towne ? and 
removing of the inhabitants there.' 

' It was ordered at a meeting of the eight deputed men abovementioned that 
each freeholder should have a house lott of foure akers. It \vas further ordered 
that in respect of the time for the inhabitants removeing from the place they 
now inhabit to that, which is layd out and appointed for their new habitations, 
each inhabitant shall have their house lotts foure years from the day of the date 
of this commission/ 

The day of the month is, however, not given. However great 
might be the difficulties they found in remaining together, still 
greater ones in some respects awaited their removal. As it has often 
been since, both here and elsewhere, the main object of their 
contention was their meeting-house. The minority, that remained, 
were unwilling to have the house removed, and the majority were 
equally unwilling to go without it, and when it was removed, where 
to place it was the difficulty, and it was not until four years after, 
and then not without great opposition, that a decision was finally 

The first intimation that we have of a new place to set the 
meeting-house upon, is contained in the following grant : 

4 There was granted unto Mr. James Noyes that four acres of 
land upon the hill by the little pine swamp, which was marked to 
sett the meeting house about the year 164*2.' # 

This year it appears that the fishing business commenced on the 
Merrimack. On the twenty-sixth of March, 1642, the town of 
Salisbury ' granted to Robert* Ring two acres of upland upon the 
island f over against Watts' sellar J to be employed about fishing 
for two years.' 

In the year 1671, ' Robert Ring testifies that he did build a cellar 
upon that land and a little house and did keep fishing there and did 
set up stages upon the salt marsh, being a little cove next the river 
and this was about twenty-nine years agoe.' 1671 29=1642. 

The house of commons this year passed a resolve, exempting 
from custom, subsidy, or taxation, the exports and imports of New 

In September the governor of Massachusetts received information 
from Connecticut, that * the Indians all over the country had combined 
themselves to cut off the English.' It was therefore thought fitt 
to disarm all the Indians who were within our jurisdiction. A 
warrant was accordingly sent to Ipswich, Rowley, and Newbury, < to 
disarm Passaconaway, who lived by Merrimack.' ' The next day, 
being Lord's day, forty armed men were sent for that purpose, but 

* Proprietors' records, p. 12. f Ring's island. 

t ; Watt's cellar ' stood near where Newburyport market-house now stands. 

Winthrop, vol. 2, pp. 78, 87. 


as it rained all day, they could not go to his wigwam, but went to 
his son's and took him which they had warrant for, and a squaw and 
her child, which they had not warrant for,' # wherefore fearing the 
consequences ' an order was sent to lieutenant Greenleaf, or in his 
absence to Mr. Woodman for sending home the Indian woman and 
child from Newbury and to send to Passaconaway for satisfaction.' f 

On the fifteenth of November, Passaquo and Saggahew, with 
the consent of the above-mentioned Passaconaway, sold for 3 10s. 
' to the inhabitants of Pen tucket,' now Haverhill, a tract of land 
fourteen miles long and six miles broad, 'with ye isleand and the 
river that ye isleand stands in,' and so forth. Among the witnesses 
to this deed was Tristram Coffyn, who this year came to New Eng- 
land, and went from Salisbury to Haverhill. 

In September, ' nine bachelors commenced at Cambridge, young 
men of good hope.' ^ It was the first class that graduated at 
Harvard college. The students then took their degrees, and are ar- 
ranged in the catalogue, according to the rank of their parents. The 
first graduate was Benjamin Woodbridge of Newbury. See appen- 
.dix, C. 

December 7th, 1642. ' The men deputed for the managing of 
those things that concerned the ordering of the new towne, declared 
and ordered according to the former intentions of the towne that 
the persons only abovementioned [ninety-one in all,] (see appendix, 
letter D,) are acknowledged to be freeholders by the towne and to 
have a proportionable right in all waste lands, commons and rivers 
undisposed and such as from, by or under them, or any of them or 
thcyr heyrs, have bought, granted or purchased from them or any of 
them theyr right and title thereunto and none else, provided also 
that no freeholder shall bring in any cattle of other men's or townes, 
on the towne's commons above or beyond theyr proportions other- 
wise than the freemen shall permit.' $ 


This year, the fifth of March, ' at seven in the morning, being the 
Lord's day, there was a great earthquake. It came with a rumbling 
noise like the former but through the Lord's mercy it did no harm.' 

March 2Sth. The town ( ordered that every house lott shall be 
foure acres ' and * that he that hath least land in the new towne shall 
have eight acres except John Swett, Thomas Silver and John 
Russe.' f 

' For the confirmation of all men's proprietyes, and direction 
likewise for the exchanges in the new towne, itt is ordered that all 
the lands as they are entered into the towne's book shall be estab- 
lished and confirmed to the owners according as they are entered, 
unlesse that any man shall bring in just and right exception against 
any man's portion of land within fourteene days after this time to 

* Winthrop, vol. 2, pp. 78, 87. t Colonial records. 

J Town records. Winthrop, vol. 2, p. 93. 


Mr. Lowle, and if there come in none, then the owners thereof shall 
quietly and peaceably thenceforth enjoy the same and shall have lib- 
erty to buy or exchange the same or any part or parcels thereof as 
they please.' ^ 

'Corn,' says Winthrop, 'was very scarce all over the country and 
many families in most towns had none to eat by the end of April, 
but were forced to live of clams, muscles, dry fish, and so forth, but 
the merchants had great success in the sale of their pipe-staves and 
fish.' The Trial, of Boston, 'made a good voyage, which 'encour- 
aged the merchants and made wine, sugar and cotton very plentiful 
and cheap in the country.' f ' Our supplies from England failing 
much, men began to look about them, and fell to a manufacture of 
cotton, whereof we had store from Barbadoes, and of hemp and 
flax, wherein Rowley, to their great commendation, exceeded all 
other towns/ f 

This year the thirty towns in the colony were divided into four 
counties, Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk, and Suffolk. Norfolk contained 
Salisbury, Haverhill, Exeter, Dover, and Portsmouth. Essex was as 
it now is with the exception of the first two towns. 

This year also, May nineteenth, the colonies of Massachusetts, 
New- Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven, adopted articles of 
confederation for their mutual advantage. 

July 5th. * There arose a sudden gust at northwest so violent 
for an hour as it blew down multitudes of trees. It lifted up their 
meeting house at Newbury, the people being in it. It darkened the 
air with dust, yet through God's great mercy it did no hurt, but 
only killed one Indian with the fall of a tree. It was straight J be- 
tween Linne and Hampton.' This was a removal of their meeting- 
house which neither party anticipated. It was then standing on 
the lower green. 

August 4th. ' There was an assembly at Cambridge of all the 
elders in the country (about fifty in all) such of the ruling elders, as 
would, were present also, none else. The principal occasion was 
because some of the elders went about to set up some things accord- 
ing to the presbytery as of Newbury and so forth. The assembly 
concluded against some parts of the presbyterial way and the 
Newbury ministers took time to consider the arguments,' and so 
forth. ' There was little rain this winter and no snow till the third 
of March, the wind continuing west and northwest near six weeks.' 


'Jamw.ry Wth. Remembering the severall inconveniencyes, 
multiplicity of suites and vexations arising from the insufficiency 
of fences, which to remedy in the old towne hath been so difficult, 
yett in our removal to the place appointed for the new towne may 

* Town records. t Winthrop, vol. 2, pp. 94, 95. 

\ l Straight,' that is, : narrow in extent between Lynn and Hampton.' 
Winthrop, vol. 2, pp. 124, 136, 155. 


easily be prevented. Itt is therefore ordered that all fences generall 
and particular at the first setting- up shall be made so sufficient as to 
keepe out all manner of swyne and other cattle great or small and 
at whose fence or part of fence any swyne or other cattle shall 
break thorough, the party owning the fence shall not only beare and 
suffer all the damages, but shall further pay for each rod' so insuffi- 
cient the somme of two shillings ' and so forth. ' It is likewise 
ordered that the owners of all such cattle as the towne shall declare 
to be unruly and excessively different from all other cattle shall pay 
all the damages their unruly cattle shall doe in breaking thorough 
fences.' ^ 

'In consideration of Mr. Rawson's keeping the towne book it is 
ordered by us according to our power from the towne and courte 
granted to us, that he shall be freed and exempted from all towne 
rates for one whole yeare from the twenty-ninth of September last 
to the twenty-ninth of September next 1644.' ^ 

* January llth. Itt is hereby ordered and determined by the 
orderers of the towne affaires that the plan of the new towne is, and 
shall be laid out by the lott layers as the house lotts were determined 
by their choice, beginning from the farthermost house lott in the 
South streete [now called West India lane] thence running through 
the Pine swampe, thence up the High streete, numbering the lotts in 
the East street to John Bartlett's lott the twenty-ninth then through 
the west side of the High streete to Mr. Lowell's the tw r enty -eighth 
and so to the end of that streete, then JMMMWfc the Field streete to 
Mr. Woodman's the forty-first, thence to the end of that streete 
to John Cheney's the fiftieth then turning to the first cross street 
to John Emery's the fifty-first thence comming up from the river 
side on the east side of the same streete to the other streete the west 
side to Daniel Pierce's the fifty-seventh and so to the river side on 
the side the streete to Mr. Clarke and others to Francis Plummer the 
sixty-sixth as heereinunder by names and figures appeare.' ^ Here 
follow, in the original record, the names of sixty-five men and three 
women. There is also one lot called ' the ferry lott,' and one to 
' John Indian.' This is the first intimation we have on the records, 
that there were any of the aboriginal inhabitants residing in New- 
bury. His lot is numbered sixty-one. The numbers of the lots 
which they chose, are affixed to the names, except seventeen. The 
highest number given is sixty-six. The tract of land which was 
laid out as the 'new towne,' contained, probably, about seven 
hundred acres. The exact limits of the 'new towne' cannot be 
accurately ascertained, as the original plan is lost. It, however, 
extended farther north and south than the town of Newburyport 
now does, but not so far west, and east by the waters of the 

On the same day they determined, that ' their lands shall be liable 
to maintaine all publick towne charges, as ministry and such like, 

# Town records. 


and that thereby they acknowledge their lands.' * They also 
annexed a penalty of two shillings and sixpence for every tree"' fit for 
timber or fence ' within certain prescribed limits, and ' that all trees 
already felled shall be under the like penalty,' and ' the trees shall 
lye and remayne on the ground, till the party be knowne to whom 
the land belongs that so paying for the labour he may have them to 
serve his occasions. 1 * 

March. ' Upon the motion of the deputies ' to the general court, 
1 it was ordered that the court should be divided in their consulta- 
tions, the magistrates by themselves, and the deputies by themselves, 
what the one agreed upon they should send to the other, and if both 
agreed, then to pass and so forth. This order determined the great 
contention about the negative voice.' f From this division origi- 
nated the phraseology, upper and lower house, in consequence of 
the deputies holding their sessions in the lower story, and the 
magistrates occupying the room over their heads. We still hear 
the phrases < sent up ' or * sent down, for concurrence,' when in fact 
both houses are on the same floor. 

June 5th. i Two of our ministers' sons,' says Winthrop, 'being 
students in the college, robbed two dwelling houses in the night of 
some fifteen pounds. Being found out they were ordered by the 
governors of the college to be there whipped, which was performed 
by the president himself.' This was probably the first instance of 
the infliction of such a punishment within the walls of old Harvard. 
4 The names of these offenders ' has escaped the notice of .Mr. 
Savage, whose information concerning the early history of New 
England, is as remarkable for its variety and extent as its accuracy. 
Their names were James Ward, son of Nathaniel Ward of Ipswich, 
and **** Welde of Roxbury, son of reverend Thomas Welde. 
They robbed the houses of Joshua Hewes, and Joseph Welde, the 
one in March, the other in April, of eleven pounds in money, and 
thirty shillings worth of gunpowder. 

April Wth. ' There was laid out unto John Emery junior, four- 
score akers of upland, bee it more or lesse joyneing unto Merri- 
macke river on the north and running from the mouth of Artichoke 
river unto a marked tree by a swampe on the northwest corner 
being about one hundred and thirty-two rods long at the head 
of the cove thence about an hundred rods to the southwest 
corner, thence running on a strait lyne about an hundred and 
fifty-six rods to Artichoke river on the east about eighty rods 
broad.' * 

In this month, June, William Franklin, one of the first settlers of 
Newbury, and one of the ninety-one grantees in 1642, was hung in 
Boston, for murder. ' He had been found at the last court of assist- 
ants, guilty of murder, but some of the magistrates, doubting of 
the justice' of the case, he was preserved till the next [this] court of 
assistants. The case was this. He had taken to apprentice one 

* Town records. t Winthrop, vol. 2, p. 160. 



Nathaniel Sewell, one of those children sent over the last year' 
from England. ' He used him with continual rigor and unmerciful 
correction, and exposed him many times to much cold and wet in 
the winter season, and used divers acts of rigor towards him, as 
hanging him in the chimney and so forth and the boy being very 
poor and weak he tied him upon an horse and so brought him 
(sometimes sitting and sometimes hanging down) to Boston, being 
five miles off, to a magistrates, and by the way the boy calling much 
for water, would give him none, though he came close by it, so as 
the boy was near dead when he came to Boston, and died in a few 
hours after.' ^ The governor, magistrates, and elders, having met at 
Salem, May thirtieth, to consider this and several other cases, ' the 
magistrates seeming to be satisfied, warrant was signed by the 
governor a week after, which was not approved by some in regard of 
his reprieval to the next court of assistants.' * l He had been 
admitted into the church at Roxbury about a month before.' ^ 
The following order is transcribed from the Ipswich records : 

May l\th. t It is ordered that all doggs for the space of three weeks after the 
publishing hereof shall have one legg tyed up, and if such a dogg shall break 
loose, and be found doing any harm, the owner of the dogg shall pay damages ; 
if a man refuse to tye up his dogg's legg, and hee bee found scrapeing up fish 
in a corne fielde the owner thereof shall pay twelve pence damages, beside 
whatever damage the dogg doth. But if any fish their house lotts and receive 
damage by doggs, the owners of those house lotts shall bear the damage 

In the Exeter records, I find the following, namely : 

1 May 19th, 1644. It is agreed that all dogs shall be clog'd and side lined in 
ye day and tied up in the night and if any dogs shall be found trespassing in 
the lots, they that shall find them shall showt them.' 

As in these days 'doggs' were very numerous, and fish almost 
everywhere were necessary as manure for the corn, similar regula- 
tions were undoubtedly made in Ne\vbury and other places, though 
the record of such penalties and the intimation of such a custom, if 
any were made, are now lost. 

At the same meeting it was ordered, that for every wolf killed 
with hounds, ten shillings should be paid, ' and if with a trappe or 
otherwise five shillings ; provided they bring the heads to the meet- 
ing house and there nayle them up and give notis thereof to the 
constable, whom wee appoynt to write in his books due remembrance 
thereof for the clearing of his account to the towne.' f 

In the Hampton records of the same year we find a declaration 
somewhat similar. ' It is hereby declared that every townsman, 
which shall kill a wolf and bring the head thereof and nayle the same 
to a little red oake tree at the northeast end of the meeting house, 
shall have ten shillings a wolfe for their paynes.' 

As early as this year Water street was laid out. This street at 

* Winthrop, vol. 2. pp. 184, 185. f Ipswich records. 


that time was between Thomas Mihvard's fish house, and dwelling- 
house, which stood near the foot of what is now called Federal 

1 Tristram CofTyn is allowed to keep an ordinary, sell wine, and 
keep a ferry on Ncwbury side and George Carr on Salisbury side ' 
of Carr' s kland. 

i The winter of 1644-5 was very mild, and no snow lay, so as 
ploughs might go most part of the winter, but on February sixteenth 
there fell so great a snow in "several days as the ways were unpas- 
sable for three wrecks, so as the court of assistants held not' ^ their 
usual session. 


March 4th , 1645. ' There was granted by thetowTie of Newbury 
to Daniel Pierce twelve akers of upland which was formerly Mr. 
Woodman's, which the said Daniel Pierce requested, promising he 
would remaine with us in Newbury as long as hee liveth unlesse 
hee should return to Old England.' f 

4 By an agreement each family in each colony gave one peck of 
corn or one shilling to Cambridge college.' J 

March 5th. This day ' the elders of the churches throughout the 
united colonies met at Cambridge' to agree upon some answers Ho 
books written in defence of anabaptism and other errours and for 
liberty of conscience as a shelter for their toleration and so forth, 
others in maintenance of the Presbyterial government.' 

September 12th. i There was granted to William Ballard seven 
akcrs and a halfe of land and five rod in the great field beyond the 
new tpwne called by the name of divident land to enjoy to him and 
his heirs forever.' f 

December IS///, 1645. GRIST MILL NUMBER TWO. A committee of 
seven men were appointed { at a publique meeting for to procure a 
water-mill || for to be built and set up in said towne [of Newbury] to 
grind theyr corne.' And they agreed to give John Emery and Sam- 
uel Scullard 20 in merchantable pay, to ' give them ten acres of 
upland and six acres of meadow ' and that the said mill is to be free 
from all rates for the first seven years and to be a freehold to them 
and their heirs forever, they on their part agreeing to sett up said 
mill between Nicholas Holt's point and Edward Woodman's bridge 
ready for the towne's use to grind the town's grists at or before the 
twenty-ninth of September, 1646. || 

December 22d. ' Thomas Colman having taken a farme so that 
he cannot attend to lay out lotts, John Pemberton was appointed 
lott layer in his roome" and to joyne with Richard Knight and to 
have fourpence per acre and what they are not paid for the towne 
is to see them satisfyed for, the legall means being first used to ob- 
tayne it.' f 

* Winthrop, vol. 2, p. 210. t Town records. J Winlhrop, vol. 2, p. 216. 
$ Winthrop, vol. 2, p. 248. || Proprietors' records, vol. 1, p. G. 


During this year the difficulty commenced between Mr. Parker 
and the church, concerning church government, and was not finally 
settled till 1672. 


1 At a towne meeting of the eight men, January second, 1646.' 
1 Wee, whose names are in the margent expressed,* for the settleing the 
disturbances that yett remayne about the planting and setling the meeting 
house that all men may cheerfully goe on to improve their lands at the new 
towne, doe determine that the meeting house shall be placed and sett up at or 
before, the twentieth of October next in, or upon, a knowle of upland by 
Abrahams Toppan's barne within a sixe or sixteen rodd of this side of the gate 
posts, that -are sett up in the high way by the said Abraham Toppan's barne.' f 
1 Edward Rawson contradicente this order. 7 

This ' knowle of upland,' where the meeting-house stood after its 
removal, was on the northwest corner of the present burying ground 
in the first parish. The following petition to the general court, very 
clearly presents the views of those who were opposed to the 
removing of the meeting-house, and shows that ' Edward Rawson' 
was not the only one who ' contradicented this order.' 

( To the right worshipfull, the ever honored court, the governor, deputy 
governor, witlTthe rest of the' assistants and deputies now assembled in Boston. 7 

1 The humble petition of us the inhabitants of Newbury. 7 

1 The true sense and feeling of the great distractions and sad grievances 
among us, which as far as we see) are likely dayly to increase upon to our 
farther smart, if not utter confusion rather than to amend, have caused us right 
worshipful with truly mournful hearts, after encountering with many difficulties 
and using the utmost of means yt we know, to bring our sad complaints to your 
ears, intreating you that while yet there is a little hope, which may possibly 
decrease dayly, and so the advantage be lost, you would shew a fatherly affec- 
tion to us and strike in to save us, if it may be from utter breaking. If you 
knew our hearts they would speak far more affectionately than our papers, and 
the sad sighs that are on us (when we consider with ourselves how many 
thousand miles we are come to enjoy ordinances, and the shadow of a godly 
government, and to bequeath so much, if we could to our little ones after us, 
that have adventured their lives with us, yet as things now stand we are likely 
to miscarry both of our aims) were you sensible of them, could not but move 
you to the very heart. It is very griefe to us to lay open our case in such man- 
ner as it is, lest we too much discover the shame that is amongst us, yet as 
there hath formerly been some smoke of this fire in some small occasions 
presented to this court, which hath vanished because the depth hath been not 
considered, the truth soundly evidenced, nor the just cause of our grief dis- 
covered, therefore we are inforced to set down things as they are, and though 
in some particulars some persons only have been active, yet it hath bin with 
the well wishes of many, whose eyes have been on them expecting and 
desiring their good issue. And we alone at this time appear in this complaint, 
yet the proceedings and carriage of some of their chief affaires are very 
distasteful to most of the town, though it may be on some other grounds, yet 
we doubt not but to say that more of us appear in this complaint than can be 
produced on the other side, a great many expecting what the issue will be, not 
able any way to help, and so not willing to displease, standing neuter. Trie 
foundation of all our troubles is a pretended commission, illegal in itselfe, and 

* These names are James Noyes, Edward Woodman, John Cutting, John Lowle, 
Richard Knight, Henry Short, 
t Town records. 


as illegally presented, faire pretences to draw men r s consent (nothing in the 
issue answered) at first urged some men in particular, privately drawn by over 
persuasions of fair speeches, and when all was done, so many never subscribed, 
whose estates were as much, if not more, than half the towne, without which we 
doubt not to affirme they had no commission to do any thing as they did. 
Professions and protestations were made against their proceedings in the begin- 
ning, the illegality and hurt of it often urged, other and far better waies of 
helping the towne's necessity, proposed. Yet they proceed and secretly 
winding in and intangling most men by some unadvised act or other of their 
owne seemed at last to be masters of their purpose. The main and very end of 
the said commission [is] in their own confession utterly impossible to be per- 
formed (whereupon we should think the commission voide) the promises and 
ingagements in the same, impossible to be made good and the very principles 
which themselves insisted on. without which they pretend no face or colour to 
do any thing by them in the execution, utterly subverted to the unjust oppres- 
sion of many. Besides private oppositions (not to speake of all the publicke) 
one notorious was this. An action was brought to ye court by some of us, and 
eleven of the jury (as was evident by the frequent verdicts not accepted 
brought in by them) were for us, and as far as we could discerne half the bench, 
though all were not present when sentence was given, so a special verdict 
being accepted the case went against us. though from ditferent grounds in the 
judges. Appeate was made from the sentence, and sufficient bond put in at 
the request of those, that managed these affaires, with faithful promise of 
referring it, and standing to the arbitration of those, that were chosen by us, 
we surceased to prosecute appeal, yet have often called upon them, also we 
found ourselves deluded with such a carriage, as our simplicity was not able to 
reach unto. It were too long and tedious to mention all the particulars, wherein 
their policy (their whole carriage has been full of it) hath wrought on our sim- 
plicity and so left us all at last in misery. To come to the last passages, which 
stir and set on the great [burden] of our sorrows. Discourse at last was had of 
taking down ye meeting-house. Those (as well as we can guesse) that paid 
two parts of three to the building of it, consented not. many strongly opposed it, 
yet the voices of many, that were then servants, and never paid penny to it, 
prevailed, down it is taken without any satisfaction given us, and besides what 
we are forced to pay toward it. The high way in part, that served both town 
and country and the very places assigned to bury the dead, and where many 
dead bodys lye are sold away (as wee are informed, though all things are 
secretly carried) to sett up againe, where both old and new towne judge it 
unmeete for both, but especially for us of the ould. The present and already 
seen inconveniences in respect of enjoying the ordinances, which we came so 
many miles to be partakers of, hath caused us oft to sigh in secret, and forcibly 
put us on thought to provide for ourselves, and not to betray the blood of our 
poor innocents, which cannot (or exceeding rarely) be partakers of the ordinary 
means of salvation, nor we ourselves, but uncomfortably, and with great dis- 
tractions, which they of the new towne can experience to us by that little they 
have already felt. Divers propositions wee have made. Att the beginning of 
these motions we promised the elders both of ym their maintenance (which 
must needs be to our great charge) if they would engage themselves to abide 
with us. We were rejected in this. Since we have made several propositions. 
The towne being continued and stretched out neare five miles, if not upwards, 
besides the inconveniences of a great river at the old towne, whereby it cannot 
be imagined that we, ould. feeble men, women and children of all sorts, can 
possibly many of ym goe above three miles to meeting, besides the necessary 
occasions in the winter time of attendance of cattell. which will require divers 
to be neerer. most men having small help but by themselves and ye two ends 
of ye towne being most populous, wee have therefore desired either first, that 
one of the elders might be resident with us, though the other be there, the 
church and maintenance still continuing one, and the same, or secondly that 
there might be two churches and one elder might be ours, or thirdly, if neither 
of the former might be obtained, then to let us be a church of ourselves, and 
let us have their helpe and furtherance to provide an elder for ourselves, all 


which they know with Jutyful expressions and sufficient reasons we have rendered 
to the church in wilting, and wee know not what farther to think to propose, yett 
we can receive no answer of our desires, and wee suppose they cannot answer 
otherwise if they deny us these but that wee must live at home and turn igno- 
rant atheists wee and ours, or attend on the ordinances bee our conditions what 
[they] will with such extraordinary inconveniences, as are not to be borne which 
wee' hope that godly magistrates will not suffer, whose authority is for our good 
to see the townes and churches builded and not destroyed. Having thus 
showed our complaints, every particular charge whereof we stand to defend and 
maintaine, and least wee be overtedious we shall now in a word humbly tender 
to you the sum of our requests.' [Here the remainder of the sheet on which 
the petition was written is torn off, and all the names of the signers on the other 
side of the paper except four, lost with it. It concludes thus : ] l And wee 
profess and hereby engage ourselves to this honored court that if there should 
be thought any just cause of complaint against us that wee should have ye 
better in case these things are granted that wee shall bee ready at any time to be 
directed and take ye advice of others (in case wee cannot agree ourselves) to come 
to equal agreement and composition for the promoting of their prosperous estate 
suitable to our towne. whose good we desire, as well as our owne, whose 
prosperity we heartily wish, though (as we hope yourselves easily conceive) 
necessity forces us to seek your favour in our just petition. And wee the rather 
desire your speciall help in" this case because where our whole hope was that in 
case of extremity ye court might and would help us. Two or three, if not 
more of their chiefe stike not to say and speake more than by intimation that 
the court generall hath nothing to do with it nor cannot help us, which, if it 
were so our sorrows would be multiplied. 




JOHN i>ooRE. ; 

Shortly after this petition was presented, three of the petitioners 
removed from Newbury. Mr. Greenleaf went to Boston. Stephen 
Kent moved to Haverhill, Mr. Henry Sewall, senior, moved to 
Rowley, that he might be near the meeting-house there. 

April 8th. ' Mr. Henry Sewall, Mr. Woodman, Henry Lunt, and 
Archelaus Woodman, were fyned twelve pence apiece, and Steven 
Kent for their absence from the generall towne meeting, to be 
gathered within ten dayes. In case the constable bring it not by 
that time, Anthony Morse is appointed to distreyne on him for all 
the fynes.' % 

At a town meeting of the eight men, ' the time being too short to 
finish and perfectly record all the grants, which have bin made by 
the eight men, it is ordered that whatever Mr. Rawson shall record 
that himself or Richard Knight doth perfectly remember was granted 
to any inhabitant shall be by all, and is by all, hereby acknowledged 
to be authentick and legall as any other grant allready recorded, so 
it be done within these six months.' ^ 

c In the end of June we had a strong hand of God upon us. 
Upon a suddaine innumerable armies of caterpillars filled the 
country all over the English plantations, which devoured whole 
meadows of grasse, Indian corn, and barley. Wheat and rye not 
much. Much prayer was made about it and fasting and the Lord 

* Town records. 


heard and took them away againe suddenly in all parts of the 
country to the wonderment of all men.'^ 

At a general town meeting, the tenth of December, 1646, the 
town being informed that Mr. Thomas Parker was unwilling to act 
any longer in any matters concerning the new town and that Mr. 
Cutting was going to sea, 'did make choyse of Nicholas Xoyes and 
William Titcomb to be added to the rest of the new towne men for 
six weeks.' t and so forth. 

December 16///, 1646. ' At a meeting of the eight men. it is 
ordered that all those that do accept of any lands between the great 
river and Stephen Dummer's farme shall have it on this condition 
that they goe not to divide the church, or oppose the first order or 
agreement about the removeing of the towne.' f 

' Granted to Aquilla Chase, anno 1646, four acres of land at the 
new towne for a house lott and six acres of upland for a planting 
lott where it is to be had, and six acres of marsh where it is to be 
had, also on condition that he do go to sea, and do service in the 
towne with a boat for foure years.' f 

; The six acres of upland ' above granted were laid out to Aquilla 
Chase ' beyond the new towne.' 

In what month of tjiis year these conditional grants were made 
to Aquilla Chase, or what was the precise service, which he was 
obligated to perform, the records do not inform us. He, however, 
removed from Hampton to Xewbury this year, and sometime prior 
to September, as we find in the county records the following 
presentment : 

4 September, 1646. We present Aquilla Chase and wife, and 
David Wheeler for gathering pease on the Sabbath day.' For this 
offence the court orders them to be admonished and their fines 
remitted. For a more particular account of Aquilla Chase see 
appendix, E. 

mber 1st. The assembly or synod met at Cambridge, and," 
having continued but about fourteen days, broke up, and was ad- 
journed to the eighth of June, 1647. t 

' This winter [1646] was one of our mildest. No snow all winter 
Ion 2:. nor sharp weather. We never had a bad clay to go to the 


1 KENT'S ISLAND.' This year, February seventh. the men deputed 
to order the affaires and exchanges of the new towne,' granted to 
Richard Kent, junior, the island, which is still called Kent's island, 
and is still owned by his descendants. It is thus mentioned in the 

* Roxbury church records. 

t Town records. There is a tradition in the Chase family, that he was the first 
person, who ever brought a vessel over Newbury bar. He was probably a pilot, and 

t Winthrop, vol. 2, pp. 270, 271. 

\ Roxbury church records, written by the reverend John Elliot. 


records. After noticing ' the tenn acres of upland, which the towne 
granted him on the island over the little river, and sixty four acres 
of marish,' it grants him l all the rest of the upland and marish on 
the island over the little river being one hundred and seventy acres 
or thereabouts, being formerly granted to particular persons.' The 
remainder of the island the said Richard Kent, junior, obtained 
either by purchase or exchange, either with the town or individuals, 
*' all which land in the island above mentioned being two hundred 
and fifty-eight acres or thereabouts to enjoy to him and his heires 
forever,' and so forth. % 

April 1st. i It was ordered that Mr. [Edward] Woodman should 
be moderator of this assembly and appointed to execute the former 
order, that so confusion be prevented.' ^ 

This is the first time that mention is made in the records, of a 
4 moderator,' though such an officer had undoubtedly been chosen 
annually from the first settlement of the town. At the same meet- 
ing, the ' selectmen,' * one grand jury man,' a ' constable,' three ' way- 
wardens,' and a ' deputy ' to the general court, were chosen. This 
deputy was Mr. Edward Rawson, who this year was chosen 
secretary of state, in room of Mr. Increase Nowell. The next 
town clerk was Mr. John Lowle, who dying June twenty-ninth, 
4 Anthony Somerby was chosen clerk of the writs at Newbury, and 
to record births, deaths and marriages in the place of John Lowle 
deceased.' f 

In May, the following law was passed, namely : ' it is ordered that 
when any towne shall increase to the number of one hundred fam- 
ilies or householders they shall set up a grammar school and so forth. 
And if any town neglect the performance hereof above one year, it 
shall pay 5 per annum to the next such school till they shall perform 
such order.' f In May 1671 the fine was increased to 10, and in 
1683 to 20. 

May 18th. The town for 3 'granted to John Emery that parcell 
of land called the greene, about three akers, being more or lesse, 
bounded by the half acre lotts on the west, the hye way on the south 
east and his own land on the north, being in a triangle, only the 
twenty rods [is] reserved in said land for a burying place as it is 
bounded with stakes with a way to it from the east.' ^ 

This 'burying place ' still remains, and is situated east of old town 
hill, in land now owned by Mr. Paul Ilsley, and is still called the 
* Emery lot.' 

This year, in the month of January or February, Mary Johnson 
was executed as a witch in Hartford, Connecticut. This was the 
first instance in New England. 

May 10th. ' Upon examination it appeared that there was not 
enough corn in the whole country to last two months.' f 

June 8th. The synod again assembled at Cambridge. In conse- 
quence, however, of an epidemical sickness, ' which went through 
the country among the Indians and English, French, and Dutch, 

* Town records. t Colonial records. 


the synod were forced to break up of a sudden/ as { divers of the 

members were taken with it.' ' Not a family, nor but few persons, 

j ? -u- 
escaped. * 

It was about this time, according to Winthrop, that <a trade was" 
opened with Barbadoes, and other West India islands,' by which 
our cattle, provisions, staves, and so forth, were exchanged for 4 sugar, 
cotton, tobacco and indigo,' which ' were a good help to discharge 
our engagements with England.' =fc 

Of this trade the inhabitants of Newbury soon began to avail 
themselves, as we shall hereafter see, so that, in the language of 
Samuel Danforth, in his almanac for 1648, 

1 Heaps of wheat, pork, bisket. beef and beer, 
Masts, pipe-staves, fish should store both far and near, 
Which fetch in wines, cloth, sweets and good tobac- 
be contented then, ye cannot lack.' 

December 26^, 1647. Tristram Coffin [senior] is allowed to 
keep an ordinary, and retayle wine, paying according to order, and 
also granted liberty to keep a ferry at Newbury side.' f This ferry 
crossed the Merrimac at Carr's island, George Carr keeping the 
Salisbury side, and Tristram Coffin, senior, the Newbury side.' 


April 27l/i. < At a general meeting of the freemen of the towne 
it was ordered that from henceforth from yeare to yeare the meeting 
for the choyse of towne officers shall be upon the first Monday in 
March- upon publick warneing.' J 

i There was granted to Thomas Marvyn two akers of land lying 
near to the new pond on the back side of Mr. Nicholas Noyes his 
house lott at the new towne for encouragement to kill wolves, and 
that he shah 1 endeavor to his utmost to catch them.' J 

June. l At this court Margaret Jones of Charlestown was indicted 
and found guilty of witchcraft and hanged for it.' This was the 
first case of that lamentable delusion in Massachusetts, which 
required the services of an executioner. , In Danforth's almanac for 
this year is the following note set against the fifteenth of June. 
i Alice Jones executed for witchcraft.' Alice should be Margaret. 

July lo/A. ' The synod met at Cambridge by adjournment.' 
'This synod,' says .Air. Savage, in a note, 'erected the famous Cam- 
bridge platform,' which continued so many years, and which was in 
a great degree occasioned by the change of sentiment respecting 
church discipline, entertained by the ministers of Newbury, Mr. 
Parker and Mr. Noyes. 

c John Bartlett, constable, was fined forty shillings for not provid- 
ing measures, and Newbury, presented for want of a sufficient 

* Winthrop, vol. 2, pp. 308, 309. 310. t Colonial records. 

t Town rernrdp. Wintbrop. vol. 2, p. 330. 


pound,' and also presented ' for want of a convenient safe way for 
the new towiie to the ferry side.' 

4 Lieutenant Edmund Greenleaf is allowed to keep an ordinary 
in Newbury.' f 

4 It was ordered that Isaac Buswell and George Carr shall have 
power to call upon Newbury to lay out the country way as far as 
belongs unto them from the island to Mr. Clark's farme.' * 

Clark's farm was near Thurlow's bridge, so called. 

This year the ' court desired Mr. Edward Rawson and Mr. [Joseph] 
Hills to compose the amendments of the book of laws passed and 
make them as one ; one copy to remain in the hands of the commit- 
tee for the speedy committing them to the press, and the other to 
remain in the hands of the secretary sealed up till the next court.' 

December. Thomas Smith, aged twelve years, fell into a pit on 
his way to school, and was drowned.' 


1 At a generall towne meeting March sixth, 1649, Mr. Edward 
Rawson was appointed to serve deputy at the next courte of election 
for this towne and to stay and consumate the affayres of the country 
according to order for the year following.' 

' At a meeting generall of the freemen the sixth of March 1649. 
* There was chosen Mr. William Gerrish, John Saunders, Daniel 
Pierce, Henry Shorte, Richard Knight, Robert Coker, William 
Titcomb, Archelaus Woodman, and John Merrill, to bee a commit- 
tee for the towne to view the passages into Plum island and to 
informe the courte by way of petition concerning the righte the 
towne hath to the sayd island and to have full power with Mr. 
Edward Rawson to draw forth a petition and present it to the 
next general courte.' 

* Mr. Edward Rawson, Mr. John Spenser and Mr. Woodman 
was chosen by the towne to joyne with those men of Ipswich and 
Rowley, that was appointed to bee a committee about Plum island.' f 

May \5th, 1649. The town of Newbury petition the general 
court to grant them the whole of Plum island. After declaring 
their confidence in the < Christian readiness of the court to uphold 
the meanest member of this jurisdiction from sinking under any 
pressure,' and so forth, and so forth, they go on to say : 

{ The substance of our desires is that, if after you have heard and perused 
what we say, that in right Plum island belongs not to us 7 yet out of your 
just favour, it may be granted to us to relieve our pinching necessities, without 
which we see no way to continue or subsist. Our feares were occasioned by a 
petition which was preferred to the last general court for it. Our apprehensions 
of our right to it are, first, because for three or four miles together there is no 
channel betwixt us and it. Second, because at low water we can go dry to it 
over many places, in most with, carts and horses, which we usually doe, being 

* Salisbury records. t Colonial records. J Town records. 


necessitated so to doe since our guift to Rowley on the court's request and 
promise that we should have any thing in the court's power to grant. Thirdly, 
because the court's order gives all lands to dead low water marke not exceed- 
ing one hundred rods, to towns, or persons, where any lands do so border. 
In many places Plum island is not ten rods, at no place one hundred rods from 
low water marke. 

1 Fourth, because we only can improve it without damage to our neigbouring 
plantations, which none can doe without much damage to your petitioners, if 
not to the ruining of both the meadow and corne of your petitioners, and' so forth. 
The premises considered we hope (and doubt not) this honorable court will see 
just grounds to answer our request and confirme the island to our towne and we 
shall always as in duty we are bound pray, and so forth. 





RICHARD KENT in ye name of ye rest. 7 

In answer to this petition, the court, October seventeenth, 1649, 
granted two fifths of the island to Newbury, two fifths to Ipswich, 
and one fifth to Rowley. 

March. c Anthony Morse was presented for digging a pit and 
not filling it up seasonably.' In this pit Thomas Smith was 

This year, Pentucket, [now Bradford,] 'ordered that the fence 
between" us and Newbury shall be made sufficient with three rails 
on penalty of sixpence a rod fine for defect.' 

On the' tenth of May, 1649, governor Endicott, deputy governor" 
Dudley, with seven of the assistants, bore the following testimony 
against the wearing of long hair. It is inserted as a curiosity. 

1 Forasmuch as the wearing of long hair after the manner of ruffians and 
barbarous Indians, has begun to invade New England, contrary to the rule of 
God's word, which says it is a shame for a man to wear long hair, as also the 
commendable custom generally of all the godly of our nation, until within 
these few years. 

We the magistrates, who have subscribed this paper (for the shewing of our 
own innocency in this behalf) do declare and manifest our dislike and detesta- 
tion against the wearing of such long hair, as against a thing uncivil and 
unmanly, whereby men doe deforme themselves and offend sober and modest 
men, and doe corrupt good manners. We doe therefore earnestly entreat all 
the elders of this jurisdiction (as often as they shall see cause to manifest their 
zeal against it in their publike administrations) to take care that the members of 
their respective churches be not defiled therewith ; that so such as shall prove 
obstinate and will not refonne themselves, may have God and man to witness 
against them.' 

In the Roxbury church records, and in the hand writing of the 
venerable John Elliott, I find the following. It is the seventh 
1 proposition about apparel and fashions.' 

' 7. Locks and long haire (now in England called rattle heads and opposite to 
Christians, who wear short haire all of a lengthe and therefore called round 
heads) is an offence to many godly Christians, and therefore be it known to such, 
they walk offensively.' 


The first tanner in Newbury, of whom we have any account, 
was Mr. Nicholas Easton, who was afterward governor of Rhode 
Island. He is called by Winthrop, ' one Easton, a tanner.' The 
remains of an old tan-yard are still visible, on land once owned by 
him, and which some years after came into possession of Mr. 
Richard Dole, who, as we learn from his will, carried on, among 
his other occupations, the business of tanning. The site of the 
yard, which is still owned by his descendants, is a few rods north 
from Parker river bridge, and a few rods east from the main road 
leading to the bridge. John Bartlett was also a tanner. His place 
of business was a short distance from the banks of the Merrimac, 
near the road leading to Amesbury ferry. In what year he com- 
menced the business, it is impossible to say. Descendants of the 
same name are 'still engaged in the same business, on the same spot. 

On the nineteenth of April, this year, the i freemen ' granted to Job 
Clements, from Haverhill, a freehold 'conditionally yt he live with 
us heere in Newbury exercising his trade four years or as long as 
he shall live within that tearme and also let the shoemakers of this 
towne have the first proffer or the forsaking of his leather, making 
him as good pay as others.' ^ 

This attempt to secure the services of Job Clement, as tanner, 
failed, he ' not performing the conditions above specifyed.' 

September. Newbury was presented for want of a pound, and 
their constable presented for not providing weights and measures 
according to order of court, but afterward the fine was remitted, f 

' Newbury was presented for want of a sufficient pound and is 
to pay forty shillings, unless it is completed by the first of May 
next.' f 

The following curious sentence of the court, on a citizen of 
Ipswich, is found on the county records. 

< Thomas Scott upon his presentment is fyned ten shillings 
unless he learn Mr. Norton's chatachise by next court.' 

The records of the court do not state the nature of the offence, 
which induced the court to inflict the ' chatachise ' on the offending 
brother, or its value in money. It appears, however, that he chose 
rather to lose the money than to take the ' chatachise,' as the records 
of the 'next court' inform us, that ' Thomas Scott not appearing to 
make known that he hath learned Mr. Norton's chatachise his fyne 
is to be taken.' 

In September, ' there was a general visitation by the small-pox.' f 


The first notice we have, on the town records, of any Indians liv- 
ing in Newbury, is in January, 1644, where lot sixty-one in the new 
town is granted to ' John, Indian.' The next is in April sixteenth 
of this year, where the town, through their selectmen, William Ger- 

* Town records. t County records. J Roxbury church records. 


rish, Abraham Toppan, and Anthony Somerby, purchase a tract of 
land of ' Great Tom, Indian.' It commences thus : 

1 Witness by these presents that I, Great Tom. Indian, for and in consideration 
of three pounds in hand paid by, and received of, the townsmen of Newbury, 
have given, granted, covenanted and fully bargained, and for and by these 
presents do give, grant, convey, confirme, bargain and sell all that my th*** 
acres of planting land as it is fenced in one entire fence in Newbury lying neere 
Indian hill with all my right, title and interest in all the woods, commons and 
lands that I have in the township of Newbury to have and to hold, and so forth, 
and so forth. In witness whereof I, the said Great Tom, Indian, have set to 
my hand and seale April sixteenth, 1650. 

The mark * of 

November 20th. The town * granted to John Poore twenty-two 
acres of upland/ in consequence of l his being so remote from 
meeting and difficulty in coming over the ferry and for his 

September 7th._ Mr. John Spencer, nephew of Mr. John Spencer, 
deceased, sold to Henry Sewall, the mill lot, being fifty acres of 
upland and ten acres of meadow, for sixteen pounds sterling. 

In this year, December nineteenth, ' the townsmen at a- meeting* 
voted to pay out of the ' towne rate one shilling for every dozen of 
black birds, two shillings for every dozen of wood-peckers' and 
jays' heads, and three shillings for every dozen of crowes, and so 
proportionable for any lesser number.' 

'John Tillotson was presented for scandalous and reproachful 
speeches cast on the elders and others in a publick church meeting 
on a Lord's day.' % 

4 Henry Somerby was licensed to keep an ordinary instead of 
Mr. Greenleaf.' * 

' John Perry of Newbury is ordered to sit in the stocks one house 
enxt lecture day for abusive carnage to his wife and child.' * 

'John Tillotson on his many offences is fined twenty pounds, 
bound to his good behaviour, and fined twenty-seven pounds for 
killing a mare belonging to Mr. James Noyes.' * 

In an old manuscript, once owned by the reverend James Noyes, 
and now by one of his descendants, Mr. Silas Noyes, is an account 
of the testimony taken in the case of John Tillotson, and some of 
4 his many offences,' which induced the court to lay so heavy a fine 
on him. The evidence concludes by saying : ' at last he killed our 
elder's mare, great with foal, and a special good beast she was, 
provoked with her at ye instant, he killed her with a long pike, thrust 
through both her sides,' and so forth, and so forth, and ' the morning 
after this transaction he made a deed to convay all his estate away 
from himselfe offering it to goodman ^fc^^MMfc whereby our elder 
would have been wholly defrauded of his mare.' 

* County records. 



From Johnson's Wonder-working Providence, published this year, 
I make the following extract : 

1 This town [Newbury] is situated about twelve miles from Ipswitch, neere 
upon the wide venting streams of Merrimack river, whose strong current is such 
that it hath forced its passage through the mighty rocks, which causeth some 
sudden falls and hinders shipping from having any accesse far into the land. 
This towne is stored with meadows and upland. Their houses are built very 
scattering, which hath caused some contention about removal of their place for 
sabbath assemblies. It consists of about seventy families. The soules in 
church fellowship are about an hundred. The teaching elders in this place 
have carried it very lovingly toward their people, permitting them to assist in 
admitting of persons into church society, and in church censures, to long as they 
act regidarly, but in case of maladministration they assume the power wholly to 
themselves. 11 

The preceding lines of Johnson very well express the principles 
of church discipline, held by Messrs. Parker and Noyes, and which 
occasioned the long and bitter controversy, which was not finally 
settled till a short time before the death of Mr. Parker in 1677. A 
majority of the church demanded as a right, what Messrs. Parker 
and Noyes, in the language of Johnson, ' lovingly permitted ' as a 
favor, and believing that the church in its corporate capacity had a 
right, and were therefore under a sacred obligation, to manage its 
own affairs, they contended most strenuously, and with untiring 
pertinacity, against their ' elders' assuming,' under any pretext, ' the 
power wholly to themselves.' Full proof of this will be hereafter 

In consequence of divers complaints, having been made from 
time to time of disorder in the meeting house,' and believing that 
i the abuses in the youth cannot be so easily reformed, unlesse every 
house-holder knows his seat in the meeting-house,' the selectmen, 
the twenty-fourth of January, 1651, ' hereby order that every house- 
holder both men and women shall sit in those seats, that are 
appointed for them during their lives, and not to presse into seats 
where they are full already.' They also declare that they ' have 
drawne a list of the names of the inhabitants and appointed them 
their places in the meeting-house and have set their names in each 
particular seat where they shall sit and the young men are appointed 
to sit in the four backer seats in the gallery and in the two lower 
seats at the west door.' 

This was called ' seating the meeting-house,' and occasioned, as 
will be hereafter seen, much difficulty. At this time pews were not 
known. The foregoing extract was taken from the quarterly court 
files in Salem. It was a copy from the * towne booke,' which 
cannot now be found. 

As a specimen of some of the cases tried at Salem court, I give 
the following testimony, * T junior of Newbury came 


to goodman Sanders' barne and with a great swingell did strikS 
William Richerson athurt the bake and so ran away.' * 

The town granted to Richard Pettingell, fourteen acres of marsh, 
in consideration of his ' yielding up into the towne's hands a way 
1 four rods wide through his land.' f That way is now Green 
street, formerly called Rolfe's lane. 

March 5th. Henry Short, agent for Mr. Stephen Dummer, sold 
to Thomas Brown and George Little, his 'farm at the Birchen 
meadows containing three hundred acres for twenty-one pounds.' 

October 14Z//. The court made another abortive attempt to 
regulate the fashions of the people, to prescribe what certain classes 
of persons should not wear, and what exceptions ought to be made 
to the general rule. They declare that 'intolerable excesse and 
bravery hath crept in upon us and especially among people of mean 
condition and their utter detestation and dislike that men of mean 
conditions and callings should take upon them the garb of gentle- 
men by wearing gold or silver lace, or buttons, or points at their 
knees, to walk in great boots, or women of the same ranke, to wear 
silk or tiffany hoods or scarfs, which though allowable to persons of 
greater estates, or more liberal education, they judge it intolerable 
in persons of such like condition.' 

They then order, that, with the exception of ' magistrates or any 
publick officer of this jurisdiction, their wives and children, military 
officers or soldiers, or any other, whose education or employment 
have been above the ordinary degree, or whose estates have been 
considerable, though now decayed, or who were not worth two 
hundred pounds, no person should trangress this law under penalty 
of ten shillings.' 


On the court records at Salem, I find the following : 

1 This is to certify whom it may concern that we the subscribers being called 
upon to testify against [doctor]" William Snelling for words by him uttered, 
affirm that being in way of merry discourse, a health being drank to all friends, 
he answered 

I '11 pledge my friends, 

And for my foes, 

A plague for their heels, 

And a poxe for their toes.' 

1 Since when he hath affirmed that he only intended the proverb used in the 
west country, nor do we believe he intended otherwise.' 


' March 12, 1651-2. All which I acknowledge, and I am sorry I did not 
expresse my intent, or that I was so weak as to use so foolish a proverb.' * 


So great, however, was the enormity of the doctor's offence, that 
neither explanation, nor apology, was of any avail, as the record 

* County records. t Town records. 


5rms us that c William Snelling in his presentment for cursing is 
fined ten shillings and the fees of court.' ^ 

After this specimen of their abhorrence of profanity, we have a 
right to presume that doctor Snelling was especially careful of what 
he said concerning his neighbors' heels or toes. 

This year a mint was established at Boston, for coining shillings, 
sixpences, and threepences. The pieces at first, had N. E. on one 
side, and XII. VI. or III. on the other. It was afterward ordered, 
that all pieces should have a double ring, with the word MASSA- 
CHUSETTS, and a tree in the centre, on one side, and NEW ENGLAND 
and 1652 on the other. The same date was continued for thirty 
years after. * The mint master was John Hall, who raised a large 
fortune from it,' his perquisites being fifteen pence for every twenty 
shillings coined. Judge Samuel Sewall married his only daughter, 
and, it is said, received with her thirty thousand pounds in New 
England shillings. 

This year, Hugh Parsons, of Springfield, was tried for witchcraft, 
but the jury and the magistrates not agreeing, the general court 
acquitted him.f 

This year a prison was built in Ipswich, being the second in the 
Massachusetts colony. 

< Stephen Kent formerly of Newbury was fined ten pounds for 
suffering five Indians to be drunk in his house in Haverhill and 
one wounded, shall pay the fine and satisfy for the cure of the 
wounded Indian.' 

We present ' Elizabeth Randall of Nuberrie for useing reproach- 
ful language unto goody Silver base lieing divell, base lieing tode, 
base lying sow, base lying iade.' ^ 

In December, ( there appeared a comet in Orion, which continued 
its course toward the zenith for the space of a fortnight till [the rever- 
end] Mr. Cotton died? $ 

It is thus mentioned in the records of the first church in Boston : 
4 December ninth, a large star with a long blaze appeared. It grew 
less and less till the twenty-second, when it disappeared.' The 
reverend John Cotton died the twenty-third of December. 

November 29th, 1652. < There was voted by the major part of 
the towne that there should be a convenient house built for a 

' There was also voted that there should be twenty pounds a 
yeare allowed for to maintaine a school master out of the towne 

< There was also voted that Mr. Woodman, Richard Kent, junior, 
lieutenant Pike and Nicholas Noyes should be a committee for the 
managing the business of the schoole.' 

These votes, with the exception of the grant of ten acres of land 
to Anthony Somerby in 1639, ' for his encouragement to keep 

* County records. t Hutchinson. 

4 Roxbury church records. Town records. 


schoole for one year,' contain the first notice on record of the town's 
intention to build a school-house and to support a master at their 
expense. This was, doubtless, in obedience to the law passed by 
the state in May, 1647, as may be seen in Ancient Charters, page 
186, though a school had for many years been taught in the meeting 

The following extract from the first section of the act of May, 
1647, is worthy of perpetual remembrance, and is therefore herp 

1 It being one chief project of Satan to keep men from the knowledge of the 
scripture, as in former times keeping them in unknown tongues, so in these 
latter times persuading from the use of tongues, so that at least the true sense 
and meaning of the original might be clouded and corrupted with false glosses 
of deceivers ; to the end that learning may not be buried in the graves of our 
forefathers, in church and commonwealth the Lord assisting our endeavours, it 
is therefore ordered,' and so forth. 


4 At a general meeting of the towne, the fourteenth of May, 1653, 
there was ordered that the towne should by an equal proportion 
according to men's estate by way of rate pay twenty-four pounds 
by the yeare to maintaine a free schoole to be kept at the meeting 
house, and the master is to leach all such inhabitants' children, as shall 
be sent to him so soon as they know their letters and begin to read.' * 

Against the establishment of such a school, seventeen persons 
< desired to have their dissents recorded,' all of whom, it appears, 
resided so far from the meeting-house that their children could not 
conveniently attend the school. They were therefore unwilling to 
be taxed to support an institution, which, however advantageous to 
the whole town, was not directly beneficial to them. 

September. * Tristram Coffyn's wife Dionis was presented for 
selling beer,' at his ordinary in Newbury, * for three pence a quart.' 
Having proved ' upon the testimony of Samuel Moores, that she 
put six bushels of malt into the hogshead she was discharged.' f 

The law, which she was supposed to have violated, was passed 
in 1645, and is as follows, namely : 

1 Every person licensed to keep an ordinary, shall always be pro- 
vided with good wholesome beer of four bushels of malt to the 
hogshead, which he shall not sell above two pence the ale quart on 
penalty of forty shillings the first offence and for the second offence 
shall lo<se his license.' 

Goodwife Coffyn probably reasoned thus : 

4 As four is to two, so is six to three. I '11 have better beer than 
my neighbours and be paid for it. A fig for the law.' 

Other presentments for violations of the law of more consequence 

* Town records. t County records. 



than selling beer were multiplied. Many of these were for not 
regarding the sumptuary law of 1651. 

For instance, l Nicholas Noyes' wife, Hugh March's wife, and 
William Chandler's wife were each presented for wearing a silk 
hood and scarfe,' but were discharged on proof that their husbands 
were worth two hundred pounds each. John Hutchins' wife was 
also discharged ' upon testimony of her being brought up above the 
ordinary ranke.' 

Joseph Swett's wife for the same offence was fined ten shillings. 
Agnes, the wife of deacon Richard Knight, was also presented. 
This troubled the good deacon exceedingly, and induced him to 
solicit Mr. Rawson to send the following letter to one of the magis- 
trates at Salem. 


An honest godly man, a friend of mine in Newbury, whose name is 
Richard Knight, whether of ignorance or wilfulness by some neighbour is pre- 
sented for his wife's wearing of a silk hood, supposing he has not been worth 
two hundred pounds. It being a grievance to him, who is advanced [in years] to 
be summoned to a court, that never useth to trouble any, at his request I thought 
fit to inform you on my owne knowledge his estate is better worth than three 
hundred, and therefore I desire you would, as you may, forbeare, in your war- 
rant to insert his name in it, it may be ; if not, at least that you would take 
private satisfaction of him in your chamber, which he can easily give you, or 
any, in a moment. Not else at present but my service to you and Mr. Symon 

Your friend and servant, 


Now at Newbury, the fourteenth of August, 1653.' 

' This letter, as it will be seen, was of no avail, though the woman 
was acquitted.' 

This year, the road was laid out from Andover to Newbury, 
* leaving Rowley way at the beginning of a plain by a little swamp 
called Barberry swamp, thence the old way to Falls river, thence 
over the head of Cart creek, thence to Hull's bridge over Hull's plain 
to the mill bridge,' and so forth. 

This year Newbury gave fifteen pounds to Harvard college. 

September 7th. ' The court, on hearing that lieutenant Robert 
Pike declared that 'such persons as did act in making that law 
restraining unfit persons from constant preaching did break their 
oath to the country, for, said he, it is against the liberty of the 
country, both civil and ecclesiastical,' declared that he had been 
guilty of defaming the general court, and order that he shall be 
disfranchised, disabled from holding any publick office, bound to 
his good behaviour, and fined twenty marks,' equal to thirteen 
pounds, six shillings, and eight-pence. 

The law alluded to above was made to restrain Joseph Peasley and 
Thomas Macy, formerly of Newbury, then of Salisbury, new town, 
from exhorting the people on the sabbath in the absence of a minister. 
This order had no effect on Joseph Peasley, who still continued his 
preaching in defiance of the law, as we find, in the year 1659. 


The punishment inflicted on lieutenant Pike caused a great 
sensation in the neighboring towns. Petitions were presented to the 
general court, containing the names of nearly all the citizens of 
Newbury, Andover, Hampton, Salisbury, and so forth, earnestly 
entreating the magistrates to remit the punishment and the fine 
imposed on lieutenant Pike. The whole case is a very instructive 
one. It exhibits, on the one hand, the watchful jealousy of the 
people, in consequence of any supposed or real incroachments on 
their civil or ecclesiastical rights, and on the other hand the deter- 
mination of the magistrates not to have their authority lightly called 
in question. 

They immediately chose a committee to call the petitioners of the 
several towns together, ascertain their reasons for signing the petition, 
and make return. This was done in 1654, and eight Newbury men 
were bound to their good behavior in a bond of ten pounds each for 
signing the petition, the remainder having acknowledged their offence. 

October 29th. There was a small shock of an earthquake. 


Kent's island, with sixteen cows and four oxen on it, was let this 
year, for seven years, by Richard Kent, to Launcelot Granger, ^for 
forty-six pounds a year. 

1 On the ninth of June this year there was a storme of thunder 
and haile, such as hath not been heard of in New England since 
the first planting thereof, which haile fell in the bounds of Hampton, 
the haile being to admiration for the multitude thereof, so that in 
some places it remained after the storm was over twelve inches in 
thickness and was not all dissolved in two days, many of which 
haile were said to be three or four inches in length.'^ 

September 21st. t Liberty was granted to the inhabitants of the 
4 old towne ' to make a fence and hang a gate acrosse the way about 
Anthony Short's or John Knight's provided they hinder not the 
cattell from going into the commons there.' f 

Many such fences and gates were erected in various parts of the 
town. There were two on the south side of * the river Parker,' one, 
a few rods north of the present first parish meeting-house, another, 
on the 'four rod way' south of Turkey hill, and in many other 
places. At this time, and for many years after, travelers, who 
usually went on horseback, were obliged every few miles to dismount 
and open a gate, which the town ordered to be made to open and 
shut ' flippantly.' 

' John Emery was chosen to answer at the next court at Ipswich 
concerning the presentment about the way to Andover.' f 

The selectmen were ordered to examine and require * an account 
of the money or goods, that hath been gathered to purchase a bell, 
in whose hands it is, and to make report to the towne.' f 

* Hampton records. t Town records. 


The bell, we have reason to suppose, was obtained about this 
time, as we find in December, 1665, that Anthony Morse was chosen 
1 to keep the meeting-house and ring' the bell? 

This year the general court declare that * Richard Thorlay having 
built a bridge over Newbury river, at his owne cost hath liberty to 
take toll for cattle, sheep, and so forth, so long as he shall maintain 
and repair the same, passengers free.' 


April 25th. i The towne granted to captain Paul White a par- 
cell of land, not exceeding half an acre, about Watts his cellar ^ 
for to make a dock, a wharf, and a warehouse, provided he do 
build a dock, and warehouse as aforesaid ; but the town granteth 
no liberty of freehold or commonage hereby and if he shall here- 
after sell it, when he hath built upon it, the town shall have the 
forsaking of it.' f 

This is the first record of a grant to any person, for permission 
to build a wharf, and so forth, on the Merrimack. The grantee, 
captain Paul White, was a merchant, who had been engaged in 
trade for some years at Pemaquid, now Bristol, Maine, and had 
been in Newbury about two years. 

May 25th, 1655. Joseph Swett petitions the honorable court to 
confirm to him the grant of ' Deer island, which the selectmen of 
Newbury have granted him, which is not above six acres of land, 
and is not above six or eight rods from Newbury shore,' and so forth. 

This year, in July, an epidemical disease, like that in 1647, 
pervaded New England, ' whereof many died.' 

June. George Carr made ' a floating bridge five feet wide with 
rails on each side,' from his island to Salisbury shore. ' The floate 
bridge,' says George Carr, ' is above two hundred and seventy feet 
long with ye faule.' 

The people of Hampton, New Hampshire, proposed to join with 
Rowley, in petitioning the general court for a country way, from 
Carr's ferry to [doctor] Clark's farm, [near Thurrill's bridge,] and so 
* as direct from thence as may be to Rowley line.' J 


May 7th. On this day, ' the half acre of land/ granted last year 
to captain Paul White, was laid out ' at the end of Fish street [now 
State street] joyneing to Merrimack river on the northwest, and from 
the river by the great rocks upon a strait lyne to a stake by the way, 

* c Watts his cellar,' which is frequently mentioned in the town records, and in deeds 
of land, was on, or just below, the spot where the market-house in Newburyport now 
stands. This Watts was, undoubtedly, the first person who dug a cellar within the 
limits of ' ould Newberry.' He was probably engaged in fishing and trading with the 

t Town records. J Hampton records. 


and from that stake to another stake westerly by another great 
rocke,* 1 and from a stake running over part of the rock upon a 
straight lyne westward to another stake by the dock.' f 

With the conditions of the grant he complied, and built a wharf, 
warehouse, and * stillhouse,' and made a dock. He was extensively 
engaged in business till his death, July twentieth, 1679. 

In June, of this year, Mrs. Ann Hibbens was executed in Boston, 
for the supposed crime of witchcraft. ' This,' says Hutchinson, 
' was the second instance on record of any person's being executed 
for witchcraft in New England. Her husband, who died 1654, had 
been a magistrate, and a merchant of note.' 

1 Mr. Noise, the blessed light at Newbury died.' J This was the 
reverend James Noyes, who died October twenty-second, 1656. 
He had been teacher of the church in Newbury from its first 


In the month of March, died, in Rowley, Mr. Henry Sewall, 
whose only son Henry, was one of the first settlers of Newbury. 
He came to Newbury soon after his father, and after the removal of 
the meeting-house from the lower green, to the place where it now 
stands, in 1646, he crossed the river to Rowley, and there resided 
through the remainder of his earthly pilgrimage. During the latter 
part of his life, he is said to have been occasionally a little deranged. 
This was probably the cause of his being two or three times 
presented by the grand jury for various offences. The first instance 
was in December, 1650. The testimony was as follows, namely : 

' Mr. Showell was walking in the foremost seat in the meeting-house neare 
the pulpit and Mr. Rogers being present and ready to step into the place to 
begin prayer, said, Mr. Showell, cease your walking. Mr. S. answered, you 
should have come sooner, with more words to that purpose, but he not ceasing 
his walking, presently our pastour added these words, remember where you 
are, this is the house of God, to which Mr. S. answered with a lowd voyce I 
know how to behave in the house of God as well as you. Then our pastour 
said rather than that he disturb the congregation, putt him out, to which Mr. S. 
replyed, lett us see who dare. After this a brother spake unto Mr. Showell in 
a friendly way, but Mr. S. with a stearne countenance and threatning manner 
saide he would take a course with some of us and in many other wordes we doe 
not now remember. Upon another Lord's day Mr. S. was walking, a part of 
the congregation being assembled, Mr. S. did exclaim thus with an audible 
voyce, looking up, good Lord, this day is spent I know not how, and nothing is 
yet done, expressing some trouble in other words.' , 

October. General court ordered, that ' the penalty for entertain- 
ing quakers should be forty shillings.' 

* ' The great rocke,' mentioned in the grant, stood where Mr. George Granger's store 
now stands, and was at least twenty feet high, 
t Town records, 
j: Roxbury church records. 



This year, it appears, incidentally, that the town contemplated 
building a new meeting-house, as a committee were appointed to 
sell Edward Woodman twelve acres of marsh, for which he 
* engages to pay either in boards or nayles or both for the meeting- 
house.' % 

At what time, precisely, the ' new meeting-house ' was built, no 
record informs us. It was, however, erected prior to 1661, as will 
be seen under that year. 

' Newbury upon their presentment for want of a lattin scoole is 
to pay five pounds to Ipswich lattin scool, unles they by the next 
court provyde a lattin scoole master according to law.' f 

This year, in May and October, there was great difficulty among 
the military companies of Newbury, which was finally settled by 
the general court, who ordered four persons ' to be severally admon- 
ished and pay the several charges of their neighbours the last 
court, namely, four pounds, eight shillings.' 

In this year, Salem paid fifty-three pounds, Ipswich seventy-two 
pounds, and Newbury thirty-four pounds, of the province rate. 


' William Trotter for slanderous speeches, to make publick 
acknowledgement next lecture day.' f 

October. Sixteen inhabitants of Newbury, and six of Dover, 
petition the general court to grant them i a tract of twelve miles 
square,' in a ' place called Pennecooke,' and < crave the liberty of 
three years to give in their resolution,' and, in case they determine 
to settle i a plantation soe far remote,' ' to have ye grant of their 
freedom from publique charge for ye space of seven years,' and so 
forth. The court granted them eight miles square, on certain con- 
ditions, with which they did not comply. < Pennecooke,' now 
Concord, was not settled till 1730, though the first white family 
moved there in 1727. 

* April thirtieth, old style, there was a great storme of snowe, 
which lay three or four inches thick upon May-day in the morning.' J 

This year several persons were prosecuted and* fined for violating 
the law of 1657, which prohibited ' entertaining quakers.' Among 
them was Thomas Macy, one of the first settlers of Newbury, but 
at this time a resident in Salisbury. Complaint having been made 
against him, he was summoned to appear before the general court, 
to answer the charges preferred against him. Instead of complying 
with the requisition, he sent a letter, of which the following is a 

* Proprietors' records. f County records. J Hampton records. 


.* This is to entreat the honored court not to be offended because of my non- 
appearance. It is not from any slighting the authority of this honored court, 
nor from feare to answer the case, but I have bin for some weeks past very ill, 
and am so at present, and notwithstanding my illness, yet I, desirous to appear, 
have done my utmost endeavour to hire a horse, but cannot procure one at 
present. I being at present destitute have endeavoured to purchase, but at 
present cannot attaine it. but I shall relate the truth of the case as my answer 
should be to ye honored court, and more cannot be proved, nor so much. On a 
rainy morning there came to my house Edward Wharton and three men more ; 
the said Wharton spoke to me saying that they were traveling eastward, and 
desired me to direct them in the way to Hampton, and asked me how far it was 
to Casco bay. I never saw any of ye men afore except Wharton, neither did I 
require their names, or who they were, but by their carriage I thought they 
might be quakers and told them so, and therefore desired them to passe on 
their way, saying to them I might possibly give offence in entertaining them, 
and as soone'as the violence of the rain ceased (for it rained very hard) they 
went away, and I never saw them since. The time that they stayed in the 
house was" about three quarters of an hour, but I can safely affirmeut was not 
an houre. They spake not many words in the time, neither was I at leisure to 
talke with them for I came home wet to ye skin immediately afore they came 
to the house, and I found my wife sick in bed. If this satish'e not the honored 
court, I sfyall subject to their sentence : I have not willingly offended. I am 
ready to serve and obey you in the Lord.' 


Notwithstanding this explanation and apology, he was fined 
thirty shillings, and was ordered to be admonished by the governor, 
for ' entertaining quakers,' two of whom, William Robinson and 
Marmaduke Stephenson, were hung in Boston, December twenty- 
seventh-, 1659. 

Tradition informs us, that Thomas Macy, immediately after his 
sentence, took an open boat, and with his wife and children, went 
to Nantucket, was one of the first English settlers in that island, 
and there resided the remainder of his life. An amusing ballad, 
founded on the above-mentioned incidents, was written by the poet 
J. G. Whittier, and published some years ago in a Philadelphia 
annual. See appendix. 


March 16A, old style. There was a very severe ' storm of driving 
snow, which drove up in drifts four feet deep.' f 

The winter of 1659-60 was ' a very hard winter.' f 

This year the county court * order a road from Rowley to Newbury 
by Richard Thurrell's bridge.' 

In September, a return was made of the road, which was laid 
out from the north end of Rowley to Thorla's bridge, and so on 
through the farms of Edmund Moore's and Robert Adams, then to 
Trotter's bridge, then to the meeting house of Newbury as Andover 
way is laid out.' if 

This year the general court granted to several inhabitants of 
Newbury, on their petition, a tract of land on Saco river, ' provided 
they have twenty families and a minister settled within four years.' 

* General court files. t Hampton records. J County records. 



January 28th. The selectmen agreed with Henry Jaques to 
' build a gallery in the new meeting house at both ends and all along 
on the west side with three substantiall seats all along both sides 
and ends, the said Henry Jaques shall fell the timber and provide 
all the stuff both planks, boards, rayles, and juyces and nayles and to 
bring the stuff all in place and make for it three payre of stayres and 
whatever else is requisite to compleate the said gallery, for which 
he is to have i thirty ^pounds in good current pay or provisions.' 
Also the said Henry Jaques shall have all the old stuffe of the old 
gallery in the old meeting house. The said Henry Jaques is also to 
lay a floore all over the meeting house from beame to beame and 
the towne doth engage to provide juyces, boards and nayles,' and 
so forth, and so forth. 

From this it is evident that both houses were standing at the 
same time. The old house stood north of the new one. 

June 22d. The selectmen discharged the lot layers, ' as there is 
no more land to be granted by the towne.' 

The same month, c the meeting house was seated,' as it was called. 
Every man and woman had his or her seat designated, the men and 
women in separate seats. The galleries were, as now, on the north, 
west, and south sides of the house, and were then considered as 
the most desirable parts of the house. In the foreseat of the west 
gallery, were thirteen men, 'which,' say the selectmen, ( are as many 
as can comfortably set in it, and no more may be imposed or 
intruded into it.' 

September 23d. Plum island was divided, to 'every one his 
just right,' ' beginning at the upland neere Merrimack barre and so 
extending to Sandy beach.' 

September 25th. Another division was made, ' beginning at 
Rowley bounds and reaching to Sandy beach.' 
~ March 9th. General court repeal the laws against quakers. 

Charles second proclaimed king, the eighth of August. 

The following singular order is found in the Hampton records. 
It is a curious illustration of the state of society at that period. 

May I6th } 1661. ' It is ordered yt if any person shall discharge a gunn in 
the meeting house, or any other house without leave of the owner or house 
holder, hee or they shall forfeit five shillings for every such offence nor shall 
any person ride or lead a horse into the meeting house under the like penalty.' 


This year another physician, doctor Henry Greenland, with his 
wife Mary, came to Newbury. He appears to have to have been a 
man of good education, but passionate, unprincipled, and grossly 
immoral. He of course soon became involved in difficulties with 


his neighbors, and caused great excitement among the sober citizens 
of the town, who had not been accustomed to such specimens of 
immorality, as he had displayed before them. 

' It pleased the Lord/ says the apostle Elliot, * to exercise the 
country with a very severe drought, which some were so rash as to 
impute to the sitting of the synod, but the Lord was pleased to bear 
witness against their rashness, for no sooner was the synod met, June 
tenth, but they agreed to set the next day apart to seek his favorable 
presence, and to ask raine, and ye day following the Lord sent 
showers from heaven, and visited the land with seasonable showers 
of rain, week after week until the harvest.' # 

March 3d. ' The marsh lands in the neck over the great river were 
divided as the lands were in Plum island, beginning at the west 
end.' f 

This year the highway from Newbury to Haverhill was laid out. 

' John Atkinson [hatter] had half an acre of land by the spring 
near Anthony Morse, junior's, house.' f 

Newbury was fined ten pounds for not sending a deputy to general 
court. It was afterward remitted. 

Captain Paul White was licensed by general court l to still strong 
waters for a yeare and sell by the quart.' J 

The county court ordered the road by Thorla's bridge, to be made 
passable by the twelfth of October, 1662, under penalty of ten pounds. 

On the twenty-ninth of March, an event occurred in Ipswich, 
which caused great excitement in Essex county. On that day, one 
J. P. was incarcerated in Ipswich, and i did that night break prison/ 
1 it being,' as the record informs us, < the first offence of this nature 
committed in this country.' 

The jailer, Theophilus Wilson, deposes, that, on that day, 4 he, 
according to order of court, put him into prison, and lockt the dore 
fast, and put the hasp on to the staple on the ontsyde of the dore^ 
which none within can unhasp, and left no tooles or means of light 
in the prison.' J 

It was afterward discovered that some of J. P.'s neighbors, not 
liking his confinement, went to Ipswich in the night, ' nnhasped the 
dore on the outsyde] and so forth, and let him return home. 

In the quarterly court records, I find the following : 

( We, James Ordway, John Woolcot. Peter Godfrey and Joshua Woodman, 
do acknowledge that we are justly to be blamed to come into the seats of other 
men contrary to the order of the selectmen and here by the presents we do 
engage ourselves that we will keep to our own seats and not disturb any man in 
their seats any more.' i This engagement was unto the selectmen the sixth of 
June 1662.' 

The cause of their offence was an apprehension that the select- 
men had, without sufficient authority from the town, built some new 
seats in the gallery and assigned them to some individuals. They 

* Roxbury church records. f Town records. J General court records. 



therefore took possession of these seats, to which the selectmen had 
not given them any right. Hence there was a contention in the 
meeting-house, a summons for them to appear at court, and a set- 
tlement by their promise to behave better in time to come. 

' The winter was very moderate. No frost in the ground till the 
twentieth of December.' * 


' January 26th. There was an earthquake, at the shutting in of 
the evening,' one of the greatest in New England, and on February 
fifth, another. The first shock continued above half an hour. On 
the same day, at evening, another, and did not cease till July 

On the records of the court at Salem, I find the following, namely : 

' May 5th, 1663. Lydia Wardwell on her presentment for coming naked into 
Newbury meeting house. The sentence of the court is, that she shall be 
severely whipt and pay the costs and fees to the marshall of Hampton for 
bringing her. Costs, ten shillings, fees two shillings and sixpence. 

The maiden name of the person, who was induced to make such 
an exhibition in Newbury meeting-house, in the time of worship, 
was Lydia Perkins, but at this time the wife of Eliakim Wardwell 
of Hampton. The story is thus told by George Bishop, in his 
i New England Judged.' It is proper to state, that, so far as I 
know, he is, with one exception, the only writer, who attempts to 
justify conduct so strange and fanatical. 

1 His wife Lydia, being a young and tender chaste woman, seeing the wick- 
edness of your priests and rulers to her husband, was not at all oftended with 
the truth, but as your wickedness abounded, so she withdrew and separated 
from your church at Newbury, of w r hich she was sometimes a member, and 
being given up fo the leading of the Lord, after she had been often sent for to 
come thither, to give a reason of such a separation, it being at length upon her 
in the consideration of their miserable condition, who were thus blinded with 
ignorance and persecution, to go to them, and as a sign to them she went in 
(though it was exceeding hard to her modest and shamefaced disposition,) 
naked amongst them, which put them into such a rage, instead of consideration, 
they soon laid hands on her, and to the next court at Tpswich had her, where 
without law they condemned her to be tyed to the fence-post of the tavern 
where they sat and there sorely lashed her with twenty or thirty cruel stripes. 
And this is the discipline of the church of Newbury in New England, and this 
is their religion, and their usage of the handmaid of the Lord, who in a great 
cross to her natural temper, came thus among them, a sign indeed, signincatory 
enough to them, and suitable to their state, who undei r the visor of religion, 
were thus blinded into cruel persecution.' 

In the same year I find the following, namely : 

1 Elizabeth Webster for taking a faulse oath. The sentence of the court is that 
she shall stand at the meeting house dore at Newbury the next lecture day 

* Hampton records. 


from the ringing the first bell, until the minister be ready to begin prayer 
with a paper on her head, written in capitall letters, (FOR TAKING A FALSE OATH 
IN COURT,) the constable to see it done, or else to paye a fine of five pounds to 
the treasurer, and to be disabled from taking an oath, and to pay cost and fees.' 
1 She made choice to stand at the doore.' * 

At the same court, ' John Emery was fined four pounds for enter- 
taining quakers.' 

His offence consisted in granting food and lodging to two men 
and two women, who were traveling farther east. One of the 
witnesses ' testified that he [John Emery] took them by the hand 
and bid them welcome.' I shall make no comments on these extracts, 
nor any apology for inserting them. The duty of an historian is to 
find facts, and not to make them. An accurate picture of the sun 
should exhibit its spots as well as its brightness. To veil the one, 
or omit the other, \vould be a caricature, and not a likeness, and, 
should the features I have attempted to delineate, here or elsewhere, 
be deemed harsh and repulsive, the blame should be cast, not on the 
accuracy of the painter, but the inherent ugliness of the subject 
The first settlers of New England were a noble race of men, and 
the wonder is, not that they had faults, but that they were so few in 
comparison with all other sects and people of the age in which they 
lived. *In the language of Bancroft, ' they, of all contemporary sects, 
were the most free from credulity, and in their zeal for reform pushed 
their regulations to what some would consider a skeptical extreme. 
So many superstitions had been bundled up with every venerable 
institution of Europe, that ages have not yet dislodged them all. 
The puritans at once emancipated themselves from a crowd of 
observances. They established a worship purely spiritual. To 
them the elements remained but bread and wine ; they invoked no 
saints ; they raised no altar ; they adored no crucifix ; they kissed 
no book ; they asked no absolution ; they paid no tithes ; they saw 
in the priest nothing more than a man. The church, as a place of 
worship was to them but a meeting house ; they dug no graves in 
consecrated earth. Unlike their posterity, they married without a 
minister, and buried the dead without a prayer.' 

On March thirty-first, doctor Henry Greenland was found guilty 
of the charge preferred against him by Mary Rolfe. The court 
sentenced him c to be imprisoned till next sessions of the court, then 
to be whipt or pay a fine of thirty pounds and be bound to good 

One of the witnesses in his behalf, testified, that ' he had been a 
soldier, and was a gentleman, and they must have their libertyes.' 
Another asserted, that, as he was a stranger, and a ' great man, it 
would be best not to make an uprore but to let him goe away 

On the twenty-seventh of September, 1664, he was convicted, with 
captain Walter*Barefoote, of an assault on William Thomas, and 

* County records. 


Richard Dole. He was again fined and bound to keep the peace. 
He appealed to the general court, who confirmed his sentence, and 
ordered him ' to depart the jurisdiction and not to practice physic or 
surgery.' From 1666 to 1672 he was living in Kittery, where, for 
the present, we will leave him. 

June 18th. John and Rebecca Bishop sold to Peter Cheney * all 
the mill and mill house lately erected in Newbury on the little river 
with the stone, wheel, and so forth, and so forth, for two hundred and 
fifty pounds sterling.' 

July 26th. This day the reverend John Woodbridge returned 
from England, where he had resided about sixteen years. 

He was immediately engaged to assist his uncle Parker in 
preaching. The town voted him thirty pounds for the first half year, 
beginning the twenty-fifth of September, ' for his encouragement in 
the ministry.' 

November 10th. ' The country way according to order of court 
was laid out from Mill bridge to Rowley bounds,' notwithstanding 
the town's remonstrance. 

As this < country way ' was laid out in a new place, causing the 
town much expense, the inhabitants had remonstrated in a petition 
sent to the general court the preceding June. Among other things, 
they state, 'wee have already for many yeares made and maintained 
an ancient country rode according to the order of the general court, 
according to which our towne hath been modelled and men have 
built and fenced, and also our ferry constituted, whereas our towne 
might otherwise have been modelled with groat convenience, had it 
not been for the country high way. All which notwithstanding, the 
honorable county court is pleased to impose upon us this new coun- 
try high way, and have enjoined us under a fine to make a way 
over a great marsh of about a hundred rod by the end of June, 
which the towne are in no wise comfortably capable to perform.' 
After speaking of 'the extreme charge, which the towne necessarily 
would be put to,' ' in purchasing land through men's proprietyes near 
three mile,' which must be fenced, and bridges built over several con- 
siderable swamps and small brooks, and so forth, ' beside the miry- 
nesse of the said waye and unevenness of it by reason of the rocky 
and low lande, through which the way is to goe,' they then petition 
the general court, * that so great a burthen may not be imposed 
upon us but that the country may be satisfied with the old antient 
country roade, which we have from the beginninge of our towne 
maintained,' or ' that their fine may be remitted, and that the said 
new waye may be purchased, made and maintained at the charge 
of the country or county, or by those that have occasion to make 
use thereof.' June second, 1663. 

Jocelyn, who was in New England this year, thus writes : 

* On the south side of Merrimack river, and near upon the wide 
venting streams thereof, is situated Newberrie. The houses are 
scattering, well stored with meadow, upland, and arable, and about 
four hundred head of cattle.' 



March. On petition of lieutenant John Pike, an acre of ' land, 
eight rods broad and twenty-two long was laid out to his brother 
Thomas Turvill, beginning at a stake near the spring between 
Henry Jaques' and George Littles' for to set up tanning of leather, 
provided he follow his trade of tanning.' # 

May 6th. l All horses and dry cattle to be cleared out of Plum 
island, and all fences to be made up by the thirteenth of May.' # 

July 6th. ' Giles Cromwell is to keep the boys in order in the 
meeting house, and to give notice to selectmen of such as are out 
of order, and to have six shillings for his paynes.' # 

October 26th. ' Major part of the towne voted that Mr. Parker 
should have but sixty pounds per year.' * 

Here we have indirectly the first intimation of any difficulty 
between the reverend Mr. Parker and a portion of the church. It 
had been of long standing, and originated, as we shall see hereafter, 
not from any difference in point of doctrine, or want of personal 
respect and esteem, but solely from his change of views respecting 
church government. Then- first recorded manifestation of their 
disapproval of this change was the reduction of his salary, but the 
next June, their sense of justice induced them to raise it again to 
eighty pounds, per annum, which, notwithstanding all the subse- 
quent difficulties, in which he was involved in consequence of his 
change of opinion respecting church government and discipline, 
was regularly paid to him through life. 

June 26th." 'About this time began the blasting of the wheat to be 
perceived.' f This was construed by the quakers as a judgment 
from God, an evident token of his displeasure against the people 
of Massachusetts for the cruel persecutions, which had been inflicted 
on many of that persuasion in the state some years before. Similar 
opinions were at this time entertained by all denominations of 
Christians. If any calamity should fall upon their opponents, it was 
a judgment ; if on themselves, it was a trial. 


' Town voted to pay forty shillings for every wolf that is killed 
within the towne.' ^ 

June 3d. Town voted that Mr. Parker ' shall have eighty pounds 
a year, and Mr. Woodbridge sixty pounds.' 

November 1st. c It was voted whether Mr. Woodbridge should 
be chosen by papers to preach to the towne for one year. There 
were four votes in the affirmative and thirty-one blanks.' ^ 

December 25th. Anthony Morse, senior, is to keep the meeting- 
house and ring the bell, ' see that the house be cleane swept, and the 

* Town records. t Roxbury church records. 


glasse of the windows to be carefully look't unto, if any should 
happen to be loosed with the wind, to be nailed close again.' * 

4 The winter of 1664-65 was mild and moderate till the middle of 
the month. On the fourth of February a comet disappeared, which 
had been visible from the seventeenth of November 1664.' 

' Winter and summer wheat, again struck with mildew.' f 

At the close of this summer, Philip Carteret, having been appointed 
governor of New Jersey, settled at Elizabethtown, which he made 
the seat of his government, and despatched agents into New Eng- 
land to publish the constitution and invite emigrants. In conse- 
quence of this invitation, several persons went from Newbury and 
settled in a township, which, in honor of the reverend John Wood- 
bridge, of Newbury, was called Woodbridge, which name it still 
retains. Of these emigrants from Newbury some returned, while 
others remained, and became distinguished both in civil and military 
life. Among them may be mentioned the names of captain John 
Pike, the ancestor of general Zebulon Montgomery Pike, who was 
killed at the battle of Queenstown in 1812, Thomas Bl cornfield, the 
ancestor of Joseph Bloomfield, for some years governor of New 
Jersey, John Bishop, senior and junior, Jonathan Haynes, Henry 
Jaques, George March, Stephen Kent, Abraham Toppan, junior, 
Elisha Ilsley, Hugh March, John Bloomfield, Samuel Moore, 
Nathaniel Webster, John Ilsley, and others. 

Daniel Pierce bought a tract of land in New Jersey of Mr. Ogden 
JLuke Watson, and sold it to Henry Jaques. 

This year Thomas Thorlay killed seven wolves in Newbury. 


' March 8th. Liberty was granted to such as would build a 
shelter for horses, by goodman [Abraham] Toppan's fence, provided 
they do not make it above twelve foot high.' ^ 

March 13th. The town ordered that a small ' house shall be built 
for shelter of the herdsmen, and a large pen for the cattle, and two 
herdsmen shall attend the cattle all summer to keep them from 
coming to the lower commons [below Artichoke river] and pen 
them, every night.' ^ 

April 25th. ' Voted that Mr. Parker's eighty pounds by the yeare 
should be paid him yearly and Mr. Woodbridge to have sixty pounds 
a year till further order/ ^ 

' An army of caterpillars came this season, and a severe drought.' 
4 Wheat mildewed again.' f ' The canker worm first appeared in 
New England this year,' 

* Town records. t Roxbury church records. 



' At a general meeting of the town, March first, Mr. 
was voted (man by man called over,) to have sixty pounds a year 
for preaching.' * 

4 Winter very moderate, little snow or bad weather.' 


In June the selectmen and other inhabitants of Newbury petitioned 
the court at Salem that ' captain Paul White be licensed to sell 
wine out of dores by retaile for the necessary relief of some sick or 
other indigent persons by whom the churches exigencies have sundry 
times been supplied, who also may the more conveniently accom- 
modate the churches occasions from time to time, until some man 
be licensed to keep ordinary here.' 

By this it appears, that, at this time, there was no ' ordinary,' or, in 
other words, no tavern in Newbury. From other documents in the 
general court records we learn that it was difficult, and for a time 
impossible, to induce any person to open a public house for the 
accommodation of travelers, and so forth. At last Hugh March 
consented to leave his farm and commence the tavern keeping on a 
large scale in the year 1670. His expenses, as he himself informs 
us, for fitting up his house, stables, and so forth, were more than 
five hundred pounds a large sum for those days. His stand, 
which was, for many years, a noted place, was near the head of 
Marlborough street, on the spot where Messrs. John and Stephen 
Ilsley now reside. In 1673 he petitioned c against Paul White's 
selling wine,' stating that ' so it is that captain White under colour 
of providing the sacrament wines, doth frequently retaile wines unto 
the inhabitants and others to the damage and disabling your petitioner.' 

The quantity of wine used on sacramental occasions during the 
year, was. as we shall hereafter see, very great. 

*March '2'L Town voted counting man by man, that Mr. Wood- 
bridge shall have sixty pounds a yeare for his preaching.' ^ This 
was continued till May twenty-first, 1670, when the town voted that 
* the order should be void.' * 

In this year the meeting-house was again ' seated,' and a watch- 
house built on the east side of the upper green. 

March. l The town ordered that no horses shall be tyed within 
side or without side the fence 'by the meeting-house gate, ( under 
penalty ^^^^^ for each offence.' ^ 

- Tradition informs us that the meeting-house was surrounded with 
' pales,' through which, by a gate or gates, the meeting-house was 
entered. Near these gates the horses were tied, and they would 
frequently get across the path, often to the great inconvenience of 

* Town records. 


those, who wished to go to ' meeting.' This induced the selectmen 
to prohibit all persons from tying their horses outside of the fence. 
To their great surprise, however, they found on the next public 
meeting, several horses ' tyed ' inside the fence. This caused them 
to make the order above-mentioned, forbidding all persons hereafter 
to tie their horses any where, either inside the fence or out. Thus 
much tradition, which derives some confirmation from the order 
just mentioned, a great part of which on the origininal record, is 
entirely illegible. V 

December 3d. i The selectmen granted liberty to five persons to 
build a pew for their wives at the east end of the south gallery to 
the pulpit.' ^ This was probably the first pew ever built in the 
' meeting house.' 

December 21s. A road was laid out ' from Goodwin's ferry to 
Amesbury mill,' and ' one from Newbury to Rowley village,' now 

April. Salisbury new town was called Amesbury, and a ferry 
established there.f 


The ecclesiastical difficulties, with which, in a greater or less 
degree, the whole town had been agitated for the last twenty-four 
years, had at this time arisen to such a height, that an appeal to the 
civil authority was deemed necessary in order to adjust their differ- 
ences and restore harmony among them. The primary cause of 
the disturbances, was a change of sentiment, which Messrs. Parker 
and Noyes manifested, respecting church government and discipline, 
as early as 1645, as may be seen in the former part of this book. 
In 1647 Mr. Noyes published in London a large quarto work of 
ninety-five pages, entitled the ' Temple measured or a brief survey 
of the Temple mystical, which is the instituted church of Christ.' 
Of the author, the preface, written by another hand, thus speaks : ' he 
is altogether free from a spirit of faction, seeking only truth and 
satisfaction; and therefore he hath ingeniously laid down his 
judgment, which is in some things coincident with the judgment 
of the reverend presbyters of New England ; in some things con- 
senting with our reverend assembly here 'in England and in some 
things distant from them both ; being neither for Aristotle, nor for 
Plato, but for truth; neither for Paul nor for Apollos but for Christ.' 

The sentiments of Mr. Noyes may be learned from the following 
extracts from the work above mentioned. 

' The church is to be carried, not to carry ; to obey, not to com- 
mand; to be subject, not to govern.' In another place he thus 
writes : ' if all members, young and old, children and men, if thou- 
sands together must judge and govern upon conscience together 
with the presbytery, first, it must needs interrupt the work. Second, 

* Town records. t Colonial records. 


it is work enough, a double labour for the elders to instruct the 
church how to judge. There is more time spent in informing the 
church, than in determining the case. Must elders hold the hands 
of the common members (as the master teacheth scholars to write) 
and act only by them ? Third, pride is an epidemical disease in a dem- 
ocratical government Who is sufficient to hold the reins of author- 
ity ? Where there are no standing magistrates in the commonwealth, 
and in the church, no governors at all, the offspring is like to be 
an Ichabod. Fourth, confusion and disorder are inevitable. Turbo, 
ruunt. The church ought to be a pattern of punctual order. A 
democracie is called by Plato, nundines populares. Fifth, as a 
church must needs be too long a doing by so many, when it is easy, 
so it must needs be done too soon by such as are precipitant, when 
it is difficult. Some are conscientious and scrupulous, others 
unreasonable, ignorant, youthful. This is a paidocracy as well as a 
democracy. The seat of government is the seat of wisdom.' 

Similar sentiments were embraced, we have reason to believe, by 
Messrs. Parker and Woodbridge. Of the former, the reverend 
Nicholas Noyes, in his letter in the Magnalia, expressly says : * he 
no ways approved of a governing vote in the fraternity, but took 
their consent in a silential way.' Of his uncle, Mr. James Noyes, 
he thus writes : ' they who differed from him in smaller matters^as 
to discipline, held a most amicable correspondence with him,' and that 
during the time of his ministry, which ended by his death in 1656, 
there was not ' any considerable trouble in the church.' That occa- 
sional difficulties had arisen between the ministers and the people, 
we have sufficient testimony. Differing as they did on the question 
into whose hands the power of church discipline was committed, 
occasions of disagreement must of necessity have arisen, especially 
among a people so tenacious of their supposed rights, and so 
exceedingly jealous of every real or apparent encroachment on 
their power. After the return of Mr. John Woodbridge from Eng- 
land, in 1663, he was employed by the town to assist his uncle 
Parker in preaching. We find no record of any difficulty between 
them and the people, till November first, 1665, when the record 
informs us, that thirty-five votes ' by papers,' were cast, of which 
four votes were for him, and thirty-five were blanks. Mr. Wood- 
bridge continued to preach to the people, by an annual vote of the 
town, with a salary of sixty pounds a year, till November twenty- 
first, 1670, when the town agreed to employ him no longer. From 
1665 to 1669, there is great reason to believe, that the whole church 
and town were in a very excited and unbrotherly state, not from any 
dislike to the doctrine, or objection 'to the character, of either Mr. 
Parker or Mr. Woodbridge, for they were both highly esteemed, 
and honored, but from a real or supposed infringement of their 
rights and privileges as men and Christians. The church was divided 
into two nearly equal parties, the one was called Mr. Parker's party, 
and the other, Mr. Woodman's party, so called from Mr. Edward 
Woodman, a man of talents, influence, firmness, and decision. As 


our church records prior to 1674 have been lost or destroyed, we 
extract the following detailed account from the records of the quarterly 
court at Salem, where they may be found on file. 

' To the honored court now sitting at Ipswich, March thirtieth, 1669.' 

' We whose names are underwritten, for ourselves and others the inhabi- 
tants of Newbury, doe humbly present, though to our great grief, that Mr. 
Edward Woodman spake in a town assembly before strangers publiquely on 
March first, 1669, that Mr. John Woodb ridge was an intruder, brought in by 
craft and subtilty, and so kept in, notwithstanding he was voated out twice, 
which we know to be untrue, and look upon as scandalous. Also he said to Mr. 
Parker that he was an apostate and backslider from the truth, that he would set 
up a prelacy, and have more power than the pope, for the pope had his council 
of cardinals, that his practice or actings did not tend to peace or salvation, that 
he was the cause of all our contention and misery. That you are an apostate 
and backslider.' 

i Also he said to captain Gerrish that he was no lover of the truth, that his 
gray hairs would stand where captain Gerrish his bald pate would, all which we 
humbly conceive tends not only to the reproach of the parties concerned, but 
to the great disturbance of our peace both civil and ecclesiastical, and therefore 
leave it to the serious consideration of this honored court for some suitable 
redress as they shall think meet. 

Witnesses. HENRY SHORT. 




THOMAS HALE, senior. 



The following depositions were also taken and put on file : 

( The deposition of James Ordway, Abraham Merrill, and John Bayley.' 
' These deponents say that when Mr. Woodman saith that Mr. Parker was 
the occasion of these contentions by his apostacy and declension (he added) 
from the principles that you have preached and practised, and also proved by 
the word of God, that men's consciences were engaged in it that they cannot 
depart from it unto this day.' 

1 Sworn in court, the thirtieth of March, 1669.' 

1 Richard Bartlet, James Ordway, and John Emery.' 

' We testify that Mr. Parker in a public meeting said that for the time to come 
I am resolved nothing shall be brought into the church, but it shall be brought 
first to me, and if I approve of it, it shall be brought in, if I do not approve 
it, it shall not be brought in.' 

Sworn as above. 

' The depositions of John Emery, senior, John Emery, junior, Abraham 
Merrill, and John Bayley.' 

1 These deponents say that as Mr. Woodman was speaking in the meeting, 
March first, 1669, captain Gerrish stood up and interrupted him, mentioning 
his gray hairs. Mr. Woodman said, captain Gerrish, my gray hairs will stand 
in any place where your bald head will stand.' 

Sworn as above. 

' The deposition of William Titcomb, John Emery, Robert Coker and Thomas 

1 These deponents say that upon the Lord's day, the twenty-first of March, 
1669, after the exercise was ended, Mr. Parker put this to the members. 


That those that are for the discontinuance of my cousin Woodbridsre in the wav 
of preaching, as formerly he hath done until farther order be taken, let them 

Afterwards Mr. Parker expressed thus, those that are for the continuance of 
my cousin Woodbridge in the way of preaching as formerly he hath done let 
them express themselves by their' silence.' 

Sworn, and so forth. 

See also the testimony of Pike, Brown, Emery, and others, in the 
first part of this book, pages sixteen and seventeen. 

To the complaint made against him to the court at Ipswich, Mr. 
Woodman replied. This occasioned the following answer from Mr. 
Parker's friends. 

1 Whereas Mr. Edward Woodman in his plea or answer to the charges 
exhibited against him hath laboured to prove Mr. Woodbridge to be voted from 
preaching by a town record dated March first, 1665, the honoured court may 
please to consider, first, it doth not appear that any notice was given to the 
inhabitants of that particular respecting Mr. Woodbridge's preaching and so the 
vote, if unanimous, had been invalid. 

' Second, the vote as they call it consists of two parts. First, whether Mr. 
Woodbridge should be chosen to preach to the town for one year. Second, 
whether he should be chosen by papers. In which it may be observed that the 
vote was not understood for near half of the company stood off from both as not 
willing to have it questioned about silencing or calling Mr. Woodbridge from 
preaching, namely to the number of thirty-one persons, and of them that did vote 
by papers the record saith, and Mr. Woodbridge acknowledgeth, that four of them 
were for Mr. Woodbridge's preaching, which, if it be taken for a legal vote, the 
vote was for Mr. Woodbridge : s preaching. These things considered we humbly 
conceive there will be no footing found for what Mr. Woodman and others labour 
to cloud the matter withal. 3 

After hearing the evidence on both sides, the court pronounced 
the following sentence : 

{ March 30th, 1669. Having heard the complaint presented to this court 
against Mr. Edward Woodman we do judge some passages relating to Mr. 
Parker and Mr. Woodman to be false and scandalous, and that concerning 
captain Gerrish reproachful and provoking, and the whole greatly offensive, and 
have therefore ordered that the said Mr. Woodman shall be seriously and 
solemnly admonished and enjoined to make a publique confession at the next 
publique town and church meeting at Newbury of his sinful expressions and 
just offence that he hath given, or else to pay five pounds costs and fees. 

' I dissent from this sentence, Samuel Symonds. 
( And I dissent, William Hathorne. 

Mr. Woodman appealed from this judgment, to the next court of 
assizes at Boston. 

From this it appears that the court were not unanimous in their 
sentence against Mr. Woodman. This is farther evident from the 
following communication. 

1 This court having heard the complaint made unto us by certayne members 
of the church of Newbury against Mr. Edward Woodman (a member of the 
same church) of several offensive words spoken by the said Woodman in a 
town meeting against the reverend Mr. Parker then pastor, and Mr. Woodbridge, 


who hath for divers years exercised his gifts amongst thom ; and having 
heard the answer of the said Woodman unto the particulars expressed in the 
complaint and weighing the testimonies on both sides sworn in the case, w T e 
apprehend and judge as followeth namely. That several words and passages 
in the writing or complaint presented to the court and owned by himself or 
proved by others, especially taken merely in themselves without his answer and 
the testimony of others then present, are highly offensive and scandalous. But 
considering his answers and the testimony together with the same, w T e find the 
matter to be much altered from what the naked words as they are expressed in 
the writing do hold forth. We perceive that a great part (if not a greater part) 
of that church doe stand for the congregational way of church government and 
discipline to be exercised amongst them (which is the way the churches here 
doe professe to the w r hole world to be the way and only way according to 
the gospel of Christ,) and that it is and hath been for a long time a very great 
burthen and grievance to them, that they have not freedom in that respect, 
(where there is occasion of actings) as by the word of God they ought to have, 
and other churches have in this country, and at the beginning their own church 
also quietly did enjoy for some space of time, and that the alteration hath 
occasioned much differences and unquietudes amongst them. The whole case 
thus considered and \veighed together the court doth desire and require that all 
persons concerned on both sides, for the future doe their utmost endeavour to 
settle truth and peace amongst them and freely to blame themselves at a con- 
venient church meeting for their errors and miscarriages and actings or 
unbecoming words in their publique agitations, and that Mr. Woodman in 
particular should soe doe.' 

This was presented to this court as a suitable determination of the whole 
case, heard in open court holden at Ipswich March thirtieth, 1669, to which we 


This 'determination of the whole case/ by Messrs. Symonds 
and Hathorne, did not, as will be readily supposed, give satisfaction 
to either party, especially to the friends of Mr. Parker. On the 
contrary, those who had complained to the court, against Mr. 
Woodman, soon after sent in the following paper. 

{ To the honored court now sitting at Ipswich this twenty-eighth of 
April 1669. 

' Whereas upon searching the court records we find a paper in the court 
beginning [this court having heard the complaynt and so forth] subscribed 
Samuel Symonds, William Hathorne, wherein are several things charged, as 
we apprehend illegally, on sundry among us, to our just grief, we desire the 
favour of the court to accept this our paper, as a short vindication of ourselves, 
till the opportunity shall be offered for our farther clearing. 

t First, we look not on the paper as the determination or sentence of the 
court, which, had it been, we durst not in any measure have replyed, or contra- 

1 Second, nor did we think it any legal evidence towards the issue of the 
case, in which Mr. Woodman was presented for his miscarriage. 

'Third, nor can we think it any legal charge to answer whereunto any 
persons were summoned, or made any answer to ; or if it were a censure w r e 
know not that ever it was first examined, and indeed w r e know not what to 
make of it, but think it very hard to be in such a matter taxed before we were 

' Whether the said gentlemen w r ere the authors of it or no we cannot tell, 
neither dare we affirm, yet finding such a paper wherein there is so great 
reproof by false accusation insinuated against divers amongst us, we intreat the 
court to accept our complaint, that we suppose ourselves illegally dealt with, 


seeing that our law assures us of this liberty among other, that no man's name 
shall be blasted, but by virtue or equity of some law established among us. 

We acknowledge that no man is mentioned by name : yet when any man 
is so decyphered, that any man. who reads it, may easily ghesse [guess] who is 
intended there is lawful cognisance in law of such infamyes. unless the person 
shall publickly disown it ; else how shall men be righted against infamous 
libels t 

' These things being premised we desire the liberty of freemen to put in our 
plea against such a paper of accusation as we find, with all due submission to 
the court. 

First, we judge our case exceedingly prejudiced, that it is insinuated in 
the preamble, that the complaynt is betwixt some members of the church, as 
if the cause were merely ecclesiastical. We grant the persons interested on 
both sides to be such, yet the cause presented is civil and criminal, not arising 
from some difference of opinion about discipline, but a publick breach of the 
peace against the plain words, as well as the intention, of the laws, which 
breach of the peace and violation of the law, as freemen of this jurisdiction we 
present to the cognizance of authority, desiring the redress of so great an evil, 
which authority in other like cases hath taken notice of with just indignation. 

' Second, we humbly conceive, that if the words taken in themselves are 
highly offensive and scandalous the defendants' answer hath not made them to 
be good, though he may pretend they may arise from difference of opinion, 
for as we must not lie. neither must we slander, for God and his cause. His 
putting of a fayr glosse will never make good by words, [that] which is evil 
by deeds, no more than a quaker pretending conscience for reviling. 

{ Third, we humbly present this to consideration that whereas the presenters 
of the said Mr. Woodman did out of duty to God, his ministers and the law, 
bring the case to the trial of justice, that for the time to come such irregulari- 
ties, which tended to mutiny, and tumult might be prevented. We humbly 
conceive the sentence of the said paper is such as that it takes off the blame 
from the person presented, is a fact evident enough, else we know not the 
meaning of those words. ' we find the matter much altered,' and loads the 
plaintiffs and others of the church, ministers, and people with far greater crimes 
than either Mr. Woodbridge hath done or ever justly could doe. yet can we 
not find in any of the testimonies any one that proves in matter of fact any of 
the conclusions, on which such a censure should be grounded. Somewhat it 
may be there fell from Mr. Woodman in his speech, which among other false- 
hoods by him charged on us, might give a hint of such a thing, yet we suppose 
such a speech is far too weak to infer such conclusions, as the paper seems to 
brand us with. Such as these. 

First, it intimates that though a great or greater part of the church stand 
for the congregational way of church government and discipline, yet according 
as other churches doe enjoy it, as the way of God, they cannot, which in point 
of fact is utterly denied. 

1 Second, that they have not their freedom to vote, or act, according to the 
word of God. or according as other churches, or as themselves heretofore had, 
which, if it were true, as the paper seems to accept it for a truth, were such a 
scandal, as justly deserved reproof and censure, for that they who do it would 
be accounted sacrilegious robbers of the churches, yet we assure ourselves that 
none of the opposites dare affirm it. it being so notoriously and evidently false. 
Let any act within twenty years or upwards be produced of this nature, that 
hath been carried on without the churches' consent or the major part thereof. 
We can evidence that Mr. Parker hath been blamed for bringing things of too 
meane a nature to the churches examination, and strangers have taken notice of 
the over much liberty of some in church actings. 

t Third, we hope we have not deserved to be noted as a singular people 
contrary to the professed persuasion and practice of all the churches which we 
know not what the intimation of such a charge should aim at. but to raise an 
odium on us in the country when we are innocent of any such thing. 

' Fourth, then the alteration hath caused much difference and unquietness 
among those, which by the intimation lights on the plaintiffs, or ministers, who 


have made the alteration, which is as false as the rest, yet the difference in 
this case to be considered arises only from the manner of testifying the assent 
or dissent of the church, not from, any substantial disagreement. Near thirty 
years since at a synod at Cambridge it was proposed, and it was consented 
unto by them, that if the ministers thought it most convenient to vote by speech 
and silence, rather than by lifting up the hand, they had nothing against it, 
seeing the one was a testimony of consent as well as the other, so this kind of 
voting began and continued in practice without difference or interruption for a 
good season. Afterwards when some difference arose at Newbury that there 
w r as need of a council, this among other things was pat in, and in fine it was 
concluded and consented to by the people that things should be carried on in 
this manner without disturbance. A third time near six years since there being 
occasion of a council at Newbury (in all which transactions Mr. Woodman was 
the chief instrument to oppose the minister) this among other differences came 
into discourse. The same conclusion was as before that things should be car- 
ried on in this way with love and peace, yet several times since and more 
strongly now at last, Mr. Woodman by violence of opposition hath made open 
protestation and resistance against it ; and no disturbance or alteration hath 
been made but by them against a thing so long used and approved, and so we 
leave it to any impartial judgment to determine who is the cause of that altera- 
tion, which hath occasioned so much difference and unquietness, which though 
it be imputed to the plaintiffs, yet we suppose it rather to be to the unquiet and 
turbulent spirits of the opposites, and let any man judge whether this course 
only (for there is no other) be a sufficient cause of complaining of so great a 




From subsequent events it is evident, that the action of the court 
on the complaint exhibited against Mr. Woodman by the friends of 
Mr. Parker, was not attended by any beneficial results. This, without 
doubt, was partly owing to the fact, that the magistrates who had 
cognizance of the case were divided in opinion. So far from resting 
satisfied with the decision, or decisions, of the court, as the case 
might be, each party returned home, confident of the rectitude and 
justice of their cause, and determined not to submit to the other. 
Each party claimed to be the church, as each claimed to have a 
majority of the members. 

' So sit two kings of Brentford on one throne, 
United ; yet divided, twain in one.' 

On the third of November, a council was called, who thus report : 

1 November 5th, 1669. We, the elders and messengers of our respective 
churches, (who in answer to your desires expressed in your letter to them have 
sent us hither where accordingly we have convened,) in the deep sense of your 
soul afflicted state, the difficulty and intricacy of the matters before us our 
own insufficiency to reach the narrows comprehended in your questions and 
case, as it is circumstanced in the momentousness both of the nature of your 
proposals and the issues of our answers in way of advice and determination 
therein, have earnestly sought the face of the great Counsellor of his people, 
and implored the mercy of the hearer of prayers in these so weighty concerns 
to his name, the order of his house, the peace and welfare both of this and of 
the rest of your churches. And in the awful apprehension of the all-seeing eye 


upon us, as in all our transactions about the case presented to us, and of the 
solemn account, which we must one day give thereof to the highest Lord and 
Judge of quick and dead, after solemn and serious considerations had, and 
disquisitions and searches made, of and into the particulars presented to us, we 
have been moved, and. as we trust by the Holy Ghost to accord and issue in 
this as the joint result of our minds, judgments and hearts therein as followeth, 
namely : 

' First, that the particulars respecting their dissenting brethren, declared to 
us by the pastor of this church of Newberry and the brethren with him as 
grievances to them being proved before us as true, we judge they were matters 
of just offence to them, as being publique and deviations from the rules of the 
gospel order, presented in the holy scriptures, and the answerable principles of 
the churches here established and declared in the platform of discipline approved 
for the substance by our general court to be and accordingly practised by the 
congregational churches amongst us, namely, that in an organic church where 
the pastor stands in a state of right administration, any brother or brethren less 
or more in number should openly and frequently refuse to observe their pastor's 
counsels or charges, to attend order of speech or silence and peaceably demean- 
ing themselves in any church assemblies and matters there acted, or that they 
should check, curb, oppose, contradict or molest him in the discharge of his 
pastoral office, work or duty or secondly, that Mr. Woodman with a great part 
of the members of the church instead of giving due satisfaction, oft times called 
for from him and sundry of them unto their pastor, and the brethren adhering 
to him, should publiquely without, yea against, the consent and prohibition of 
their pastor, meet in a church assembly, act as a church by themselves, voting 
these or those church orders of theirs, send messengers to call any other member 
before them to give satisfaction to the church for matters offensive to them, as if 
they were the church, which besides that it is cross to religion and reason that 
in an organic body, which is but one entire ecclesiastical whole, consisting of 
the officer and all the rest of the members of that church, that there should be 
any regular orderly church, consisting of the major part of the brethren, severed 
from others of their brethren, yea of their pastor, or persons without, and not 
within the church, and such a company so acting as a church being no regular 
church, all their actings as a church are to be accounted irregular. We judge 
that such practices are breaches of church order, unity and peace, reproachful 
to the way of our churches here, highly dishonorable to Christ and' the gospel, 
and tend to confusion, undermining and destruction of gospel order and peace 
in congregational churches amongst us, and that all these former irregulars 
done by them as church acts are null, and it will be more offensive in the 
dissenting brethren to act in any such way for time to come. 

1 Secondly, that yet considering the time as an hour of churches' temptation, 
the envy and subtlety of the common enemy of the churches, and his too much 
influence upon the spirits even of godly minded ones also, together with the 
remnants of the powers and deceits of the old man in the best, and considering 
how most desirable, amiable, and every way most profitable it is for brethren to 
dwell together in unity, and most dearly to love and tender one another in the 
Lord, and therefore to' study to be quiet, to follow after things, w r hich make for 
peace and wherewith they may edify one another, we advise Mr. Parker and 
the brethren with him to use all gaining and winning means, that may be, that 
they with their dissenting brethren may become one in the Lord as in former 
times, meekly yet convincingly by arguments from scripture and reasons 
grounded thereupon, (whether spoken to them, if opportunity of peaceably doing 
thereof, or else by w r riting to them) to convince them of their irregularities and 
duly to acknowledge the same, improving also any other helps for that end and 
patiently waiting for a good issue of all means used and forbearing them in love 

1 Finally in hope and expectation of an amicable compliance we have suspended 
any further counsel, which, if necessitated thereto, we shall advise as God 
shall guide according to the rules of the gospel. And now reverend and dear 
brethren, we commend you to God and the word of his grace, which is able to 
build you up and give you an inheritance among them, which are sanctified. 


And the Lord of peace himself give you peace always by all means. The 
Lord be with you all. 


In the name, and with the consent, of the 
November fifth, 1669. rest of the members of the council.' 

The above advice, so laboriously written, does not, as might be 
supposed, appear to have done any good, or to have ' reached the 
narrows comprehended in the questions.' On the contrary the year 
ended, leaving both parties less willing ' to love and tender one 
another,' than they were at its commencement. So completely were 
not only the church, but the people absorbed in this subject, and so 
important was the issue of the contest deemed in point of principle, 
that it affected all other matters. Even the military company was 
in such a state as to require attention from the general court. From 
their records is copied the following : 

c May 19th. In consideration of the distractions of the military company in 
Newbury, for the better composure and prevention of the increase thereof, 
major general Leverett. and major Dennison are impowered to inquire into the 
grounds thereof on the spot ; and settle it if possible.' 

As a curious illustration of the predominant influence, which, at 
this time, and for many years before and after, ecclesiastical matters 
in Massachusetts had in almost all transactions, the following letter 
from the general court files is copied. The signers, it will be recol- 
lected, were the two ministers of Rowley. 

1 ROWLEY, July 24th, 1689. 
1 May it please your honors, 

The occasion of these lines is to inform you that 

whereas our military company have nominated Abel Platts for ensign, we con- 
ceive that it is our duty to declare that we cannot approve of their choice in that 
he is corrupt in his judgment with reference to the Lord's supper, declaring 
against Christ's words of justification, and hereupon hath withdrawn himself 
from communion with the church in that holy ordinance some years, besides 
some other things wherein he hath shown no little vanity in his conversation and 
hath demeaned himself unbecomingly towards the word and towards the dis- 
pensers of it. 

1 Having given you this intimation, we leave the matter with your honors to do 
as you see meet. Thus presenting our service to you and begging God's pres- 
ence with you, rest your honors' servants for Jesus' sake. 


In the midst of these difficulties, ecclesiastical, military, and so 
forth, Mr. Parker continued his labors, and the people of both par- 
ties regularly ' went to meeting.' On the twenty-fifth of February, 
the selectmen, in consequence of 'complaints of considerable 
persons for want of seats in the meeting house,' ordered three new 
seats to be built, and fifty or sixty persons placed in them by the 
selectmen, on certain conditions. For instance : 

' In the second seat of the men's side below in the meeting house 
is placed Daniel Lunt, James Smith and Joseph Coker, and if 


Thomas Hale junior, refuse to pay his share to the new gallery seat 
as others do, then James Smith is placed in the new gallery seat; 
provided he pay his share, and Thomas Hale is to return to his own 
place again. And if Stephen Greenleaf refuse also to pay his 
share accordingly, then he is to return to his own place againe,' and 
so forth, and so forth. =* 

From the Salem court record it appears, that some of the people 
were not satisfied with the seats assigned to them by the selectmen, 
but took the liberty of choosing for themselves. Of two of them, 
the court records thus speak : l John Woolcot and Peter Toppan for 
disorderly going and setting on a seat belonging to others are 
fined twenty-seven pounds and four shillings.' 

On the seventeenth of November, there was a 'thanksgiving for 
relief from drought and lengthening out the harvest.' f 


In the early part of this year, John Webster was presented to the 
court, < for reading a paper libel against Thomas Parker on a Lord's 
day in February, a scandalous and reproachful libel/ The follow- 
ing is a copy of the ' paper libel.' It is entitled, ' the answer of Mr. 
Woodman and the brethren adhering to him and so forth.' 

1 Whereas Mr. Parker and the brethren adhering to him, as he saith, have 
lately read, or caused to be read, in the public congregation before the church 
and towne a writing wherein is contained divers charges (some implicit and 
some explicit) upon the brethren, which they say are opposed unto them, and 
that they say are justly offended with them for sundry scandalous practices by 
them committed; who by their disorderly carriage have demeaned themselves 
unsuitable to the order of the gospel, and irreverently towards their pastor in 
that they have not attended his counsel and declaration of the will of Christ, to 
the frequent breach of order in public meetings and for acting as a divided 
body from thw'r pastor and the rest of the brethren, voting their acts as church 
acts, and publishing them with other particulars presented to the council lately 
assembled, who determined, and we with them do judge, that such practices 
are breaches of church order, peace and unity, also you seein to lay the major 
part of the church under a censure and to deny any further treating with them 
until they have reconciled themselves to their offended brethren by confessing 
such faults as you have charged upon them. To these things thus charged 
upon us, the major part of the brethren adhering to Jesus Christ and his word 
do answer, that we do not judge ourselves guilty of those sins as you have 
publiquely charged upon us. having duly examined our consciences and actions 
by the word of God, and therefore cannot approve of your proceedings therein, 
but do conceive that you have proceeded therein beside the rule that Christ 
hath given his church to walk by. and have exercised lordship over God's heri- 
tage by charging the major part of the brethren of the church, as we conceive 
unjustly, with many sins, which you do not so much as name, nor specify in 
any such way as whereby we may know what they are, much less to be con- 
victed that we are guilty of such sins, but under general heads of sins, as that 
we know not what they are for the general of them, nor who are actually guilty 
of them, if any such should be committed by any of the brethren. Therefore 
it cannot tend to conviction or reformation of sin, but rather as we conceive it 

* Town records. t Colonial records. 



must proceed from some distemper of spirits, and so to be accounted to cast an 
odium upon us and upon the cause we maintain. We therefore conceive that 
that writing is not regular, nor that which will stand with the rule of the gospel, 
to proclaim before the church and the town that we are sinners and that you are 
justly offended with us before you have used any due or regular means to con- 
vict us, or made any due proof against us that we are such as you have pro- 
claimed us to be, therefore we take it to be a sentence before judgment, the 
coarsest proceeding among men. We do therefore hereby testify that we are 
justly offended with your irregular proceeding in casting such public scandals 
upon us without due cause and besides due order, and we cannot satisfy our 
consciences, otherwise than to declare our dissatisfaction with your proceedings 
and shall take into due consideration what God doth farther call for at our 
hands to bear farther witness against such doings and for the reformation thereof. 

'Also we do bear witness against your two sermons out of Matthew^ 18 : 17 
the one presented January thirtieth, and the other February second. We con- 
ceive you have not followed the mind of Christ in several things contained in 
the same sermons, but contrary thereunto, and contrary to the order of the 
churches established by the general court, contrary to the synod booke, contrary 
to the practice of all the churches in this jurisdiction, tending to the breach of 
peace civill and ecclesiastical, and has its tendency to the undermining and 
destroying of all church order allowed in this jurisdiction. 

1 This we read as a complaint to the church.' 

The court records proceed to state, that ' John Webster is charged 
with publishing the contents of this paper annexed in the open 
congregation at Newbury on the Sabbath day after meeting without 
leave obtained from the elder which was done at or about the 
thirteenth of February, 1670. Question. Guilty or not guilty?' 
To which the jury reply, < we find according to evidence given that 
John Webster read the contents of this paper annexed in Newbury 
meeting house.' 

The next account I find of the proceedings of the brethren, is the 
following from the quarterly court files in Salem. It will be recol- 
lected that each party claimed to be the church, and to have a 
majority of the members. It is a copy of a paper sent to Mr. 
Parker by Mr. Woodman and his party. It is as follows : 

c The church having seriously considered of the complaint brought io us by 
Mr. Woodman against our reverend pastor, master Parker and do jiul u t- ii 
clearly proved by sufficient evidences, and much of it known to our selves t,, 
be true, do judge that you have been instrumental of the divisions and troubles, 
that have a long time [beenj and still are, continued in this church, partly by 
your change of opinion and practice and several times breaking promises 'and 
covenants or agreements with the church, and other things contained in the 
complaint, therefore we cannot but judge you worthy of blame, and do hereby 
blame you, and for the restoring of peace to the church we are enforced, though 
with great grief of heart, to suspend you from acting any thing that doth apper- 
tain to your office, in administring seals and sacraments, or matters of govern- 
ment as an officer, until you have given the church satisfaction therewith. We 
do desire and admonish you in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ speedily to 
endeavour that God may have his glory by it and the hearts of your grieved 
brethren in the church may be comforted and in the mean time as a gifted 
brother you may preach for the edification of the church if you please. Your 
loving but afflicted brethren of the church of Newbury. Signed by us in 
behalf of the church. 


1 March sixteenth, 1670. RICHARD THORLA.' 


'This was brought to Mr. Parker by Archelaus Woodman. William Titcomb, 
Richard Bartlet and Samuel Plumer. and Samuel Plumer read it 5 



1 After sunset William Titcomb, Stephen Titcomb. Stephen Greenleaf ; Rich- 
ard Bartlet and Caleb Moody came with a message to Mr. Parker and told him 
they were sent from the church to give him notice that the church had chosen 
t\vo ruling elders, namely. Mr. Dummer and Mr. Woodman, and they were to 
send to the two neighbouring churches to join with them to ordain them upon 
this day sevennight. Witnesses to the message of the church, captain G&rrish, 
Richard Knight. Nicholas Noyes ; John Knight, senior. Mr. Woodbridge and 
Anthony Somerby.' 

1 We whose names are here underwritten do consent to the writing, which do 
declare an act of the church laying Mr. Parker under blame, and suspending 
him from all official acts in the" church. Dated sixteenth of March, 1670. 








JOHN EMERY, senior. ANTHONY MORS, senior. 












THOMAS HALE, junior. 41.' 

Mr. Parker then sent the following letter to Mr. Woodman and 
his company. 

'March 16th, 1670. Having so frequently and seriously testifyed against 
your irregular actings (determined to be such by the council) it cannot be 
expected that I should concur with you to promote any disorder and consent to 
the erecting of any new form of government contrary to the received profession 
and constant practice of the churches here amongst us. 

Your carriages have been such in these transac tings, as have reflected great in- 
famy and reproach on me. I cannot consent to agree with you to promote you in 
your way. till by some publick audience I shall have vindicated myself from any 
unjust aspersion you have cast upon me. My compliance with you may by others 
be interpreted a judging of myself guilty, and that therefore I am willing- by com- 
position to make up my own errors and' miscarriages. Four of the brethren have 
been publickly complained of and brought before the church to answer for their 
publick otlences, their answer through your meanes and their open refusal hath 
been interrupted. I shall not willingly consent to any motions from you that 
may hinder their just conviction, nor do I think that any of your designes are 
to be attended to till this be duly examined and judged. Once more I earnestly 
desire you to consider yourselves, and not go on in such irresrular courses, which 
though you seem to justify yourselves in. yet assuredly will prove evil in the 
end. Do not thinke it a light matter to break the unity and peace of the church, 


hinder the edification of the church, cast contempt on the ministry, grieve your 
pastor and brethren, give offence to other churches, and bring up an evil report 
and cast reproach upon the government of the churches here, and once more I 
entreat you to think of some way of reconciling our differences, which we think 
will only be by consenting with us to call a regular council, resolving to submit 
to their advice. If we cannot prevail with you by this motion, we shall be forced 
to consider what courses shall be taken to defend ourselves, and blame us not 
for using any lawful meanes whereby we redress your sin and our distractions. 


1 Th preceding paper Mr. Parker sent to Mr. Woodman and his company by 
seven of the brethren, w T ho when they had read it to them were desired to ab- 
sent themselves from them, and towards night they sent the ensuing paper,' 

f Reverend sir, 

t Mr. Thomas Parker, 

1 Hearing a bruite about ye towne of an intention of some 
of your party to complain at Ipswich court of several brethren of their personal 
and common weakness, we thought good to put you in minde how far it is from 
the rule of Christian love so to practice one against another before court and 
county, which might be healed at home with a word of reproof from one brother 
to another according to the mind of God, which saith, thou shalt not hate thy 
brother in thy heart, neither shalt thou suffer sin upon him. We would desire 
you to consider that yourselves are men of infirmity as well as we are. and in case 
your practice in this kind should provoke us to do the like, what appearance of 
revengeful doings w^ould there be in the face of the country, and no end could 
appear but to vent corruption towards one another, and nothing attained thereby 
of that concernment, to which we pretend ourselves conscientiously engaged, 
but to vent our stomachs one at another to the great dishonor of God, reproach 
of religion, and to put advantage into the hands of wicked men to speak re- 
proachfully of religion in general. More rather we desire that we may be of 
one mind so far as to cover the shame of each, other, when no good end can be 
obtained in opening of the same, and commit our case as it is conscientious to 
us to the determination of the general court, to which we must sit down, either 
active or passive, without which we see no hope of issue, and for the avoiding 
of offence, what may be, we will state our complaint at home, and you shall 
have a copy of it in case you will agree there to answer to it which will bee 
the most likely way to issue our endless and boundless confusions, that we 
do know of.' 

In the name of the church.' 

1 Received the above the twenty-third of March 1670, read by Samuel Plumer, 
ferryman, and brought by John Webster.' 

The following by Mr. Parker and his friends needs no explanation. 

1 March 19th, 1670. It is too wofully known what great and how many conten- 
tions have troubled this church for sundry years, what means have been used 
from time to time for reconciling of them. We have the testimony of a council 
of nine churches concurring with us that Mr. Woodman and those that have ad- 
hered to him have been the causes of a disturbance. What patience have 
been used towards them, yet what opposition have been made by them, how irrev- 
erently they have carried themselves in presence of God in sundry church meet- 
ings, what impediments they have cast in our way, whereby church adminis- 
trations have not only wanted their solemnity, but also have been hindred so as 
that just discipline could not be executed. These things are all publickly known. 
But especially their actings on the Lord's day January twenty -ninth, 1670, which 


have since bin in several meetings continued by them. We have often minded 
them and earnestly desired that they would consent with us to call a council as 
an ordinance of G'od, commonly practised by the churches of this country as a 
hopeful meanes of a reconciliation, which motion of ours hath been as often by 
them refused as by us proposed. In conclusion they have so far proceeded in 
their irregularities and miscarriages as that March sixteenth they have sent a 
writing to Mr. Parker their pastor whereby they do signify that they do suspend 
him from acting any duty of his office. They have chosen two ruling elders 
imposing them on the pastor and the church contrary to their consent, whereby 
they would not only deprive this church of the holy ordinances, which Christ 
hatn given them, but have hereby cut themselves off from the communion of 
the church. 

1 In consideration of which premises (to mention no more) we the pastor and 
brethren of the church of Newbury, in the name and fear of the Lord Jesus 
Christ in way of defence of his poor flock here that they may not be left as 
sheep without a shepherd, and in vindicating the honor of our Lord Jesus Christ 
and his ordinances, not knowing any other regular way left according to the rule 
of the scripture, than to withdraw from them, who walk inordinately and cause 
division ; we do hereby declare that for the future we do renounce communion 
with all those brethren that have so deeply violated the communion of Christ's 
church, nor shall we accept them as regular members of the church of Christ 
among us till God shall give them a mind to see and heart to acknowledge and 
confess their great offences, which we earnestly desire of him to grant through 
Jesus Christ. 

'At a church meeting March twenty-second 1670. 

' Agreed that this paper should be annexed to the vote that was passed the 
Lord's day March nineteenth 1670 that those brethren that have acted in the 
paper sent the sixteenth of March 1670 to the pastor, wherein they suspend the 
pastor from his office, we do renounce communion with them in the communion 
of the Lord's supper and in the administration of discipline until they give us 


The next day, March twenty-third, Mr. Parker and some brethren 
with him, sent the following paper to Mr. Woodman's party. 

c That there may be nothing wanting in us to evidence that love and respect 
unto you, which brethren ought to have one towards another, and the duty we 
owe to God binds us to, understanding by your messengers that you intend to 
ordain two ruling elders, we cannot but once more motion to you, that though 
you little regard the offence and grief of your pastor, brethren and the churches 
of God abroad, which we suppose you ought to do, and if you have any bowels 
of love left, we hope you may do, yet we earnestly intreat you not to despise 
the Lord Jesus Christ by making his ordinances contemptible. Do you not 
know how distasteful it will be to him to profane his holy things ? Do you think 
he will own them for his ordinances, which you make use of to advance your 
owne humours and divisions 1 Do not despise the civil authority above us, we 
have cause abundantly to thank God that they will countenance and protect us 
in the enjoying what Christ allows us, but you know that the rale of the scrip- 
tures and theirs concurring with it is that elders should be blameless, nor do 
they allow any to be ordained that are scandalous, and you know that Mr. 
Woodman, one of them that you have chosen stands publickly charged with 
several scandals, nor hath he to this day endeavoured to satisfy his brethren. If 
you should still persist and go on after "this our advice, which in love and affec- 
tion we give unto you, we hope we have discharged our duty and leave you to 
his judgment, that will in his time judge every thing in truth. In the mean 
while this shall stand as an evidence for us that we have done our endeavour to 
prevent your shine.' 



' Names of those, who adhered to Mr. Parker and did not act in Mr. Parker's 






DANIEL PIERCE, junior. HENRY SHORT, senior. 










Thirty-two regular members. 




Though no members.' 

On the nineteenth of April, the ex-parte council, which had assem- 
bled November fifth, 1669, met again at Newbury. The following 
is 'a copy of the request presented by Mr. Woodman and the 
brethren with him to the council.' 

* The major part of the brethren of this congregation doth in all humble wise 
desire this honored and reverend assembly to take into their serious considera- 
tion our sad and distracted condition, who have spent twenty-five years and 
more in uncomfortable and unprofitable contention and division, whereby God 
hath been much dishonored, religion much disadvantaged, our souls much 
impoverished and our credit as a church much impaired, defamed throughout 
the country for an unquiet people and unreconcilable by the long continuance 
of our difference and dissension, and now of late the cry hereof hath been 
more loud in the ears of the churches than in former times, which produced 
this effect. The messengers of nine churches are come to see whether things 
are amongst us according to the cry that their ears are filled withal, whom we 
do heartily wish that God would make instruments for the settlement of peace 
and truth amongst us, and so throw down the strong hold that Satan has 
erected against us for the obtaining of which end our impartial request to this 
reverend assembly is that the ground and causes of our long dissensions may 
be thoroughly inquired into. Among physicians it is a maxim that when it is 
known what the disease is and where it is settled, it is half cured. Our earnest 
desire is that you would grant us three things. First, that you would cancel any 
hand writing signed by yourselves against us, our case not being heard. 
Second, that you will be pleased to hear our case and give us your advice, not 
as a council, (we having had no hand in your call, but in an orderly way the 
hands of two thirds of the church lifted up against it) but as honored and 
reverend brethren, giving your advice tending our sad and solemn estate. 

' Third, that you will lay aside all prejudice against us, which you may 
receive by so many private informations and instigations against us and now 
begin to hear what both parties can say for themselves as to the case in hand, 
as if you had heard nothing concerning the same. 

' It is no small trouble upon our spirits that we should be so ill resented in 
the hearts, and so ill spoken of amongst many godly and reverend persons (as 
we conceive) without any just cause at all as unto man, especially when we 
consider the pretended cause, which is some grand defect in matter of religion 
as a people declined and fallen from something therein, which maketh our 


persons offensive and out of favour with many. If there be any thing of that 
nature, of which we are guilty, it must be in matter of faith or in church order. 
As for matters of faith, we "know not wherein we differ from the godly in 
general what order soever they are under. 

1 As concerning church order or discipline we know not what may be against 
us. for we wholly own that, which the New Testament doth clearly hold forth 
as the mind of Christ to his church, that which the general court hath estab- 
lished for the synod book, we hold the substance of it. We own Mr. Hooker's 
Polity, Mr. Mather's catechisme, Mr. Cotton's Keys, for the substance of it. 
That which the churches have practised in general with a joint consent as far 
as we know. Yea that, which hath been New England's glory, in which God 
hath come nearer to them than to any other people. And the way, in which 
the Old and New Testament do prove to be the instituted way of God's 
appointment for his churches to walk in. But indeed we have cause to doubt 
that the offence here against us here at home is because we abide constant to 
those principles and will not turn presbyterians. As for our controversy it is 
whether God hath placed the power in the elder, or in the whole church, to 
judge between truth and error, right and wrong, brother and brother, and all 
things of church concernment. It is denied that the fraternity have any thing 
to do with it, but the minister only, and if his determination be not approved of, 
the persons asrijrieved may appeal to all the ministers in the country. And it 
is come to that passe that such as do not consent hereto are Corathites, and like 
the sons of Eli. that make the holy things of God to be despised, and upon this 
ground is our division and contention. Principles preached and endeavoured 
to be practised, one contrary to another, have made two sorts of professions, 
contrary one to another, whereby we differ almost in all things in church and 
town affairs. And yet we that to this day have stood unmoveable to those 
principles proved by the scriptures in books of controversy, in catechisms by 
the synod, by the ecclesiastical laws confirmed, and approved of by the 
practice of all churches in general, are tost up and down by the mouths of 
some unworthy persons as declmers to levelism, to Morellianism and are a 
people that nothing will satisfy. 

1 Thus having opened to this honored and reverend assembly in general the 
state and condition of this poore distracted conTPuation, our earnest desire is 
that you will be pleased to apply your wisdom to the uttermost for our healing, 
and not conceit that a slight plaster will heal us. for our wound is festered, our 
disease is rooted. God did once complain that the wound of the daughter of 
his people was healed slightly, and so it brake out again. Consider we beseech 
you that to heal breaches and repair desolations in churches is not a work of an 
'inferior nature, for if peacemakers shall be called the children of God. it doth 
greatly concern you to improve the opportunity God hath put in your hands to 
make peace and truth dwell together in this poor distracted congregation. The 
which that you may do. the God of peace guide both your hearts and lips to 
create peace for us" so shall we record in our hearts and acknowledge with our 
lips to the praise of God that under himself he hath delighted to make you 
instruments of our peace and repairers of the breach in this congregation. 

1 These things we desire of the honored and reverend assembly, not as of a 
council, but as above premised, as honored friends and brethren.' 

(Before the council returned their answer, the following script 
was sent in, namely : ) 

* Honored and reverend friends, this is as an addition to our first request, that 
in case you will not be pleased to cancel what you have signed against us, that 
you give us liberty to speak to that case before any other thing be brought in 


' To Mr. Woodman and the brethren with him. 

' Though we do. and cannot but. assert ourselves as a council, 
consisting of elders and messengers of churches, yet for the present waving 


that consideration, having weighed your affectionate motion, we shall be ready 
to hear your case, provided that you will engage to submit actively or passively 
to such advice as we shall commend unto you therein according to the word of 

In the name and with the consent of the elders and 
messengers of the churches assembled.' 


1 We thankfully acknowledge your condescending to hear our case, and do 
seriously profess that our aim and end is to hear the advice of yourselves 
therein in order unto practice and do solemnly engage to the utmost of our 
ability to receive with all readiness, and attend with all diligence whatsoever 
scripture light you may impart unto us according to the best of our understand- 
ing and consciences. 

April nineteenth, 1670. CALEB MOODY, 

In the name of the rest. 

1 On the nineteenth day in the afternoon Mr. Parker and the brethren with 
him their grievances were read in publick. 

1 On the twentieth day Mr. Woodman's twenty-six grievances were read. 
1 On the twenty-first day another grievance was sent in by Mr. Woodman's 
partie, signed by William Titcomb and Caleb Moody in the name of the rest.' 
' On the twenty-second of April 1670 the council came to the following 


( We whose names are underwritten do hereby testify and declare that we do 
fully consent and agree unto the covenant and agreement contracted and made 
betwixt Mr. Parker, our reverend pastor, and Mr. Woodman and the brethren 
that are with him, that is to say that the synod book called the platform of 
discipline with the other four articles shall be our rule in the church of 
Newbury for our practice in all administrations, because we take it to be an 
explanation of the scriptures, and a rule agreed upon as a means to avoid all 
future divisions and contentions, we mean the agreement made before and by 
the help of the messengers of nine churches, contained under five heads, signed 
under the hand of the moderator and scribe of the assembly, in witness where- 
unto and in witness whereof we the assembly set our hands.' 

( Articles of accommodation betwixt Mr. Parker of Newbury, Mr. Woodman 
and the brethren with him mutually agreed upon before the council at New- 
bury April twenty-second, 1670. 

( First, that the platform of discipline, established by the general court, prac- 
tised by the churches of New England, shall be the rule or standard of the 
congregational way according to which the church of Newbury do resolve both 
pastor and brethren to act in all church administrations. 

i Second, that all matters of controversy being considerable and of moment, 
not issued before the pastor or elders to mutual satisfaction of parties concerned, 
shall be brought to the church according to the said platform.' 

1 Third, that they, who are propounded for admission into the church shall 
stand some considerable time, at least a fortnight, and public warning given on 
the Lord's day, when they are to be admitted. 

1 Fourth, that no difference shall be made in admission of members into the 
church upon account of their difference of judgment as to the congregational 
way pro or con, the persons being orthodox and of good conversation. 

1 Fifth, that, when the providence of God shall give an opportunity of regular 
call of any other officer, it shall be attended by the church according to what 
is laid down in the said platform of discipline, chapter the eighth. 

THOMAS COBBET, Moderator. 

Signed by Mr. WOODMAN, ) ANTIPAS NEWMAN, Scribe. 

Mr. DUMMER and 38 others. ) 


This second attempt of the council, to reconcile the conflicting 
opinions, and harmonize the discordant feelings, of both parties, 
was of no avail. The truce was of short duration. Before the 
close of the year, the t articles of accommodation ' appear to have 
been entirely forgotten, and the storrn, which had apparently sub- 
sided, again raged more fiercely than ever ; and it was not until the 
lapse of several years that peace was finally restored. The ' distrac- 
tions in the military company ' still continued. 

' On May eleventh, the court, having left it to the care of the 
major general to make temporary provision for military officers at 
Newbury, who did appoint Archelaus Woodman lieutenant, and 
Stephen Greenleaf ensign, confirms their appointment.' Both of 
these officers were of Mr. Woodman's party. 

On March seventh, ' Peter Cheney proposed to the town for half 
an acre of land on or about the little hill this side the mill, to build 
a wind mill upon to grind corn for the town, when the water mill 
fails.' This was granted by the town, ' upon condition that he do 
build a good mill to answer the end proposed for and so long as the 
mill is made and maintained for the said service and no longer.' 

This mill stood on the ' little hill,' near the mill bridge, or ' four 
rock,' as it is sometimes called, and remained there till Mr. Cheney 
removed to Byfield, in the year 1687. 

May 2lst. ' It was voted that the order in the town book, that 
gives Mr. Woodbridge sixty pounds a year for his preaching is 
made void.' * 

September 19//. ' It was voted that the selectmen shall take care 
that ****** ****** fence in no more [land] than his due.' * 

* The town granted to William Titcomb and Amos Siickney the 
Little pine swamp to be their propriety, with skirts of the common, 
provided they make and maintain a sufficient fence about the hole 
for the safety of the cattle from time to time.' * 

The ' pine swamp ' mentioned above, is the tract of land on the 
south side of Oak-hill cemetery, and \vas, it appears, surrounded by 
the common. The town also voted, ' that the selectmen should 
order Thomas Turvill to his kinsman's, also to be helpful to the 
poore.' * 

This is the first intimation, except the case of John Eels, the 
bee-hive maker, that the town had any occasion to make pro- 
vision for the poor. Turvill went to reside with his 'kinsman,' 
Henry Short, in whose old account book I find the following 
inventory. It was taken May twenty- second, 1673, when he had 
made an agreement with the town, to keep Thomas Turvill for 
three shillings per week. 

'The following is an account of what clothes he had and their value, 
appraised by three of the neighbours. 

* Town records. 



'May 22d, 1673. 

An old vvorne out coat and briches with an old lining, 65. Orf. 

A thread bare, tho indifferent close coat and doublet with an old 

wast coat, 10 

Two shirts and a band 11s., a pair of shoes, 4s., 15 

An old greasy hatt, 6d, a pair of stockings, Is., 16 

An old doublet, an old wast cote and a pair of old sheep skin 

briches, 4 

2 6s. 6d. 
In 1675 his clothes were appraised again by three neighbours and 

the amount was 2 12s. 5d.' 

' There was a great drought this summer/ * 


At the April term of the court at Ipswich, the following complaint 
was entered. It needs no explanation, as it is sufficiently clear and 

' To the honored court at Ipswich. 

1 Having tried all private means and publick ecclesiastical by councils accord- 
ing as we were directed by our honored magistrates, all which since they prove 
unsuccessful, nor can we see any hope of silencing, much less of curing, our 
difficulties and fearing lest such miscarriages may have an influence, not only to 
breed public disturbance in other churches, some sparks whereof already ap- 
pear, but may break forth into open factions and mutinies, having no other rem- 
edy we humbly conceive it our duty, as being necessitated to it, to present our 
case to civil authority intreating them at least to redress such miscarriages as 
are contrary to the known laws of the country, and so, contrary to the public 
peace. Title ecclesiastical section fourteen is forbidden contemptuous behav- 
iour toward the w r ord of God preached, or the messengers of the same, or cast- 
ing any reproach on their doctrine and persons, to the dishonour of our Lord 
Jesus, disparagement of his holy ordinances, and making God's ways contemp- 
tible and ridiculous, as sect, chapter heresies n. seven. Every person, that 
shall revile the person or office of magistrates, or ministers, such person, or per- 
sons shall be severely whipt or pay trie fine of five pounds. Likewise it is pro- 
vided, chapter first, that no man's honour or good name shall be stained. 

' First, as offenders against these laws we humbly present to this honored court, 
whether all those, that call themselves the church and brethren of the church 
of Newbury, who have irregularly convened, have publickly read and debated 
certain articles presented to them by Mr. Edward Woodman against our pastor, 
Mr. Parker (whose inoffensiveness is generally known) tending to his great re- 
proach and infamy, and have as appears by their publick writing judged and 
determined the said Mr. Parker to be the cause of their divisions and troubles 
to have broken several covenants and agreements with the church (as may more 
fully appear by the articles exhibited by the said Mr. Woodman against him) 
and therefore do publickly blame him, yea so deeply that they take upon them 
to suspend him from his office, which articles upon due examination, we doubt 
not but will appear vanities, yet their publick actings being bruited over the 
country must need tend to the great reproach of Mr. Parker when they shall 
hear so many articles and such a censure, and in particular we present to you 
Mr. Woodman, the plaintiff, and Mr. Richard Dummer, whom they termed the 
president, Archelaus Woodman, and William Titcomb, moderators, and Samuel 
Plumer and Richard Bartlet, messengers, who are able to inform of the rest. 

* Roxbury church records. 


1 Second, whether Mr. Edward Woodman, who was formerly convicted of his 
scandalous reviling Mr. Parker, besides frequent contemptible speeches and 
threatenings of him be not fallen into the same offence by publickly affirming 
that Mr. Parker hath broken covenant three times already, and no covenant will 
stand before him. Likewise in the same law underneath whosoever shall go 
about to destroy or disturb the order or peace of the churches established in this 
jurisdiction on groundless conceits and so forth. Now as contrary to this, 

' First, whether it be not factious for a part of the church without the knowl- 
edge and privity of the pastor and brethren to meet together and carry on church 
affairs in a way of complaint against their pastor, and whether this may not be 
accounted an act of conspiracy against their pastor and the church, yet this has 
been done by them at Stephen Greenleaf 's house, where were present Mr. 
Woodman, Mr. Dummer and many ethers as we are informed. 

1 Second, whether it be not a disturbance to the order of the churches for Mr. 
Woodman at most but a deacon, on a Lord's day immediately after the morning 
exercise (though he was desired by the pastor to forbear, and not profane the 
sabbath day by open disturbance and so forbad him to proceed) to desire the 
church to stay ; and when Mr. Parker told him he had broken the agreement, 
Mr. Woodman replied to him, I speak not to you, but to the church, for I have 
divers complaints against you. and when Mr. Parker was gone, to tell them that 
he had several complaints against Mr. Parker, and desired them to appoint a 
church meeting to hear them (though Mr. Parker immediately before had warned 
a church meeting) many of them consented to it, and so upward of thirty voted it. 

1 Third, whether it be not a like breach of the public order and peace of the 
churches for the said persons solemnly to cause the bell to be rung and repair 
unto, and observe, such an irregular meeting, to term themselves the church 
(though not the major part of the church) and in the name of the church to send 
for the pastor to answer the charges laid against him by Mr. Woodman. And 
here particularly Mr. Dummer, Archelaus Woodman and William Titcomb 
were moderators, the rest witnesses and judges. 

1 Fourth, whether it be not a like breach of the order and peace of the churches 
when any of the members being publickly warned by the pastor and the per- 
sons duly summoned, the said persons shall publickly contest against their pas- 
tor, and will not agree so much as to have their charges read, unless their pastor 
will first put it to vote whether it were the mind of the church that it should be 
read, and whether after such debate taken, the said charges shall begin to be 
read there is an uproar and hubbub raised that the church might not hear what 
was read, and when they are read, they being particularly read and desired to 
answer, they shall directly refuse to do, yet guilty of such things are Mr. Wood- 
man, Archelaus Woodman, William Titcomb, William Pilsbury. 

Fifth, whether Mr. Richard Dummer, and Richard Thorla signing a paper 
in behalf of the church, which contained (in their apprehension) an act for the 
suspension of the pastor from his office, and thereby what in them, is, depriving 
the whole church of the ordinances of Christ, which he hath given to his church, 
and this without the advice and direction of any other church, are not guilty as 
leaders in the disturbance of the church but also of falsehood, when it is not 
the church, nor the major part of the church acting in any lawful meeting, that 
gives them authority so to do, and whether Archelaus Woodman, William Tit- 
comb, Richard Bartlet and Samuel Plumer in bringing and delivering it, be not 
alike guilty of promoting the disturbance of the church. 

1 Sixth, whether it be not a disturbance of the publick peace and order in an 
organic church for private members contrary to the mind and privity of their 
pastor and brethren, to elect ruling elders, imposing them on the pastor and 
brethren without their consent, Mr. Woodman one of them being known to be 
scandalous in his conversation, and this not by the major part of the brethren 
either, yet this, William Titcomb, Richard Bartlet, Stephen Greenleaf, and Ca- 
leb Moody brought as a message to Mr. Parker from them, whom they called 
the church, and they are able to give an account who they were that set them 
to work. 

1 Seventh, lastly whether in these things (to omit many others that may be 
mentioned) Mr. Woodman and those who adhere to him, be not guilty as much 


as in them lies, of erecting a new form of government in the church with a 
great deal of strife and contention, contrary to the platform of discipline allowed 
by the general court and the received practice of all the congregational churches 
in this country, and whether this be not to trie breach of the peace both civil 
and ecclesiastical (n. 11.) Civil authority here established hath power and 
liberty to see the peace, ordinances and rules of Christ to be observed in every 
church according to his word ; and our honored magistrates in their letters direct- 
ed to us, do account themselves bound by all due means to countenance and 
protect the observers of the congregational government. We present then these 
things to your wisdoms. At our request you would be pleased to encourage 
those who desire to be faithful to God and lovers of truth and peace. 

Presented by us, RICHARD KENT. 

DANIEL PIERCE, senior.' 

To the preceding communication the following reply was made. 

'To the honored court at Ipswich April eighteenth, 1671. 
' Concerning the seven queries put to the consideration of this court, they do 
involve so many within them that they are from us uncapable of an answer, 
neither do we know what use the court will make of them against us, seeing 
they come in as queries and not as charges. We ourselves could trouble the 
court with many queries, but at this time we shall forbear. In brief we would 
humbly desire you to consider that most if not all, the particulars mentioned, are 
such, as will prove good or evil, as we shall appear to be a church regularly 
acting or not, for if we be a church of Christ according to order then it is lawful 
for a brother to complain to the church against any brother that doth offend. 
Then secondly it is lawful for the church to hear and judge. Thirdly, then it 
is lawful for two brethren also to sign an act of the church as witnesses. 
Fourth, then it is lawful for them to send messengers to Mr. Parker, or whom it 
may concerne. Fifth, then it is lawful for them to meet as a church together. 
Sixth, then it is lawful for them to elect a ruling elder or elders. But we hope 
your honored court will convict us that we have broken some standing law or 
laws, that were made by the general court before they blame us, for we do 
not account ourselves well dealt withal by the authors of those queries and 
declaration, whom we leave to the Lord. 

i Lastly we do profess ourselves to be servants of God and faithful subjects 
to the commonwealth, lovers of magistrates and ministers, and all the churches 
and people of the Lord, and do not willingly err from any rule of God, nor of 
the commonwealth, but we trust such, as shall be found faithful. 

1 We do therefore desire this court to consider whether it be not against all 
order, law or custom that complaint should be brought to a court against breth- 
ren, which from conscience of the rule of Christ do complain to a church 
against an offending brother, merely because they have complained, when the 
church hath heard the complaint and acquit the complainer, by owning the 
complaint to be duly proved, and sentenced the person complained against. So 
leaving what have been said to your wisdoms to be considered, and yourselves 
to the God of all wisdom to be directed, with our hearty prayers for you, we 
rest in the Lord to be commanded, 


1 A declaration of the pastor, and several brethren of the church of Newbury 
presented to this court at Ipswich. 7 

1 The manifold contentions, that have been among us for sundry years have 
been matter of continual grief, and ought to be of continual humiliation, that 
such things should arise among a people, whose beauty consists in their union 
to Christ and unity one with another. 


1 To omit all former transactions (which we cannot reflect upon but with 
grief) so high were the opposites that according to the direction of our honored 
magistrates, who pitied our distractions, we were forced to desiring help of our 
neighbouring elders, and churches, who at a council convened November third 
1669, whom our brethren would by no means own, or subject unto as a council, 
though there was as much reason to respect them and accept their advice as 
most in the country. 

'The council hereupon was forced to proceed according to the allegations and 
proofs presented to them, whereby they found and judged the actings of our 
brethren to be very irregular, contrary to the peace and unity, which ought to 
be in the church, tending to confusion, and that which casts reproach on the 
order of the congregational churches among us, and therefore were offensive, and 
if they should proceed after such testimony of theirs ag-ainst their ways it would 
be much more offensive, sufficiently evidencing to them that there was just 
cause of complaint against them, as more fully may appear by their testimony 
left in writing, which was publickly read the next Lord's day after their 

' The council having adjourned till the nineteenth of April following, we en- 
deavoured in the mean time to see what composition we could bring our breth- 
ren to, and accordingly by publick and private agitations we laboured to reduce 
our brethren to a right and sober mind, that our contentions might cease, and 
they might be brought to a right understanding of the congregational way as it 
was commonly practised by the churches according to the direction of the 
council, which, if our brethren had consented to, there might have been hopes 
to have proceeded peaceably, but instead of any composition with us there ap- 
pears farther ground of distraction, as may be seen by their paper disorderly 
published in the congregation, the copy whereof stands in record in the court. 

' The council returning according to their adjournment found as little accept- 
ance by our brethren as formerly, who though they made their appearance, yet 
it was with such a spirit and carriage, as did ill befit them before such a rever- 
end assembly, nor would they comply to do any thing till the council agreeing 
to hear them* as friends and not as a council instead of answering the allegations 
first or last objected against them (which in reason they ought to have done if 
they could have cleared themselves) they brought in such exceptions as they 
could against Mr. Parker their pastor, all which we fully heard and answered, 
nor was there any thing (of twenty-five articles) of moment alleged or proved 
against Mr. Parker, their pastor, who was sufficiently vindicated by the council, 
but sufficient on this point to show what spirit tney were of. 

1 On the last day of their setting, about sunset Mr. Woodman with several 
others with him came into the council, speaking to this purpose (Mr. W. affirm- 
ing that he was appointed to speak in the name of the brethren, and called for 
witness to attest it) that now they were convinced by the word of God that they 
had acted irregularly and came there to acknowledge their offences, which 
accordingly they did to the great satisfaction of the hearers, sundry of them, 
speaking to the same purpose that they had done ill. The council seeing such 
a compliance which in all the former part they saw so little ground to expect, 
readily embraced the appearance of such a temper, and more willing to bring 
things to a full agreement, they left off what they intended as a council and 
fell upon the consideration of some articles of accommodation whereby both 
parties for the future might act peaceably, which articles were agreed unto by 
Mr. Woodman and many of his party there present who also promised their 
endeavours to bring the rest to a compliance with them. 

1 Mr. Woodman notwithstanding such an appearance of a cordial agreement, 
yet refuses the communion of the church from that day, and within a little 
while finds occasion to make as much disturbance as ever. We could scarcely 
have any publick occasions (as for discipline of members and so forth) but there 
was some publick opposition from some or another, and nothing could be 
managed with peace, though (as we suppose) there was never any just cause 
of disturbance. 

' Sundry private agitations there were, wherein propositions were made by them 
lending to a farther ground of difference than any settlement. Some things [were 


so stated] that Mr. Parker professed he could not in conscience agree to them, 
yet Mr. Woodman threatened him that he would bring him before authority, 
before the highest judicature of the country, and again revive the twenty-five 
articles, which were brought before the council, which they had the hearing of 
and acquitted Mr. Parker. 

' After many debates, and little likelihood and appearance of agreement, 
there still continuing great murmurings and private surmises cast up and down 
to Mr. Parker's prejudice through false suggestions, Mr. Parker to testify what 
things he might, warns a publick church meeting, which convened December 
eighth, when by reason of the tumultuous carriage of things there was little 
likelihood of bringing any thing to a fair issue. Omitting many unworthy and 
disorderly carriages exceeding unsuitable to the solemnity that "ought to be in 
God's presence, towards the end of the meeting Mr. Woodman was charged by 
one of the brethren for publick offences, one in almost totally absenting himself 
from the publick worship on the Lord's days, though it was known sufficiently that 
he was able enough to attend on other occasions, therefore abstaining from the 
communion of the church. He instead of answering for these offences pub- 
lickly professed he is offended with Mr. Parker for some miscarriages, and 
desires the church to appoint a meeting to hear him. Mr. Parker bids him. 
produce his charges, and he was ready there to answer them before the church^ 
but this Mr. Woodman refused to do. 

1 Not long after he" comes accompanied with two brethren, and tells Mr. 
Parker he comes with two others to deal with him according to the rule in order 
to bring him to the church, if he refused to hear him. 

1 Mr. Parker replied to him that his accusations being only such points 
wherein they differed in their opinions it was not reasonable to think they were 
meet judges, or that he was likely to satisfy them. But if Mr. Woodman would 
choose three or four elders, whom he would, of the neighbouring churches, he 
was ready to answer before them whatsoever they could allege against him, and 
besides that himself standing charged with several scandals, he was not a meet 
person to come to deal with him in such a manner till he had answered for his 
own offences. Mr. Woodman professed he would never call in the help of any 
elders as long as he lived, but if Mr. Parker refused to hear him he would bring 
it to the church in order to depose him, and then they would desire the advice 
of other churches what they were to do in point of farther censure, and this was 
the issue of that meeting. 

1 Shortly after (under the notion of a fast, though no such things were 
observed) most of the opposite 'brethren convened, but (as we are informed) 
the substance of their agitation was how to prosecute their design against Mr. 
Parker, which was ordered to be done the next sabbath day, which Mr. Wood- 
man accordingly though irregularly set on foot. There they (though not the 
major part by several persons) voted a church meeting though Mr. Parker just 
before warned a meeting for the whole church. Mr. Parker warned his at one 
of the clock in the afternoon, they anticipated him by designing theirs at eight 
o'clock in the morning of the same day. Mr. Parker desiring to prevent their 
irregular motions, on^ the lecture day being Wednesday (the meeting being 
warned to be on the Monday following) publickly appoints another meeting two 
days after namely, the Friday before the meeting formerly warned, and withal 
order was taken that four of the brethren should have notice that they were then 
to appear to answer what should be alleged against them for the irregularities 
of the last sabbath and other things. The persons were Mr. Woodman, 
Archelaus Woodman William Titcomb and William Pilsbury. The church 
appeared at the time, and the persons warned, but instead of answering, they 
fell to contradicting their pastor, endeavouring what they could that their 
charges, which were in writing, might not be read or heard. But when the 
resolution was they should be'read. instead of hearkening to them, whereby 
they might understand what they were charged with, that they might give 
satisfaction they raised an hubbub, knocking, stamping, hemming, gaping, to 
drown the reading. Afterwards being demanded whether they would answer 
to their charges, they all of them (uncivilly enough) refused so to do. Mr. 
Parker finding little good to be done ; but much dishonor to God, dissolved the 


meeting, and seeing all our endeavours were in vain, on the sabbath day follow- 
ing dissolved the meeting formerly warned also. Yet our brethren kept their 
motion, and though they fell short of the major part, yet in the name of the 
church they sent to Mr. Parker, desiring him to come to answer to the church, 
what Mr. Woodman had against him. Mr. Parker, testifying, their irregularities 
refuses to attend them. They in the meeting house having chosen their mod- 
erator and so forth, sit formally as a church. Here Mr. Woodman's complaints 
to the number of fifteen or sixteen he exhibits and reads against Mr. Parker and 
also twenty-five more, which formerly he had presented to the council, who 
found little cause to blame Mr. Parker, but saw sufficiently what temper they 
were of, to rake up what they could for thirty years, yet had not any thing of 
value to fasten on him. Some of the brethren there present undertook (though 
not by Mr. Parker's motion) if they might have liberty presently to answer them. 
A fair promise they had that they should have liberty, but could get no perform- 
ance of it either at that or the next meeting. 

' The first meeting then adjourned to a second, the second to a third and the 
third to a fourth. Mr. Parker and others frequently desired them that they 
would agree to call a lawful and regular council to help settle our distractions, 
but they resolving to go on in their own way refused all such motions. It is 
impossible to mention all particulars, nor is it to be thought how many dis- 
courses have been to bring them to a right understanding, and it hath been past 
our skill by any thing we could do (without injuring truth and conscience) to 
find any way to reclaim them. We have borne their contradictions with 
patience. Frequently, as we had opportunity we debated with them. The 
platform of discipline,' which they agreed should be their rule, proves nothing 
to them, unless they may be the judges and interpreters of it. We supposed 
(unless they deluded the council) that they had ingenuously acknowledged 
their irregularities, yet are more deeply fallen into them than before. The 
testimony of a council of nine churches (which we called and maintained at 
our own charge, and which they contributed nothing to, but contempt and con- 
tradiction to linger out the time) is despised by them and counted as an empty 
paper. The received and approved practice of all the churches in the country 
is not regarded by them. So that we are at a stand and could not imagine what 
farther course to take, [with them] who will be content with nothing but their 
own will, to the subduing of all to their humours and the ruin of the church. 

In the issue it comes to this, that their designs bring forth a monstrous birth. 
The members cut off the head. Without the advice of any church or churches, 
without any shew of any just ground and reason (but what their own enraged 
fancies and violent passions suggest) they take upon them, (and this by a lesser 
part of the church present, and some of them dissenting, the brethren that were 
not of their persuasion, were desired to withdraw,) to depose the pastor, to choose 
two ruling elders, imperiously enough imposing them on their pastor and 
brethren, were as fit to be respected as others. Whereupon at last for our own 
defence, for upholding the ordinances of God among us. when we find they 
despise councils, will not subject themselves to church dealing, or by combina- 
tion will prevent it, and would rob us of our sacred enjoyments, prostituting all 
to their confusions, being enforced to it, we saw no remedy but according to the 
rule of the scripture to withdraw from them that cause divisions, and walk 
inordinately, as is more fully expressed in our paper, and publickly communi- 
cated to them when they were assembled together March twenty-third, 1671.' 

The above was written by JOHN WOODBRIDGE. 

The next paper, is an answer to the foregoing, and is entitled a 
* defence of the persons accused/ 

< To the honored court now sitting at Ipswich we humbly present these lines 
in way of apology to declare the grounds of our late actings as a church to be 
regular, both by our ecclesiastical liberties, secondly by our late covenant and 
thirdly correspondent to scripture rule and example. 


'April eighteenth, 1671. 

1 First, that a church hath liberty to proceed against an elder, or elders, not 
only to an act of suspension, but also to expulsion upon due cause. It is with- 
out controversy and clear as in law book page twenty-five, section five, every 
church hath also free liberty of admission, recommendation, dismission, ex- 
pulsion or deposal, of their officers and members upon due cause with free ex- 
ercise of the discipline and censures of Christ according to the rules of the 
word. Second, by our late covenant contained under five articles. 

1 The first is that the platform of discipline shall be a rule for practice in the 
church of Newbury in all our administrations, which saith that it is a preroga- 
tive that Christ hath given to the brotherhood. Chapter ten, sections five, six, 
seven. Chapter five, section two. Chapter eight, section seven. 

' Second, where it is said chapter tenth, other churches directing thereunto 
where they may be had, we answer first, that advice is not laid down in the 
platform as of necessity to be a rule, but where as they may be had. Second, 
it relates not to the suspension of elders, but to the deposal of them. Third, we 
have earnestly called upon two churches to have their advice, but one of them 
refused to come, the other that did come refused to give their advice to the case 
we had in hand. Fourth, we then sent three questions to the church of Salis- 
bury, for their resolution, but they gave us no answer. Then we were forced to 
take liberty as God hath given us to proceed ourselves as the rule of the word 
doth lead us. Matthew 18: 17. Colossians 4: 17. Romans 16: 17. Platform 
chapter ten, sections five, six, seven. Chapter five, section two. Chapter eight, 
section seven. Law book page twenty-five, section five. 

1 Third, where a church hath liberty not only to the suspending, but also to 
the expulsion and deposal, of their officers upon due cause, as is proved before, 
for the lesser is included in the greater, then also to appoint a church meeting 
to examine whether be due cause, although the elder offending doth not consent 
thereunto, for we humbly conceive that no offender is to be active in his own 
censure, but passive under which he is subject. The contrary seemeth to us to 
be contrary to law and reason. 

1 Fourth, the church according to rule may deal with an officer, as is proved 
already, then a brother that is offended with an officer may deal with him ac- 
cording to rule as Matthew 16: 17. Platform chapter ten, section five, six, 
seven, chapter eight, section seven, where it is said to be a power and preroga- 
tive given to a brother to deal with any brother, with whom he is offended, and 
in case he hear him not, to tell it to the church. ' 

1 Fifth, if it be the duty of a brother offended after private means used, and he 
is not satisfied, to tell it to the church, then it is the duty of the church to hear 
that brother's complaint, and get their judgment upon it in obedience to the 
rule of Christ Matthew 18:17. 1 Corinthians, verse 4. 

1 Sixth, if this brother offended in a lawful publick meeting upon the Lord's 
day, doth speak to the whole church to stay and hear him a few words of com- 
plaint against a brother, with whom he is offended, and some wilfully go away 
and do not their duty, but by neglect thereof lose the power and privilege of 
judgment in what was presented to the church, their refusing their duty is not 
an obstruction to the major part of the church, that doth stay to do their duty, as 
they are obliged by the rule Matthew 18 : 17. 

' Seventh, Mr. Parker, Mr. Woodbridge and the brethren with him which are 
forty-five have made a solemn written explicit covenant by the advice of the 
messengers of nine churches, who as witnesses have subscribed it by the mod- 
erator and scribe, that those articles then agreed on should be the rule for prac- 
tice in the church of Newbury in all their administrations. The which cove- 
nant Mr. Parker did refuse to put to the vote of the church, giving the reason 
that then his party would be engaged to practice it, although himself had cove- 
nanted that it should be the rule for practice in the church in all our adminis- 

' Eighth, we do conceive that those brethren that consent not unto the cove- 
nant made by the pastor and the major part of the brethren, are not in a capac- 
ity to act in matters of discipline, in which we shall refer ourselves to the 
advice of better understanding, the reason of our referring is because our church 


covenant is lost or burned, and the contents not known, and so under no church, 
covenant until the last covenant made whereby as a congregational church we 
have no power one over another, but by virtue of this lately made, as is evident 
by our rule agreed upon, chapter 4. section 1, 3, platform. 

' Ninth, it hath been the custom of this church from the beginning not to 
take notice of the number of brethren, that come to church meeting, but in case 
the meeting is lawfully warned, if but half the church come together, to carry 
and end all things by the major part of them that did come, be they few or 
many, and as far as we know this is the practice of all churches, but notwith- 
standing we have acted by a major part of the brethren. 

' Tenth, we would put it to your serious considerations, whether if none but 
the brethren, that are in covenant with Mr. Parker, have been desired to stay, 
seeing the rest own not the covenant by any publick manifestation, our meeting 
had not been an authentic church meeting, and what we had acted by the major 
part of them be authentic, yet the whole church was desired to stay without 
any distinction, therefore no appearance of exception on that account 

' Eleventh, we conceive that every church have an ecclesiastical judiciary 
amongst themselves to judge of, and give sentence upon, any offences, or upon 
any persons that are of their combination or society, allowed to every particular 
church by Christ, Matthew 18, 17, confirmed by our laws, page 25, section 5, 
by ah agreement or covenant as in platform, chapter 10, sections 5. 6, 7. This 
jurisdiction or judicatory being distinct from the civil power, except we break 
their laws, or go contrary to the law of God in fundamentals of faith and 

' Twelfth, lastly we would humbly desire you to consider that the major part 
have the concluding power in all the government and orders of this common- 
wealth, in our highest court, in the court of assistants, in the county courts, in 
commissioners' courts, among freemen in their meetings, by towns in their 
meetings, by military commissioners in their societies, so in choice of all offi- 
cers from the governor to the constable and way wardens. Also in synods, in 
councils, in all churches in New England that we know, and how it is come to 
pass that the poor church of Newbury among the thousands in New England 
should be opposed in their lawful liberties we cannot but a little wonder. And 
that it should be commended to this court's consideration whether we are not a 
people that go about to set up a new government, because we act or allow the 
act of the major part of the church to be authentic, to us seemeth to be an 
objection new coined by such as might as well say a church hath no power or 
privilege whether they be major, or minor, or the whole. 






In addition to the preceding extracts, there is on file a large num- 
ber of testimonies, taken before the court in proof of the statements 
made by the friends of Mr. Parker, in their complaint to the court 
against Mr. Woodman and his friends. A few of these are here 
given as a specimen. 

TESTIMONY or ABIEL SOMERBY. 'December 19, 1670. In the school house 
Mr. Woodman expressing himself highly, Mr. Parker said, soft, sir, your ways 
are ungodly, you neglect publick worship and withdraw from the communion of 
the church. Mr. Woodman said Mr. P.'s ways were ungodly. After further 
discourse Mr. Woodman began to call for witness of what Mr." Parker said. I 
said, Mr. Woodman, you said Mr P.'s ways were ungodly, and therefore it is 
but quid pro quo. Who is that that saith so, Biel ? I answered, you, sir. He 
broke forth with a strange expression, the Lord help us, or the Lord have mercy 
on us. A man had need to have a care what he speaks before such men. 

Sworn to March twenty-eighth. 1671. 



1 1 Abiel Somerby was present when my father in law Richard Knight asked 
Mr. Woodman for the church book. Mr. Woodman said that he would not let 
it go till the church sends for it. My father Knight said that Mr. Parker and 
the church had voted that he should come to fetch it. Mr. Woodman answered 
I do utterly disown such a church. My father Knight said, is this your answer ? 
Mr. Woodman said yes, that is my answer, only I think you do very sinfully to 
hold with such a church. Sworn to April eighteenth, 1671. 

1 Henry Jaques affirmeth that on January twenty-ninth, 1671 when Mr. Wood- 
man desired the church to stay, that he stayed, but it was not to joyne with 
them, and speaking to Mr. Woodman he said he thought it unreasonable that 
Mr. Woodman should desire a church meeting to deal with Mr. Parker, when 
there was more need for him to be dealt withal for his offences. He also affirm- 
eth that he heard Mr. Woodman publickly affirm that Mr. Parker had broken 
three covenants already, and that no covenant would stand before him. 

Sworn to, April eighteenth, 1671. 

1 Deposition of Tristram Coffin and John Knight. 

I On the sixth of February in a publick meeting in the meeting house Mr. 
Woodman affirmed that when he went to deal with Mr. Parker according to 
rule and two brethren with him, that Mr. Parker refused to hear him, and told 
him his ways were ungodly. Tristram Coffin said, sir, you delude the people 
for those words were spoken the nineteenth of December on another account 
and it was that day fortnight that Mr. Woodman with others went to deal with 
Mr. Parker. Sworn March twenty-eighth 1671.' 

As Mr. Woodman's party claimed to be THE church, and to have 
a majority of the members, it was deemed of consequence on one 
side to establish that claim, and on the other to prove the contrary. 

* There are,' says Mr. John Woodbridge, ( according to just computation, 
reckoned as members of our church, if Mr. Dummer be left out, seventy-nine, 
if he be reckoned, eighty. Our brethren of the number of eighty lay claim to 
forty-one to be with them, if Mr. Dummer be reckoned into them. 

Steven Swett, one of their number is a professed anabaptist and hath refused 
communion with this church several years. Thirty-four only voted with them, 
.which is far from the major part of the church. This being the foundation of 
all their meetings and actings as a church, if the foundation be tottering, all 
their meetings being continued by adjournment from one to another, the errors 
of the foundation must needs convey irregularity to all subsequent motions. 7 

'John Knight and Tristram Coffin testify that it was a minor part of the 
church that voted (to sit) for appointing a meeting to hear Mr. Woodman's 
complaint against Mr. Parker, for thirty-nine have not joyned with them, besides 
three of forty-one, that Mr. Woodman lays claim to were not present, namely, 
Mr. Dummer, John Merrill, John Wells, and Mr. Woodman is the complainer, 
and there remains but thirty-seven. Benjamin Rolf and William Moody did 
not vote, and Steven Swett ought not to vote, because he is an anabaptist and 
hath not had communion with this church, and so only thirty-four voted. 

I 1 Joseph Hills aged sixty-nine do hereby testify that on the day of the church 
meeting appointed on motion of Mr. Woodman, I being in conference with Mr. 
W. about forbearing all proceeding till it might be cleared up by help of counsel 
or conference, whether the power of church discipline was in the majority or 
elsewhere, Mr. Woodman said that Mr. Parker had broken covenant with the 
church sundry times and it would be to no purpose to make an agreement with 
Mr. Parker. Sworn April eighteenth 1671. 

1 The deposition of Robert Pike aged fifty-three or thereabouts, being desired 
to give my testimony concerning Mr. Richard Dummer about his being a 
member of Newbury church, this is that I do testify, that at a meeting many 
years ago ; as I remember upon a sabbath day, there was some thing propounded 


concerning Mr. Dummer's transmission from the church at Roxbury to the 
church in Newbury, which seemed to good acceptance with the church, 
but whether it was by dismission or recommendation I understand not. 

' The meeting was in the open ayr under a tree.' 

After hearing all the testimony in the case the court came to the 
following decision, namely : 

1 Complaint being made unto this court against Mr. Woodman. Mr. Dummer, 
William Titcomb and a party adhering to them as doth appear in three papers 
presented by Daniel Pierce and Richard Kent, the said Woodman and divers 
others complained of, were summoned at the sessions of this court in March 
last, where the several complaints and charges were read to the said parties 
then appearing, and their answers required thereunto, when the said Mr. Wood- 
man among other things alleging that their accusations were many and heavy, 
and that they had many matters to charge upon Mr. Parker and those adhering 
to him, which they had neither time nor opportunity on the sudden to prepare, 
the court not willing to surprize them and desiring fully to understand the 
whole state of a case so extraordinary and of so high a nature, adjourned to the 
eighteenth of April, allowing them copies of the charges exhibited against 
them, and advising them to prepare their objections against Mr. Parker and 
those with him, and to acquaint him with the same that they also might be in 
readiness to make their defence at the adjournment, and the court might then 
clearly understand upon hearing the whole case and according to the merit 
thereof give j udgment. The court meeting at the day aforesaid, after a full 
hearing it did appear that Mr. Woodman, Mr. Dummer, William Titcomb and 
others adhering to them (not appearing to be the major part of the church at 
Newbury, although the major part of such as met together) have proceeded to 
admonish their pastor, Mr. Parker, and to suspend him from the exercise of his 
office, as appeareth by their act sent unto him the said Mr Parker as signed by 
Mr. Dummer and Richard Thorlay. 

< Second, that the said Mr. Woodman and party as above said did proceed to 
elect two ruling elders, namely Mr. Woodman himself and Mr. Dummer, ap- 
pointing a day for their ordination. Third, that this answer was passed against 
their pastor upon the complaint and solicitation of Mr. Woodman, and that the 
said Woodman had openly published several falsehoods to animate his party 
(which lay under some discouragement by the judgment of a council declared 
against such irregular acting) and to exasperate them against Mr. Parker, who 
before and at that time of meeting, wherein they suspended him, to prevent so 
great an evil and scandal, did advise them as became his place, and offered and 
intreated them to joyne with him to call a council to hear their differences, 
engaging himself to be concluded thereby, which was not attended by said 
Woodman and parties, but they proceeded to act as abovesaid, for the defence 
of which high and irregular practices unheard of in this country, exceedingly 
scandalous and reproachful to the way of the churches here established, 
destructive to the peace and order of the gospel, threatening the ruin and deso- 
lation of all order. They have alleged nothing but that they were the major 
part of the church, not charging, much less proving, any offence given by their 
reverend pastor, Mr. Parker, who for any thing, that doth appear is altogether 
innocent, though so exceedingly scandalized, reproached and wronged by Mr. 
Woodman his party. All which clearly and undeniably appearing by the 
papers, pleas and evidences that are on file, the court as in duty bound being 
sensible of the dishonor to the name of God, to religion here established and 
also the disturbance of the peace, the scandalizing of a venerable, loving and 
pious pastor and an aged father can not but judge the said Woodman, Mr. 
Dummer, and William Titcomb, the parties joyning with them, guilty of very 
great misdemeanors, though in different degrees, deserving severe punishment, 
yet beins willing to exercise as much lenity as the case is capable of, or may 
stand with a meet testimony against such an offence, which we are bound in 


duty to God and our consciences to bear testimony against, do hereby adjudge 
the said Mr. Woodman and party adhering to him to pay the several fines under 
written with the charge of the witnesses and fees of court, and that they all 
stand committed till the said fines, charges and fees be satisfied and paid.' 

The sentence of the court was passed May twenty-ninth, 1671. 
The following is a complete list of Mr. Woodman's party, with 
the amount of the fines affixed to their names. 

1 Mr. Edward Woodman, twenty nobles.^ Mr. Richard Dummer, Richard 
Thorlay, Stephen Greenleaf, Richard Bartlet and William Titcomb four nobles 
each. Francis Plumer, John Emery senior, John Emery junior, John Merrill 
and Thomas Browne a mark each.f Nicholas Batt, Anthony Morse senior, 
Abraham Toppan, William Sawyer, Edward Woodman junior, William Pils- 
bmy, Caleb Moody, John Poor senior, John Poor junior, John Webster, John 
Bartlet senior, John Bartlet junior, Joseph Plumer, Edward Richardson, Thom- 
as Hale junior, Edmund Moores, Benjamin Lowle, Job Pilsbury, John Wells, 
William Ilsley, James Ordway, Francis Thorla, Abraham Merrill, John Bailey 7 
Benjamin Rolf, Steven Swett, and Samuel Plumer, a noble each.' Robert 
Coker and William Moody were not fined. The whole number is forty-one.' 

The following are the names of Mr. Parker's party. 




















NICHOLAS WALLINGTON. Whole number 41 . 

%The foregoing completes the transcript from the county court 
records of all that is deemed necessary to a right understanding of the 
case, which is in some respects peculiar, and must be deeply interest- 
ing, not only to the descendants of those engaged in such a contest, 
but to all who wish to ascertain the feelings, the views, opinions, and 
principles, of the early settlers of New England, respecting that 
vital question in church and state : in whose hands is the power of 
government rightly lodged ? Ought or ought not the majority to 
govern ? On this question, which agitated the church in Newbury 
for more than a quarter of a century, I make no comments, and 

* A noble is six shillings and eight-pence, 
t A mark is thirteen shillings and fourpence. 


offer no opinion. The facts are before the reader. He must draw 
his own conclusions. Should he, however, suppose, that the action 
of the county court was a final settlement of the whole affair, and 
that peace and quietness was once more re-established in the church 
and among the people of Newbury, he will find his supposition 
erroneous, as the following extracts from the general court records 
will show. 

1 May 31, 1671. The present distressed and labouring state of the church of 
Christ at Newbury being represented to this court, whereof they are deeply 
sensible, this court doth judge it expedient that some help be sent unto the said 
church in a way of communion of churches, and therefore do order and appoint 
that the secretary doe in the name of this court write unto these several churches 
of Charlestown, the first church of Boston, the church of Dedham, the church 
of Roxbury, desiring them to send their elders and messengers to the church of 
Newbury, that they may enquire into their state and offer them their best advice, 
according to the word of God, for their composure and healing and to make a 
return of what they shall judge and doe in this matter, unto this court or the 
council of this commonwealth, and that the secretary doe signify this order unto 
the reverend Mr. Thomas Parker to be communicated unto both parties there at 
variance in that church of Newbury ; and that Mr. William Stoughton be 
desired to join with the secretary in writing their letters. 7 

On June twenty-third, 1671, Mr. William Stoughton addressed 
the following letter to the reverend Thomas Parker. 

1 The present state of your church being so uncomfortable and so publickly 
known, it hath occasioned many and sad thoughts of heart in all that tenderly 
love the name and interest of the Lord Jesus Christ and seek the good and 
welfare of these churches with their whole hearts. A solemn grief it is that 
after such pains and labour heretofore taken by the reverend elders and messen- 
gers of several churches that were with you and some hopes of a good success 
thereof, yet matters in conclusion should come to no better an issue than what 
of late hath fallen out amongst you. What in this case is incumbent on 
authority to doe that your divisions may be healed and the scandal of them 
removed halh been (though under some straits of time) a serious disquisition 
amongst us. You may please therefore to understand that we have written unto 
these four churches, namely, of Boston, Charlestown, Roxbury and Dedham, 
exhorting and desiring them (according to the known and approved practice of 
communion of churches amongst us) joyntly to send their elders and otter meet 
messengers unto you that they may in such a way of God take knowledge of 
your present case, and being fully informed give you their best advice an coun- 
sel therein as the rules and appointments of our Lord Jesus Christ in his word 
shall direct. And what these reverend elders and messengers shall find and doe 
in this your weighty concern they are requested to make a return thereof either to 
the next general court, that shall be held or to the council of this commonwealth. 
The messengers of the churches when chosen will give you seasonable notice 
of the time, which they shall have agreed on, of coming to you. 

1 And, that there may be that readynesse and preparednesse in you all to 
receive their coming upon so solemn an errand, as you ought in the Lord, we 
desire and expect that what we now write unto you may beT communicated and 
read unto your whole church, if it may be assembled together, or at least unto 
both the parties at variance therein severally. Now. reverend sir and dear 
brethren we expect and warn you all, and with all earnestness call on you that 
you would thoroughly and solemnly as in the sight of God reflect upon your 
doleful and deplorable condition, considering both whence such distractions and 
disorders spring, and whereunto they tend, none being gainers by them but 
Satan and his instruments, whilst in the mean time your own souls, and the glory 


of God and the common interest of these churches are great losers. We beseech 
you, every one, to be jealous of and judge himself, to humble yourselves 
greatly before the Lord, to beg that pardon of God and reconciliation with him, 
without which there can never be any healing among yourselves. That this you 
may do and that there may be a sovereign and plentiful effusion of grace, love, 
peace, and a sound mind whereby you may be in every respect framed unto a 
thankful entertainment of unfeigned submission to such counsels of peace and 
healing, as may be in the way prososed given in and pressed upon you, is the 
cordial sincere desire of 


On the second of July, the first church in Boston chose deputy 
governor John Leverett and five other messengers, l to go to the 
church a.t Newbury, to hear the differences that be there to be a 
means of healing, if God please.'^ 

The council assembled at Newbury according to the direction of 
the general court, but at what precise time we are not informed. 
The result of their labors was presented to the court, who made a 
report thereon at the May session, 1672, as the reader will see in its 
proper place. 

From the records of the first church in Rowley, the following 
letters are extracted. 

' Newbury, sixteenth of February, 1671. 

1 To the church of Christ in Rowley both elder and brethren, grace and peace 
be with you. 

t Reverend and beloved in the Lord, 

1 It is the portion that the God of all wisdom hath allotted 
this poor church, to pass over the greatest part of her time in this wilderness 
in great divisions and contentions which cannot but occasion much perturbation 
of spirit among ourselves, and many thoughts of heart in our sister churches 
round about us, that we above all others should thus unquietly pass the days of 
our pilgrimage here, having no other time but the present moment that pass 
over us, which may be called ours, and the voice of God still sounding in our 
ears to day if ye will hear his voice then harden not your hearts. And we being 
conscious that a state of division and contention in the church of Christ is an 
inlet to much sin and evil occurrences, and that such customs are not to be 
allow r ed in the church of Christ, and yet we are commanded to contend for the 
faith once given to the saints whereby we doe confess that contentions against 
truth and against rule are only forbidden by the Lord. We therefore considering 
the aptness that is in men to think well of their own judgments and actions, 
doe think it expedient, and that, which doth stand with the mind of Christ, and 
to the rule, to which we have lately agreed, and must have recourse thereto in 
things wherein we differ, to call upon neighbouring churches for help and advice. 
We doe therefore earnestly desire that you will send us the messengers, such as 
be most capable of giving us advice from scripture, or from rule thereunto 
agreeing, for if it be the good pleasure of the Lord we would once have an end 
tjf trouble and contention in his way and according to his will. We shall call 
in for our help herein at this time only our next two neighbouring churches, 
Salisbury and Rowley, thereby you may consider what number may be most 
convenient to send. The time we desire your presence is the last day of Febru- 
ary being Tuesday seven night after the date hereof at nine o'clock in the 
morning. We would desire you to repair to the ordinary, where some of us 
shall attend to receive you. Once more we do earnestly desire you in the bowels 
of Christ Jesus not to fail our expectations for our condition itself doth unfortu- 
nately call for help and advice, in a case, in which the glory of God and the 
peace of this church is soe nearly concerned and the rule we are agreed upon 

* Boston first church records. 


doth direct us to your advice as yourselves are our witness ; not doubting but 
by your advice through God's presence and blessing his name shall have glory 
and ourselves a benefit. And that it might soe be we commend you to his 
grace and direction, and rest in love yours to serve you in what we may. 

By us signed, whose names are underwritten in the 

name of the brethren of the church. 



1 To Mr. Woodman and the rest of our beloved brethren with him at Newbu- 
ry, members of the church of Christ there, grace and peace be with you. 

1 Rowley, February 20*A, 1671. 

* Beloved brethren, 

1 Your letter, (wherein you desire of this church of Christ at Rowley 
that we would send messengers to give advice tending to the healing of your 
long and uncomfortable differences) hath been read before them the nineteenth 
of this instant. Their answer is that though they are sensible of your uncom- 
fortable condition as things now stand with you and are willing to send the best 
help God hath given us, yet at present we judge it not seasonable because we 
are informed by brother Titcomb your messenger to us and by others that you 
did not by any publick act agree to desire your reverend pastor and the brethren 
with him to joyne with you in calling a council. We conceive it most agreea- 
ble to the rule the fourteenth of Romans seventeen that you desire his concur- 
rence with you in calling a council, and we know noe instance wherein this 
method has not been attended of such brethren fc********** as have at any 
time called in council in any of these churches. If it be said he will not joyne 
in calling a council we answer, it may be soe, yet your way is then the clearer 
to call irThelp without him. Thus far the whole church. 

{ Only several of this church do conceive that it were more suitable to your 
affairs if your church call in some more help than what you mention in your 
letter, three at least, if not four churches. A covenant breaker is very hardly 
set, and 'if nine churches could hardly be instrumental of your peace, how you 
think two should set you at rights we cannot easily imagine. But we hope if 
you are willing to call in four or five churches Mr. Parker and the brethren 
would concur with you therein, whereas if you only mention Salisbury and 
Rowley to him, we doubt whether he will concur, for he cannot be ignorant 
that there is not suitable help to be sure of at Rowley as there is in others that 
you might call in help from. Besides consider that word the eleventh of Prov- 
erbs fourteen in the multitude of counsellors there is safety. When are many 
counsellors needful but in difficult cases, and if yours are not such we cannot 
readily think of any that are. No more but our prayers to God for you that he 
would grant you peace by all means. Soe pray your loving brethren, 

In the name of the whole church at Rowley.' 

1 Newbury, March 17, 1671. 

1 The church of Christ which is at Rowley both elder and brethren grace and 
peace be with you from the Lord Jesus Christ. 

{ Reverend and dearly beloved in the Lord. After our long and troublesome 
differences in the church, it is well known unto yourselves that in April the 
twenty-second last by the help and advice of the assembly of the elders and 
brethren of nine churches we made an agreement or covenant that the church of 
Newbury should be governed by a rule then agreed upon in all the administrations 
contained in five articles. Notwithstanding our troubles being still continued 
and lengthened out without all hope of remedy in that estate the church stood 


in having but one elder, and himself so contrary to the church with whom he 
hath entered into the late covenant or agreement. Insomuch that we are with- 
out all orderly proceedings in any church matters, no members admitted, noe 
censure can pass on offenders, but our condition attended with many evil occur- 
rences to the dishonor of God, to the reproach of congregational churches and 
especially to this church as not being capable of healing our distempers. In 
consideration whereof a brother of this congregation hath lately attempted to 
deal with Mr. Parker as concerning the cause of all our troubles and contentions 
have proceeded from himself but Mr. Parker refused to hear him saying that 
none but elders had to doe with him, whereupon this brother made this com- 
plaint to the whole church one Lord's day and desired the church to appoint a 
time to hear him in his complaints, but Mr. Parker forbad the brother to com- 
plain to the church and forbad the church to hear him ; notwithstanding the 
church did stay and appointed a time to hear the complaint and have met and 
heard it. Then considering the weight of the cause in respect to the person 
concerned in the complaint, agreed to call in two neighbouring churches for 
advice, but there came to our help but the messengers from Salisbury only, 
whose advice was that the choice of officers either teaching or ruling elders, 
such as the church should most unanimously agree upon would most conduce 
to our peace and quiet. Whereupon three or four of the brethren being sent to 
Mr. Parker to desire his consent to this advice but he did deny it. The church 
having adjourned their former meeting, when they heard the complaint, met 
again at a time appointed and passed their judgment upon it, and being forced 
thereunto to the great grief and trouble of our hearts and by an act laid Mr. 
Parker under blame, suspending him from all official acts until he gave the 
church satisfaction, only to preach as a gifted brother if he please, and having 
soe done they elected two ruling elders Mr. Richard Dummer and Mr. Edward 
Woodman, and have appointed Thursday next for their ordination. This is 
therefore to request that you would be pleased to send your messengers to give 
their approbation to the work intended, and what help you can to the furtherance 
of the work. If your reverend pastor would be pleased to preach us a sermon 
we shall be much obliged unto him. Thus we thought good to lay open to your 
understanding the order of our proceedings, as not desiring to walk in the dark, or 
any way to beguile your apprehensions. In case the Lord should stirr up your 
hearts to send us your help in a work that soe much concerns the glory of God, 
the peace of the church, we hope you shall have no cause to repent of your la- 
bour, but to praise the God of peace with ourselves hoping that by such means 
he will be pleased to create peace for us. Soe commending you to his gracious 
direction in this and all your concernments we rest in him to serve you in what 
we may. Signed by us, whose names are underwritten 

In the name and by the consent of the church. 





'Rowley, March 20 ; 1671. 

* Dearly beloved in the Lord Jesus, 

' The lecture this week calls for my attendance so that I 
cannot enlarge, but in brief you may by these understand that your letter hath 
been read before the church, and their answer is that they judge not meet to 
send any messengers to encourage or countenance you in what you have done 
in reference to you reverend pastor, nor in what you are farther about to do in 
respect to your ordination of elders, as being doubtful of such proceedings, yet 
neither do they think meet by messengers or by writing to bear testimony 
against your actings or absolutely to condemn them. 

1 But for myself as one that you were pleased to direct your letters unto, I 
must needs say that I conceive you are far out of God's way, and therefore doe 
most earnestly beseech you to desist from such irregular proceedings and un- 
heard of in any church in New England that I know of. The reasons why I 
conceive your late transactions to be irregular are these. 


4 First, in that you have not called in counsell in an orderly way by desiring 
your pastor and the brethren with him to joyne with you in calling in advice. 
Now it seems to me irrational as well as unbrotherly, that brethren especially a 
pastor should not have liberty as well as brethren (that bear offence against 
him,) to chuse such as may hear the matter between them. 

1 Second, in that he hath offered you to joyne with you in calling in advice, 
you have not closed with his motion, nor been moved thereby to put any stop 
to your actinirs, 

1 Third, as to your deposing of your reverend pastor, from the exercise of 
his pastoral office, you mention no advice from the messengers of Salisbury 
church to encourage you therein, nor doe I believe any church in the colony 
\vill stand by you in it You know what the judgment of the churches is as to 
that case expressed in the platform. It must be for scandalous evils, not mat- 
ters controversial And the whole brotherhood agreeing that called him to 
office, and therefore not a mere major part, and with the advice of neighbouring 
churches, the calling in of which you have neither referred to your pastor nor 
accepted his offer of it to you. For my coming to preach with you on Thursday 
next if I should soe doe I should think myself much better employed than *## : * 
sometimes was when he was not well employed. I have not been unwilling, nor 
shall be to serve you as God shall call and wtten he calls me thereto. In the mean 
while I beseech the good Lord to direct your work in truth and insure that mer- 
cy to you and me that David begs Psalms 19 : 13. Keep back thy servant, and 
so forth. I rest your grieved brother 


The two following letters were written by the reverend Samuel 
Phillips of Rowley. They are also transcribed from the Rowley 
church records and commence thus : 

1 January 16th, 1672. 

1 A reply to a letter sent to S. P. from ^r. John Woodbridge in justification of 
their practice in coming to the Lord's table notwithstanding the sad divisions 
among them.' 

* Reverend and dear sir, 

1 Though I have noe great list nor leisure for writings of this na- 
ture your long epistle necessitating some reply I doe entreat your consideration 
of these few lines in way of answer. You doe in yours inform me that the 
brethren opposite to Mr. Parker doe encourage themselves by something that 
they have heard from me, as if I profest against your practice in celebrating 
the Lord's supper in such a time of division. I know not what reports you have 
heard nor from whom, nor on what ground you receive them, notwithstanding I 
deny not, but upon occasion I was of your last council's mind in this matter 
(who advised a cessation at present till your spirits were healed and sweetened 
with love one towards another) and have expressed noe less to Mr. Parker before 
the council was sent. But if it be the way of Mr. Woodman and the rest with 
him to take advantage by any hint (as you say) though never so frivolous, you 
needed not to take such notice of the taking encouragement from such hints, 
nor take so much pains to confute them. 

1 Concerning the question as yourself have stated it, it is easily answered, 
for yourself confess that if there were any thing chargeable in the reverend 
pastor and brethren why they should abstain from the use of the sacrament, 
that then you would acknowledge that the case were somewhat altered, if it 
were soe. But that I conceive is the case, for the pastor and the brethren stand 
charged by a council to have acted irregularly in several things. Three are in 
my mind at present. 

1 First, that Mr. Parker, contrary to the agreement in the former council, did 
refuse to admit some into fellowship, because they were of different persuasions 
from himself, whereas different persuasions on either side was to be noe lett to 



1 Second, that the articles of agreement (of which the forementioned was one) 
to which Mr. Parker consented and several principal brethren, yet that he should 
refuse to publish them and to endeavour a consent to them, was an omission that 
had sad consequences following amongst yourselves, not to speak how much 
the former council's pains was made thereby ineffectual and God's name taken 
in vain whilst solemn thanks were given to God in the churches that he had 
blessed endeavours and inclined their hearts to such articles of agreement. 

1 Third, that the pastor and brethren did pass a sentence against Mr. Wood- 
man's party before calling them to repentance, or advising in soe weighty a 
matter with other churches, and though you once expressed yourself that these 
circumstantial omissions (tho' Mr. Parker did not grant so farre) I conceive that 
they were, especially the former, a substantial omission of attendance to the 
article that calls upon us to have patience with an heretic, and not reject him 
presently without using means once and again to convince and reduce him, for it 
becomes us much more to use means with our brethren to convince and reduce 
them from the errors of their ways, James 5 : 20, and Timothy 2 : 24 and 25. In 
a word I do conceive that if the council's determination when they left you, and 
the reply to your objections be well considered, there will appear something 
chargeable on the pastor and brethren, which ought to be acknowledged, (that 
thereby the hearts of the brethren grieved and offended may be eased) before 
you came in order to the Lord's table. And besides it may be feared that your- 
selves not beginning in this work is the cause why the opposite party are not 
more forward to attend their duty herein, which duty how much it is incumbent 
on both, methinks those scriptures the fifth Matthew 23, 24 and James 5 : 16 
doe evince. It is true God will have have his holy ordinances attended, which 
you strongly plead, but you know that he will have them attended after the due 
order, otherwise we may expect a breach rather than a blessing 1 Chronicles 5 : 
12. God loves his worship and desires it much but he **## more upon peace 
and union amongst his people than upon attendance upon him in this or that 
part of substituted worship, which are means to further us in moral duties and 
therefore tells us that he is willing to stay for his service till we be reconciled 
one to another. If the gift must be left at the altar till personal reconciliation be 
made, much more when the distance is between so many, not healed by per- 
sonal acknowledgements. And as to this you should do as you would be done 
by. You will not admit the brethren to that ordinance without confession of 
their faults, and why should you goe to it without attendance to the duty you 
call for from them, being there are failings with you as well as greater evils 
with them. As for your pleading therefore not guilty, it is not unuseful to con- 
sider what Mr. Burroughs speaks in his Irenicon. who tells us when our spirits 
are hot with displeasure one against another, we are apt to be hardened 
from seeing what is amiss in ourselves as it was with Jonah w r hen his spirit was 
hot and angry he would hardly be convinced by God himself that he did or 
spoke any thing amiss. 

1 Concerning your judgment that no cessation in your case can be grounded 
on 1 Corinthians, 11, I desire you would a little consider the eighteenth, 
twentieth^ and thirty-third verses. He tells them that whilst there were divisions 
and other evils amongst them, this was not to eat the Lord's supper, hence it 
necessarily follows, that those things, which made it to be noe participation in 
the Lord's supper, if not amended, ought to be reformed before they came, 
otherwise why does God set the sword's point at their breast verses twenty- 
seven and twenty-nine, yea [threaten] them not only with sickness but with death, 
if they might still meet at that ordinance though those divisions and other evils 
are not removed. He that says examine, prepare and soe come, does therein 
say come not otherwise ; and church reformation, not only personal examination 
is required in that chapter before they might partake of that ordinance, other- 
wise they might expect to hear from God this is not to eat the Lord's supper 
verse twentieth yea and might expect to feel more of his displeasure besides 
what what they had felt. I need not tell you, sir, what God required of the 
Jews as to searching out of leaven before they eat the passover. or what it sig- 
nified. The apostle expounds the 1 Corinthians 9 purge out the old leaven 
that you may keep the feast. The least sin is worse than a cartload of leaven. 


These forementioned failings the scriptures doe condemn as well as the council. 
The Lord enable you to purge them out by repentance, that soe you may come 
together to that ordinance of love, joy and prayse purely for the better and not 
for the worse. Soe prays your unworthy brother, 


l Rvwky April 3d, 1672. 

' Reverend and good sir, 

t It was in my purpose, (as it seems it was in yours), not to have 
troubled you nor myself with any more writing, and therefore having perused 
your reply to my letter, though I got not satisfaction by it, yet I attempted noe 
return, judging it meet that yourself should have the last word, but having 
received another writing from you intimating that I have to great offence admit- 
ted one of Newbury church, or more to the Lord's table with us, though under 
scandal, and having given satisfaction, this does necessitate me to write once 
more and upon this occasion I shall make a brief reply unto your former large 
letter. The fifth of Matthew you wave as conceiving it touches not your case, 
but condemns moral evils, covered with a cloak of devotion towards God, such 
as open violence, devouring widows' houses and for a pretence making long 
prayers, but the text saith, if thou rememberest that thy brother hath aught against 
thee if it be a lesser fault, such as you mention, yet if it be a breach of rule 
whereby I have offended my brother hi word or deed, I ought to acknowledge 
my fault and be reconciled unto him. It is true as you say a man must remem- 
ber that his brother hath something against him and if you yourselves can re- 
member nought of that nature, who can help it but only God ? whereas you say 
in your first writing and also in your second that all duties, (if God's worship 
may), both publick and private must be omitted, I know noe such consequence 
as that can rationally be gathered from any thing I have exprest. You say 
that all God's ordinances are of the same nature and alike holy. Though that 
be granted, yet I conceive a man may and ought to attend upon God in duties of 
his worship daily in his family and weekly in hearing the word and so forth, 
though in his sins, loving and allowing himself in them, as suppose a pott com- 
panion, and one that has offended many by his ungodly words and ways, and 
though it is his sin to come with the stumbling block of his inquity before his 
face yet he may not abstain from the service of God in family and in publick, 
but for him to come to the Lord's supper in such a condition were a high provo- 
cation to God, very sinful in them that suffer it and very dangerous to his own 
[soul.] The reason is because some duties of God's worship as reading, hear- 
ing, prayer and so forth are means appointed for converting and working grace, 
and therefore to be attended by such as are impenitent offenders, but the sacra- 
ment is appointed for comforting the weak brethren, and for strengthening and 
increasing of grace ; my meaning is not in the least to reflect in all this, but 
to show the invalidity of such an assertion that if we must abstain from the 
Lord's supper till we have acknowledged our faults, whereby we have offended 
our brethren (especially all that are more publick) then by the same reason we 
must abstain from all duties of God's worship both publick and private. Be- 
sides family worship daily and publick worship weekly are stated as to time of 
attending such duties, but the Lord's supper is not so" but we may come to it 
seldomer or oftener as we are in capacity for such an ordinance. Old Mr. Shep- 
ard administered it once in ten weeks and truly better not once in a year than 
to come with any allowed leaven (publickly taken notice of) but not removed 
by repentance. You farther add that the innocent are not be judged with the 
guilty. I answer, 

' First, it is hard to conceive that in a church contending and divided there 
will be many innocent, though some are usually farre more guilty than others. 
1 Corinthians 1 1 : 30 we read not of many clear. 

1 Secondly, if there be particular persons men and women innocent yet till the 
church be in peace and offences healed in some measure, they are to submit to 
the affliction to want the Lords supper. At Ipswich there was hot contentions 
about Mr. Norton's leaving them, some sadly clasht with the reverend Mr. Rogers, 
and one with another, and though there were divers good men and women that 


never meddled in that business, but sat silent, yet the sacrament was not 
administered. And was it not the duty (think you) of these innocent ones to 
submit to it (though for a time they wanted that ordinance), the church not 
being in a capacity to celebrate it till matters were composed. 

1 As to the three particulars I mentioned I conceived you had and have cause 
to blame yourselves herein. Time permits not to argue farther with you 
about them, only a few words as to the third about your censure upon the 
offending brother. I will not now discourse upon the nullity of that sentence 
nor how farr ye saying clavis ##** non ligat is applicable to your act, yet two 
things I formerly mentioned were omissions, which I still think cannot be justified. 

1 First, the not calling upon them to see their sin in such an unheard of act, 
you tell me you had often warned them to desist from their irregular proceed- 
ings and actings, but not a word of any endeavour to bring them to the sense 
of that sin, or those sins you censured them for, and therefore they could not 
be looked upon as such as would not hear the church, when the church had 
not admonished them, nor called upon them for repentance, and as only such 
as refuse to hear the church are to be censured, or withdrawn from, by the church. 
And forasmuch as you say what good success could have been expected, if you 
had endeavoured to bring them to a sight of these evils ? I answer whether 
they would hear or forbear, yet God's rule is to be attended and therefore your 
third ingredient to right sentence is namely, to seek a law of God, that will allow 
them you mention to withdraw from you. obstinate offenders to be censured. I 
answer not to be withdrawn from till all due means be used for their conviction 
and bringing them to repentance, neither could they be called obstinate 
offenders when you had not endeavoured to bring them to a sight of their evils, 
especially the scandalous one of deposing Mr. Parker. 

1 It is true what you say it is easier to find faults than to mend them ; it is 
also as true it is easier to make faults than to see them, as appears by your 
calling this an omission of you know not what, and let what I have said 
formerly and now as to this matter be accounted a private fancy, I am willing 
to bear it having a council to bear it with me and what is more the rule will 
stand by me to my best understanding. 

' Second, touching the other omission of calling in council your own words 
doe evince that it was an unjustifiable omission, in that you once and again 
say (I think truly) that it was a case the like was never heard of, that you 
know of in the Christian world, the more necessity of serious deliberation and 
good advice, and you may be sure noe council in the country would have 
advised you to pass any sentence against them or [them to] withdraw from you 
till due means had been used by yourselves together with the body of other 
churches, if need were to bring them .to repentance. By this you may perceive 
that I am farre from that [opinion] that particular churches have absolute power 
to carry all matters amongst themselves. If some of our church has lisped out 
something that way, we own it not for a congregational principle, only they say, 
I own that every particular church organic has power to carry on all affairs and 
administration in God's house, excepting when they cannot proceed for want of 
light in difficult cases, or for want of peace and accord. 

'As for that passage you mention out of the platform that the power of 
regular government is in the pastor and the brethren walking in communion, 
they can't be thought to intend it of a divided and rent church as yours is. 
Concerning your last writing as to the satisfaction the brethren generally 
rendered. I judge as you do that it is farre from what the Lord and his people 
do expect from them. As for the matter of blame you allege against me #### 
###### as receiving to the sacrament one or more of your offending brethren 
scandalous and impenitent, I answer that it is easy to conceive a grievous fault 
and then to aggravate and lay a load of blame upon it. I am not of that 
opinion as you intimate, nor has there been any such practice amongst us as 
yet that we know of. The person that communicated with us was goodman 
[Thomas] Hale junior. You say our practice therein is episcopal, I wish there 
were nothing in Newbury that looks of a more episcopal countenance, but to 
let that pass. 

' First, the censure put upon him, namely, goodman Hale and the rest was 


understood by the council to be null, I answer it was irregular though its true 
the fault was great. 

1 Second, he was one that Mr. Parker was willing to accept to the Lord's 
supper with himself as being satisfied with his acknowledgement (wherein he 
comes up fully to own his fault according to the sentence of the council in 
terminis) provided he would come to the sacrament. 

' Third, we have it attested by two witnesses that Mr. Parker told them (going 
to him to acknowledge their faults according to the sentence of the council) 
that let them go as far as they would in acknowledgement except they would 
come and join with him at the Lord's table, it would not be taken for satisfaction. 

1 Fourth, I propounded his desire of partaking to our church, that if any had 
any thing to object. There was not one that manifested the least dissent. 

' I asked the week before advice of Mr. Gobbet in reference to Mr. Dummer 
and goodman Hale their desire of partaking with us that in case they came up 
to full acknowledgement of their evil to Mr. Parker and the brethren that they 
might be admitted, if Mr. Parker do not own that he have submitted to the 
council's sentence (I mean goodman Hale) to take blame upon him, which they 
lay upon him, and was unwilling or refused to own as much publickly as he 
presented to Mr. Parker more privately, then I acknowledge there was a wilful 
irregularity in admitting him to communion in that ordinance with us for the 
witnesses I spoke of were not present when goodman Hale offered such full 
satisfaction to Mr. Parker, which I understood not till a day or two after the 
sacrament, but the testimony is that they there offered up like full satisfaction, 
but it was not accepted except they would come to the sacrament. I shall not 
for the future admit him nor any more of yours till they make it evident by full 
proof that they have attended their duty in what is before mentioned, and then 
though they should essay to join with that part of the church with you, which 
do partake. I do not see how they can be rejected of other churches, yet not- 
withstanding I shall not be very forward to admit any more of yours till God be 
pleased to find out some way for issuing the difference amongst you, which 
might have been obtained before this day, had both parties acknowledged to 
each other what was amiss. I would not be understood as if I looked upon the 
offences as equally evil, yet the mote in our eyes should trouble us (if the 
humble soul may call his sin a mote) as well as in another's, for a less fault is 
more hurtful to us, if not repented of, than the greatest crimes of others can be. 

1 For my intermeddling as a busy-body in other men's matters, for that is the 
apostles' expression that you seem to refer to, you cannot be ignorant that I can 
easily answer it, but I desire not to aggravate, but to love you and delight in 
you, notwithstanding all reflections, for I cannot but say that you have been and 
are dear to me and reverend Mr. Parker also, though it may be neither of you 
are very ready to believe it at present. I do not intend to trouble you with any 
more writing (but hope we may have opportunity to discourse the matter lovingly 
together.) In the meanwhile while the God of love and peace direct us in the 
way thereof. Pray for your unworthy brother, 


The difficulties in the church in Newbury had, it seems, excited 
a deep interest in almost all parts of the state, and, as usual in times 
of excitement, a vast deal of falsehood was circulated respecting 
Mr. Parker. One of these stories was deemed of so much impor- 
tance by the grand jury, that they sent the following to the county 

1 We present Edward Lumas of Ipswich for publishing these following words, 
namely, l that Mr. Parker of Newbury had sent a letter to the lord arch bishop 
of Canterbury for help and relief about their troubles at Newbury and that he 
saw a copy of the letter.' 

t For this offence,' the court records inform us, May first, 1672, 


4 Edward Lumas and Robert Adams shall audibly make public ac- 
knowledgement next lecture day.' 


From the general court records I make the following extracts : 

'May 19th, 1672. The court having perused the return of the messengers of 
the churches chosen by order of the ecclesiastical court to inspect the 
differences in the church of Newbury and to offer their best advice according to 
the word of God for their composure and healing and to make return of what 
they shall find and do in this matter unto this court or council of the common- 
wealth and upon our consideration judge meet to declare their approbation of 
the same and desire it may be attended to accordingly by all persons respect- 
ively concerned, the particulars whereof are as followeth. 

1 First, concerning Mr. Woodman and his company we do judge their actings 
in withdrawing from the rest of the church, to set up meetings among them- 
selves in the name of the church and to act the power of the church in admon- 
ishing and suspending their reverend pastor and choosing elders, appointing a 
time of ordination, although they be the major part of the brethren and, not- 
withstanding offences and provocations given them we cannot but bear due 
witness against them, as a violation of church order in the gospel and usurpa- 
tion upon the liberties of their brethren, for although the whole church agree- 
ing may censure an officer for gross and scandalous evils in dealing or conver- 
sation, impenitently persisted in according to Colossians 4: 17, Romans 16 : 17, 
as is alleged in the platform of discipline, yet in a divided state of the church 
for the major part and that by a very few, and that in a matter doubtful and 
disputable, to act as is aforesaid is a matter of great disorder and scandalous 
and contrary to 1 Thessalonians 5:13, Gallatians 4 : 13, 1 Corinthians 13:4, 
and therefore is a nullity. 

1 Second, concerning the act of the reverend pastor and those with him sus- 
pending Mr. Woodman and the brethren with him notwithstanding the offence 
given them, yet to pass such an act or censure suddenly and thereby increasing 
the rent and occasioning greater divisions and themselves being the minor part 
of the church and not seeking after healing means and so forth or taking counsel 
is irregular and null 1 Corinthians 14 : 40, 2 Corinthians 13 : 10. Thus far we 
have in faithfulness declared our judgments concerning offences and failings 
each party is guilty of. Some other things that are more dubious in the agita- 
tions before us, we shall only give our advice about to avoid unnecessary dis- 
putes about them for the future. 

1 First, whereas our Lord Jesus Christ hath given liberty of voting in all their 
own concerns to the whole church it necessarily follows that the judgment of 
the whole church should be clearly manifested and forasmuch the scripture 
mentioneth the lifting up of hands Acts 14 : 23, we judge that the most clear way 
and rather to be chosen, and that a sufficient number should appear to discover 
a major part, the rest being silent. 

1 Second, we advise Mr. Woodman according to the fourth commandment to 
attend diligently on the publick worship of God on the Lord's days avoiding 
offence and evil example in the contrary so far as bodily infirmities will suffer 
him so to do. 

1 Third, in reference to the reverend Mr. Woodbridge we advise and entreat 
that whereas the peace and edification of the church of Christ is much promo- 
ted and depends upon the amicable close of spirit and united judgment, between 
the officers and brethren, the speaker and hearers, the enemy being vigilant to 
take all advantages to hinder the gracious operation of the holy word of God in 
the publick ministry thereof, and whereas there doth appear not only some 
hesitations, but distance in judgment in reference to discipline and of affections 
and some other provoking words passed in publick in our hearing, we desire , 


request and advise the reverend Mr. Woodbridsp, not to impose himself or his 
ministry (however otherwise desirable) upon this church, but that they have the 
liberty that Jesus Christ, gospel rule, and approved church order, doth allow 
them, to choose their own minister, that all obstruction to edification and ground 
to temptation may be removed, as was intimated was the mind of the former 
council, but to wait to see the mind of God in the issue of the reconciliation of 
the church, if God shall guide their hearts to closing with him. 

1 Fourth, we advise that hereafter ecclesiastical offences be not too suddenly 
brought to civil courts without consulting with churches being contrary as we 
judge to 2 Colossians 5, 6, 7. 

* Considering the great age and weakness of reverend Mr. Parker and thereby 
his unfimess to manage church discipline, we advise it as very suitable and 
seasonable to this church's case to choose a ruling elder or two, provided they 
be without just offence to either party, for the healing this great breach and 
offences, that have brought so much dishonor to God, and the profession of the 
gospel, and "been so destructive of the edification of this church and the people 
of this plantation. We do advise and most seriously exhort in the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ unto these duties, which the Lord requires of this church in 
such a case. 

1 First, that this church be sincerely and deeply humbled before the Lord as 
for their divisions, distances and want of love in general, so also in particular 
for such failings and evils as we have before mentioned and that according to 
the nature and scandalousness of the evils any of them have fallen into, then 
that every one may know and acknowledge the plague of their own heart be- 
fore the Lord according to the rules of Christ Matthew 8 : 3. Revelations 3 : 5, 
repent and do the first works and as God shall open their hearts, shall confess 
to one another according to James 5:16. 

i Second, we advise and exhort after due humiliation, there be a mutual, 
hearty and free forgiveness of each other according to the rules of Christ, if thy 
brother repent, forgive him even to seventy times seven. Matthew 8: 22, 
Colossians 3:13 forbearing one another as God for Christ's sake forgave you 
Matthew 18: 15. 

< Third, we advise and exhort that this repentance may be manifested by all 
such acts of reformation and love as is suitable to the grace of true repentance, 
Matthew .3 : 8, bring therefore fruits meet for repentance, and that hereafter the 
whole church walk according to the rule of faith, love and the order of the 
gospel, whereunto you latterly had a seasonable exhortation that soe peace and 
mercy may be upon you with the whole Israel of God.' 

' The court also ordered the following letter to be sent to the church of 

1 Reverend and beloved in our and your Lord. 

1 By these we signify to you that we have received the 

return of the within messengers of churches, elders and brethren of their trav- 
ail and pains with you in pursuance of their churches' call upon our desire. 
Upon reading and considering their result, we have passed our approbation of 
the counsel therein given unto you, as suitable to your case, which we remit to 
you with these. And although we might enjoin you. yet for love's sake we 
beseech you and every one of you as you are concerned therein, pastor and 
people, preacher and hearers, however before divided, that you jointly attend to 
the counsel so given you, that we may say of you that though for some time you 
have been unprofitable one to another, yet now you are become profitable again 
as in former times, and that the churches of our Lord Jesus Christ which have 
been saddened by your divisions and contentions, may have cause to rejoice in 
and before the Lori on your behalf, and the name of the Lord, that hath been 
dishonored may be honored by your mutual putting forth such acts of faith and 
repentance as may reach to the recovering of your peace with the Lord and with 
one another that so you may be found in te more excellent way of charity mani- 
festing yourselves unto all men that you are Christ's disciples by loving one an- 
other. Our just expectation is that you delay not in this great concern, but that 
you apply every one in your respective places unto the furtherance thereof. 


Should there be a failure of you or any of you therein (which the Lord forbid) 
you may not think but that we shall be necessitated to advise what further 
course is to be taken according to God that contentions may be removed and 
peace restored among you. Thus we commend you to the Lord and to the 
word of his grace.' 

By the court, 

EDWARD RAWSON, Secretary. 
c To the reverend Thomas Parker, 
pastor of the church in Newbury, to be com- 
municated to the church there.' 

I shall here give one more extract from the general court records, 
and relieve the patience of the reader. It is the last notice that I 
have been able to find on the subject in any record whatever. 

'October 8th, 1672. Whereas there hath been a complaint exhibited to this 
court by many of Newbury, whereby it is evident that the council agreed to and 
sent in May last to be attended to by them hath not been so attended as the 
court expected, and for that the persons more especially informed against, as ob- 
structing the same have not, appeared personally before the court that they 
might answer for themselves, this court doth further commend the said advice 
unto them to be attended by both parties, professing their readiness there to and 
that the distemper of their contentions may not obstruct in the manner of their 
coming to the understanding of themselves and one another therein this court 
doth appoint Mr. Thomas Danforth, Mr. William Stoughton, Mr. Urian Oakes, 
doctor Leonard Hoar,' captain Thomas Clarke, Mr. Henry Bartholomew, Mr. 
John Elliot and Mr. Joshua Moody as a committee and that the major part of 
the whole meeting there shall be a quorum, who are to repair to Newbury and 
call both parties together and persuade with them to attend the same in love and 
Christian submission one to another according to God and in case there shall appear 
any refractoriness in any amongst them that the persons so sent cannot prevail 
with them that they then make return to the next court of election what they 
find and do therein.' 

To some of my readers the following transcript from the county 
court files in Salem, may be interesting. 

' I Ann Hills, sometime servant to Abraham Toppan, testify that Abraham 
Toppan did make sundry voyages to the Barbadoes, of which one or two were 
profitable, the produce being brought home in sugars, cotton wool and molasses, 
which were then commodities, rendering great profit, wool being then at twelve 
pence, sugar at six or eight pence per pound profit, of which he brought great 

t Jacob Toppan testifieth that the last voyage from Barbadoes above mentioned 
he brought home eight barrels and one hogshead of sugar and two or three thou- 
sand pounds of cotton wool.' 

Testimonies taken in 1671. 

1 April \st, 1672, [old style.] A great storme of driving snow 
came out of the north west and drove up in drifts about six feet 
deep. For the space of fourteen days [after] it was a sad time of 
rain, not one whole fair day in fourteen and much damage done to 
mills and other things by the flood, which followed.' ^ 

* Hampton records. 



''March 26th. The town was fined five pounds for neglect about 
Thorlay's bridge and ordered to make it passable for safe traveling, 
on penalty of ten pounds more. John Pearson of Rowley to see it 
made sufficiently and to be done by midsummer,' and so forth.^ 

* Richard Kent is freed from trayning by paying four bushels of 
good mault to the use of the troop.' # 

September 24th. l There was a storme of raine and snow so that 
the ground was covered with snow and some of it continued till the 
twenty-sixth.' f 

January 31st. A committee was chosen for building a house * for 
the ministry of the same dimensions every way as Nathaniel Clark's 
is with the addition of a porch.' : 4 It was also voted to lay out 
six acres of land behind captain Gerrish's house towards Trotter's 
bridge for the ministry.' J 

April 16th. ' The town voted that the minister's rate should be 
made every year in October, one hah to be paid in English grain 
as wheat, barley, rye and pease, the other half in Indian corn.' J 

July 5th. i The selectmen ordered that John Webster shah 1 pay 
ten shillings and Peter Toppan five shillings for cutting down trees 
on the land that is called the burying place.' 

When the town of Newbury was first settled, large quantities of 
sturgeon were taken from the rivers Merrimac and Quascacunquen, 
which were not only used and highly valued as an article of diet, 
but pickled and packed in kegs for transportation. 

Frequent allusions to this subject are made in the county and 
state records, old account books, and so forth. Thus Wood, who 
visited America in 1633, says, ' that much [sturgeon] is taken on the 
banks of the Merrimac, twelve, fourteen, eighteen feet long, pickled 
and sent to England.' 

In 1656, * a keg of sturgeon, ten shillings,' was among the charges 
for entertaining an ecclesiastical council at Salisbury. In 1667, Is- 
rael Webster testified, ' that he carried twenty-two ferkins and kegs 
of sturgeon from William Thomas' cellar to send to Boston.' 

In 1670, Joseph Coker was licensed by the count/ court 'to make 
sturgeon in order to transport.' In 1680, September twenty-eighth, 
the records of the county court inform us, that ' Thomas Rogers [of 
Newbury] is licensed to make sturgeon, provided he shall present 
the court with a bowle of good sturgeon every Michaelmas court.' 
In 1684, ' Caleb Moody and Daniel Pierce were licensed to boil 
sturgeon in order to a market.' In 1733, captain Daniel Lunt of 
Newbury was ordered to sell his sturgeon in Boston at twelve shil- 
lings per keg, ' if he could get no more.' In the same year, Mr. 
Daniel Pierce exchanged fifteen kegs of sturgeon for a small cask 
of rum, and a larke cask of molasses. 

* County records. t Hampton records. } Town records. 



The following petition is copied from the original, now on file 
among the papers in the state house, Boston. 

1 To the honored general court assembled at Boston May seventh, 1673. 

1 The petition of William Thomas humbly shewing, 

1 That your petitioner after sundry experiments, and travels into foreign coun- 
tries, upon great expence of his estate, hath through the blessing of God upon his 
industry herein, attayned unto the art of boyling and pickling of sturgeon, by 
means whereof it is a commoditie, not only in this countrie, but in England and 
other parts for transportation and increase of traffique for the procuring of goods 
more useful and needful for this countrie, and may so .continue and increase, if 
sundry persons, of other callings, unskilful in that mystery, who for lucre of 
monie and other sinister ends, presume to deal therein, shall not cause it to be 
debased and of no value for transportation, as indeed by that means it in part 
already is (as is known to sundry gentlemen and merchants of Boston) to the 
defamation of your aged petitioner, and damage of the countrie, who now in the 
seventy-fourth year of his pilgrimage, hath his whole dependance under God 
for the subsistence of his family upon that employment, who if he were not 
forestalled and circumvented by others might live comfortably, and also afford 
some yearly revenue to the countrie, but some there are, that by hooke or crooke, 
for strong liquors or otherwise, that finger the fish taken for and by the Indians 
procured and employed by your petitioner, and that oft times upon payments 
fore made for the same, and if he were not undermined and interrupted therein 
by interlopers and other unskilful persons, it might be beneficial both to him 
and the countrie. 

1 His humble petition therefore is that henceforth no man be suffered to pickle 
or put upp any sturgeon for trade or traffique directly or indirectly within this 
jurisdiction but such as by lawful authoritie shall be licensed thereto on certain 
penalties, as title, innkeepers or otherwise and that there may l?e some skilful 
men impowered and sworn to search all such sturgeon as shall be packed or 
putt up in any kind of vessels whatsoever, and to refuse all such as they shall find 
defective for transportation or continuance at least the year about. And such 
and such only shall be sufficient in all respects for traffique as aforesaid to mark 
with the letters of their arid the sturgeon boiler's names. And that it may be 
lawful for any man knowing of any sturgeon put upp as for trade or traffique, 
that is not so marked, to inform any searchers or constables, and that they may 
seize upon it as forfeited, one third to the informer, one third to the officer seiz- 
ing, and the other third to the treasurer of the county where it shall be found. 

* And your petitioner farther humbly prayeth that ne may be licensed for the 
counties of Essex and Norfolk during his own and his wife's life, being aged 
and altogether uncapable of any other way of subsistence or service in town or 
countrie, which favour being granted your petitioner will cheerfully pay "to the 
treasury or otherwise as this honored court shall appoint either ten kegs of stur- 
geon yearly or every twentieth keg and firken by him made from time to time 
or the true value thereof at every year's end namely, the twenty-ninth of Sep- 
tember annually, and as duty binds him shall daily pray and so forth. 


Newbury, May seventh, 1673.' 

Of the result of this petition we are not informed. Probably it 
was not granted, as we find in 1674 that ' Peter Toppan was li- 
censed to make, boyl and sell sturgeon,' and William Chandler was 
appointed searcher and sealer of sturgeon, by the county court. 

December 2d, 1673. ' A committee was chosen for the building 
of Mr. [John] Richardson's house and to carry it on to the finishing 
of if* 

* Town records. 


By this it appears that the town had determined to settle Mr. 
Richardson as their minister, though he was not ordained till Octo- 
ber, 1675. He probably commenced preaching early in this year, 
and might have been instrumental in settling the difficulties, which 
had agitated the church and town for more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury, as we hear of no difficulty between the church and minister, 
subsequent to the autumn of 1672. The situation of the church 
and people of Newbury, at the time of his arrival here, undoubtedly 
occasioned the peculiarity of his language in his conditions of set- 
tlement, which were : ' first, so long as the people of God here do 
continue in the profession of the true faith and peace of the gospel 
as in Acts 11 : 42 ; second, so long as I may have the liberty of my 
ministry among them ; and third, discharge my duty to my family. 
Thus I say I do express myself willing to settle among you with a 
true intention and a true affection.' * 


August fifteenth, 1675.' 

* The liberty of the ministry,' says the reverend doctor Popkin, 'is 
an expression frequently used in the histories of the puritans : and 
appears to be opposite in signification to that restraint, under which 
they were held by ecclesiastical authority.' 

' Francis Thorlay was presented for striking his brother Thomas 
and flinging stones at him.' He was fined ten shillings and costs 
of court f 


1 March 2d. It was voted that the finishing of the house for the 
ministry and the alteration of it is left to the selectmen.' J 

March 28th. * It was voted that captain Gerrish, Mr. Daniel 
Pierce and Tristram Coffin should lay out the six acres formerly 
granted to build a house on and to make a pasture for the mainte- 
nance of the future ministry, that part for the building of the house 
to be on the side next to captain Gerrish's orchard and the rest of 
the said six acres to be laid out next Richard Brown's pasture.' J 

'December 6th. Reverend John Richardson was admitted a 
member of the church in Newbury.' This is the earliest fact 
recorded in the church book, all the preceding transactions having 
been destroyed apparently by design. Until the settlement of Mr. 
Richardson the records are in the handwriting of William Chandler. 

In the latter end of this year, a converted Indian, named John 
Sausaman, acquainted the governor of Plymouth that the profane 
Indians were plotting mischief againt the English, and expressed his 
apprehension that they would murder him. This apprehension was 
realized, as, before the close of the winter, he was murdered by 
three Indians, who were afterward tried and executed. 

* Church records. t County records. J Town records. 



March 1st. 'A committee of two was appointed to complete the 
finishing the ministry house and fencing about said house. Warn- 
ing was also given by the selectmen for every person to appear with 
carts and oxen and hands, and tools suitable to bring stones and so 
forth and every person not having oxen is to appear in person to 
help forward the work and so forth.' # 

April 13th. * It was voted that the piece of meadow above Mr. 
Sewall's farm, the meadow at Trotter's bridge, a piece at Lob's 
pound and two parcels of salt marsh about three acres near Pine 
island should be laid out to the ministry house for the use of Mr. 
Richardson while he continues our minister, and so forth.' # 

May 1th. ' There was laid out to Richard Dole six rods and a 
quarter upon the point of land that lies between the two gutters, 
that come from the point of rocks near Watts' his cellar about two 
rods in breadth bounded by the river on the north to about a foot 
upon the rock that is there on the south and three rods in length by 
the water side and so forth adjoyning to the former grant' ^ 

This piece of land was between the market house in Newburyport 
and Mr. George T. Granger's store. 

June 18th. It was ordered that all non-freeholders should * pay 
for every horse going on the commons five shillings, for every neat 
beast two shillings and sixpence, for every score of sheep five shil- 
lings, for every swine twelve pence and for every load of wood two 
shillings and sixpence for the use of the town.' # 

October 5th. The town voted that they would not fortify ' the 
meeting house, but voted that they would buy a couple of field pie- 
ces about seven or eight hundred apiece.'^ 

October 20th. Reverend John Richardson was ordained. His 
salary was to be one hundred pounds a year. Each person was to 
pay ' his proportion as followeth, one half in merchantable barley, 
the rest in merchantable pork, wheat, butter or Indian corn, or such 
pay paid unto Mr. Richardson to his satisfaction, as every person 
may understand upon inquiry of Tristram Coffin,' who was chosen 
in April * the town's attorney to gather Mr. Richardson's rates and 
in case the said Tristram Coffin shall neglect his trust herein, he 
shall pay forty shillings fine to the selectmen.'^ 

November 12th. Henry Short was appointed schoolmaster. He 
is to have five pounds for the first half year and to have sixpence 
a week for every scholar. 

In the month of June this year the three Indians were executed, 
who murdered John Sausaman. On the twenty-fourth of June was 
shed the first English blood, in what was afterward called Philip's 
w T ar. On that day, nine Englishmen were murdered in Swanzy, by 
the Indians, as they were returning from the meeting house, it being 

* Town records. 


the day appointed as a day of humiliation and prayer throughout 
Plymouth colony, who being thus unexpectedly involved in trouble, 
sent to the other colonies lor assistance. On June twenty-sixth, 
soldiers marched from Boston to Plymouth. On the twenty-ninth, 
a day of humiliation and prayer was appointed on account of the 
war. The men prest from Newbury, were as follows, namely : 

August 5th. Steven Greenleaf, Thomas Smith, John Toppan, 
Caleb Richardson, Daniel Rolf, John Hobbs, Daniel Button, John 
Wheeler, and Henry Bodwell, nine men and fourteen days' provis- 

August 6th. Seven more were prest and fourteen days' provisions. 

August 27th. Seven men were prest, fourteen days' provisions, 
twenty-three bosses, saddles, and bridles. 

September 23d. Two men and two days' provisions. 

September 27th. Five men, ten days' provisions, and twenty- 
three horses, saddles, and bridles, were pressed for th^ country's 

September 29th. Richard Kent's man was pressed. 

December, 1675. Twenty-four men were pressed for the coun- 
try's service, being in all forty -eight men, and forty-six horses, for 
this year. 

The town expenses for this year were very great 

The minister's rate was 103 pounds, 17 shillings, 1 penny. 

The expenses for the war, 457 " 18 " 8 pence. 

The town debt was 191 " 3 " 9 " 

Beside other expenses, not included in the above. 

At the battle fought December nineteenth, at the Indians' fort in 
Narraganset, ' four men were slayne,' of whom Daniel Rolfe was 
from Newbury, and eighteen wounded, of whom Daniel Somerby, 
Isaac Ilsley, Jonathan Emery, "William Standley, and Jonathan 
Harvey were from Newbury. 

Daniel Somerby was the only son of Henry Somerby. Before 
he marched against the Indians 'he made his will, and soon after 
his return died of his wounds. 


January 2d. Thirteen men were impressed. 

June 9th. Town voted to purchase a barrel of powder and fif- 
teen hundred flints. 

June 21st. The town appointed Henry Short < to keep school for 
this year, from the first of May last, to the first of May next, and 
the selectmen engage to pay him ten pounds out of the next town 
rate, and if the number be about twenty scholars, he is to teach 
them at the watch house.'^ 

Henry Short taught the grammar school. In his old note book 

* Town records. 


I find the following account of scholars, commencing thus : ' when 
I kept school at home and the time they [the scholars] came.' Here 
follow the names of seventeen scholars, from May tenth to Decem- 
ber twenty-fifth. 

The following extract from the colonial records presents to the 
reader as lively a picture of the anxiety and distress among the 
people of Massachusetts, occasioned by the bold arid daring deter- 
mination of king Philip and his Indian allies to extirpate the Eng- 
lish, as can well be imagined. The proposition to erect a fortifica- 
tion of such a length and height, shows the desperation, to which 
they were reduced, and the dangers to which they felt exposed. 

1 At a court held in Boston March twenty-third, 1676. 

1 Whereas several considerable persons have made application to us and pro- 
posed it as a necessary expedient for the publick welfare and particularly for 
the security of the whole county of Essex and part of Middlesex from inroads of 
the common* enemy, that a line or fence of stockades or stones (as the matter 
best suiteth) be made about eight feet high extending from Charles river where 
it is navigable unto Concord river from George Farley's house, in Billerica. which 
fence the council is informed is not in length above twelve miles, a good part 
whereof is already done by large ponds that will conveniently fall into the line 
and so forth, and so forth, by which means the whole tract will be environed 
for the security and safety (under God) of the people, their houses, goods and 
cattel from the rage and fury of the enemy. 7 

The court then orders one able and fit man from each of the 
included towns to meet at Cambridge on March thirty-first, to sur- 
vey the ground, estimate the expense, and so forth, and so forth, and 
bring their report in writing how it may be prosecuted and effected, 
what each town should pay, and so forth. 

Nearly all the towns made a report. 

That from Newbury is as follows, namely : 

1 At a meeting of the selectmen of Newbury March 1675-6. 
1 We having taken it into consideration what the honored council hath pro- 
pounded unto us as to the fortifying from Merrimack river and so to Charlestown 
river, we conceive it not feasible nor answering the end propounded, but leave 
it to the consideration of wiser than ourselves, conceiving this to be difficult 
in doing it or mayntaining it when done, but rather think it will most conduce 
to our safety to have a sufficient company of men that may range to and fro as our 
honored council judge meet. We have ordered several nouses to be garrisoned 
and fortified and men appointed and are about fortifying with a mile or some- 
what more from river to river most of our plow lands and houses, if men will 
own our power (as we hope will be) with their own and our endeavours to com- 
pleate our trust. 





March 5th. l Captain [Paul] White proposed for about a rod of 
land at the hanging of the hill before his still house in the street.' # 

I Marchant [Richard] Dole proposed for liberty to build a dock 
about Watts his cellar, and as many of the town as were willing to 
help him about it, he will accept of their help.' ^ 

March 21th. At the county court at Salem, 'Joshua Richardson, 
Caleb Richardson, and Edward Ordway were sentenced to be 
severely whipt or pay a fine of ten pounds each, for breaking into 
the meeting house, demolishing a pew chairs and so forth.' 

It appears by the town records that the selectmen had granted 
permission to several young women to build * a new seat in the south 
corner of the women's gallery.' 

This pew or new seat, from some now unknown cause, excited 
the indignation or anger of these young men, who, having demol- 
ished the seat, chairs, and so forth, were tried, convicted, and 

The following testimonies in the case are copied from the files of 
the county court in Salem. 

1 Testimony of aged forty -five years. 

I 1 dow testify consaming the [mischiefj att the meting hows that the meting 
hows windowse weare brocken open severall times and the dore was dabid 
with a sarrowans and the ceay holt [key hole] dabid allso. There was a sar- 
rowans pute in the come, which was pute in the meting hows lowft for safety, 
which was in a cask in the chambear.' 

T dow testify that I saw Joshua Richardson uppon Wensday the wery next 
day after the pue or new seate was brocken doun the last of January last past. 
I on purpos towck wery good notis of him and to my onderstanding he did goo 
ass weall att that time ass hee youste to due att other times, without any limp- 
ing or a going lambe that I could perseaif.' 

Another testimony declares, that the window was fastened with 
1 tow hapsis,' and that the ' glass was broken in pessis.' 

April 22d. Seventy-six of the principal inhabitants of Newbury 
petitioned the court to mitigate their fines. 

* We do not know,' say they, ' that any of the young men have 
been detected of open crimes, have been diligent and laborious to 
promote and support their parents, who stand in need of their help, 
they have endured hardships and adventured their lives and limbs 
for their country, they have openly, ingenuously and solemnly made 
acknowledgment of their offence before many assembled "to that 
end,' and so forth, and so forth. 

April 2\th. Reverend Thomas Parker died. 

Captain William Gerrish was ordered, April fifteenth, by major 
general D. Denison to march to Salisbury with forty of his best 
men, well armed, and so forth, and again/ May first, \vith twenty 
men to Portsmouth. Expenses were five hundred pounds. 

* Town records. 


Judge 'Sewall, in his diary, under date of 'July eighth, 1677, has 
the following. i A female quaker [Margaret Brewster] in sermon 
time came in a canvass frock, her hair dishevelled, loose like a peri- 
wigg. her face as black as ink, led by two other quakers, and two 
other quakers followed. It occasioned the greatest and most ama- 
zing uproar that ever I saw.' She had previously taken off her 
stockings and shoes, and left them in the porch of the meeting-house,^ 
under the care of John Easton, son of Nicholas Easton, formerly 
of Newbury. John was afterward governor of Rhode Island. 

September 2\.sl. The town desired captain Gerrish to propose to 
' Ipswich court that Thomas Thorla's ordinary may be put down.' f 

The town chose a committee ( to hire a schoolmaster,' and 
voted to give him twenty pounds a year ' for encouragement besides 
what they shall agree upon for the children that shall come to school 
to him.' f 

From an old account book I learn that this year turnips and ap- 
ples were a shilling a bushel, a day's mowing, two shillings and two 
pence, men's wages for a year ten pounds, women's wages from 
four to five pounds, board four shillings per week, and labor two 
shillings a day. 

Thanksgiving, November third, on account of a plentiful harvest 
and a cessation of the wrath and rage of the enemy. 


March kth. ' Concerning building of a dock, it was granted, 
provided that all boats that belong to the town shall have free liberty 
of egresse and regress to lie there as occasion may serve.' f 

This was probably the dock for which Richard Dole petitioned, 
as in September ' a committee was chosen to conclude the business 
between marchant Dole and the town about his dock.' 

September 20th. The committee appointed for that purpose laid 
out ' to Richard Dole senior a parcel of land lying near Watts his 
cellar, where he is now building' a wharf and dock"* three rods broad 
from the east side of the west gutter to a stake near to the great 
rock with the flats adjoining thereto excepting two rods in breadth 
upon the easterly point of upland, which is to lie for a perpetual 
high way for the town's use to the dock for to unlade hay, wood, 
timber, boards, or any thing else, which is produced in or upon the 
river, it not being imported from or exported to the sea, We also 
do grant the town's title, right and interest to the point of land on the 
northerly side thereof, which is commonly known by the name of 
captain White's point and so forth and the said Dole is to set a 
wharf against the two rod that is appointed for a way for the town's 
use.' f 

November 22d. Town voted to continue the ' twenty pounds a 

* Old South, Boston. t Town records. 


year to the schoolmaster,' and i that Mr. Richardson, so long as he 
carries on the whole work of the ministry among us, shall have 
twenty pounds a year added or two contributions, which he pleases 
to accept.' ^ 

December 22d. Town voted that * Thorlay's bridge should be 
built at the town's charge as the court gave them liberty.' * v 

< Judith Thorla was fined for selling liquor to the Indians on the 
Lord's day.' 

In this year a new brick building was erected at Cambridge as a 
college building. It was erected by subscription. Newbury gave 
thirty-three pounds and three shillings. Rowley forty-five' pounds, 
and Ipswich eighty pounds. 

November 12th. The town granted to John Emery, junior, twelve 
acres of land, beginning at Artichoke river, on condition that he 
build a grist mill. 

November 26th. In answer to a petition of the selectmen, New- 
bury was allowed to build a firm and safe 'bridge.'^ The toll c a 
penny for a man and three pence for a horse.' 

' The wife of John Davis of Lynn was presented for breaking her 
husband's head with a quart pot and otherways abusing him.' 

This year all persons over sixteen years of age were required to 
take the oath of allegiance.X A list of their names from every town_ 
in the county of Essex is in the county records. That of Newbury 
contains the names of two hundred and thirty-six persons, with their 
ages affixed by Mr. John Woodbridge, who administered the oath 
in September. In no other list are the ages given. 


March 3d. ' The town granted to John Emery junior twelve 
acres of land on the west side of Artichoke river provided he build 
and maintain a corn mill to grind the town's corn from time to time 
and to build it within one year and a half after the date hereof and 
so forth.' =fc 

In compliance with the law the selectmen chose fourteen tything 
men, each of whom had a specific duty to do respecting a designa- 
ted number of families, generally ten, all living in the same neigh- 
borhood, and classed by the selectmen. After making the arrange- 
ment, they sent a note to each of the tything men, informing them of 
their appointment, and of the families committed to their care. A 
copy of one of these notes, found among the papers of the late 
deacon Abraham Merrill, is here subjoined. 

1 To deacon Abraham Merrill. 

1 At a meeting of the selectmen March thirty-first, 1679. 

' You are hereby required to take notice that you are chosen according to 
court order by the selectmen to bee a tithing man to have inspection into and 

* Town records. 



look over these familes that they attend the publick worship of God, and do not 
break the sabbath, and further you are to attend as the court order declares. 

' The names of the families are Edward Woodman junior, Samuel Bartlet, 
Richard Bartlet, Abel Pilsbury, John Stevens, Christopher Bartlet, Thomas 
Chase, goodman Bailey, John Chase. 

By order of the selectmen. 
ANTHONY SoMERBy, Recorder.' 

May 21st. A committee of twelve men was appointed, c to con- 
sult of a way for dividing of the upper commons if it be possible 
so to agree that the town may like of it.' ^ 

May 2Sth. The selectmen petitioned to the general court respect- 
ing Plum island, in which they say that the inhabitants ' of Rowley 
having sold their parts to several of Newbury and some of Ipswich, 
so that the whole island now is in the occupation of the inhabitants 
of Ipswich and Newbury, who make improvement by cutting the 
grass, and some of Ipswich by planting some small parcels thereof, 
and by reason of the impossibility to part the island by fencing, and 
the proprietors of Ipswich by reason thereof finding themselves 
much damnified in that their marshes were trodden to dirt and al- 
most utterly spoiled by a multitude of horses and other cattle put 
thereon by those of Newbury in the winter to live of what they can 
get and suffered there to continue till the middle of May, if not lon- 
ger which will unavoidably (as experience hath taught us) be the 
ruin and utter destruction of the whole island, the horses and cattle 
eating up the grass, that grows upon the sand hills, which gives a 
stop to the running of the sands in stormy weather, which other- 
wise would in a very short space cover all the marshes, as we have 
found at Castle neck. Wherefore we beseech this honored court to 
prohibit the patting or going of any horses, cattle and so forth upon 
the said island and so forth and so forth.' 

August 29th. * Town voted to new clapboard and repair the 
minister's house, and dig a well.? ^ 

December 24th. Mr. Daniel Davison proposed to have 6 liberty to 
make a building dock about Watts his cellar.' % 

This year is rendered memorable by the commencement of the 
only recorded case of supposed witchcraft, in Newbury, that was 
ever subjected to a legal investigation. The principal sufferer in 
this tragi-comedy, for so it might well be called, was Elizabeth 
Morse, who, with her husband, William Morse, a shoemaker, resided 
in a house, still standing, at the head of Market street, in [now] 
Newburyport. He was then sixty-five years of age, and is said to 
have been a very worthy, but credulous, unsuspecting man, and 
consequently a very easy dupe to the impositions practiced upon 
him. Not suspecting any deception, the good man readily attributed 
all his troubles and afflictions to the supernatural agency of witch- 
craft, instead of watching the actions of those around him, especially 
of a roguish grandson, who jived with him. At that time, especially, 

* Town records. 


a belief in witchcraft was almost universal, and afforded a ready 
solution of every thing strange and unintelligible. No one appears 
to have suspected the boy as the author of any part of the mischief, 
except one Caleb Powell. Believing from what he had seen, that 
the whole affair was the result of human agency, with nothing 
supernatural or marvelous about it, he informed goodman Morse 
that he believed he could ascertain the cause of his trouble, and 
develop the whole mystery. The better to conceal his purpose, he 
affected, as will be hereafter seen, to have a knowledge of astrology 
and astronomy, and if he only had another learned man, and said 
Morse's grandson with him, the whole truth would come to light. 
The consequence was, that suspicions of witchcraft, and of dealing 
in the black art, fell upon him. He was accused, tried, and narrowly 
escaped with his life, thus affording another proof of the danger 
arising to any person, in being, or pretending to be, wiser than his 

That the whole affair may be understood, the evidence, and so 
forth, taken from the court records in Salem, is here subjoined. 

December 3d, 1679. 'Caleb Powell being complained of for suspicion of 
working with the devill to the molesting of YVilliam Morse and his family, was 
by warrant directed to the constable, brought in by him, the accusations and 
testimonies were read and the complaint respited till the Monday following. 7 

December 8tk, Monday. ' Caleb Powell appeared according to order and farther 
testimony produced against him by William Morse, which being read and con- 
sidered, it was determined that the said William Morse should present the case 
against Caleb Powell at the county court to be held at Ipswich the last Tuesday 
in March following and in order hereunto William Morse acknowledgeth him- 
self indebted to the treasurer of the county of Essex the full summe of twenty 

' The condition of this obligation is that the sayd William Morse shall prose- 
cute his complaint against Caleb Powell at that time. 

1 Caleb Powell was delivered as a prisoner to the constable till he find security 
of twenty pounds for the answering of the sayd complaint, or else he was to be 
cast into prison. 

JOHN WOODBRIDGE, Commissioner.' 

The following is a specimen of the testimony against him. 

I John Badger affirmeth that Caleb Powell said that he thought by Astrologie, 
and I think he said by Astronomic too with it he could find out whether or no 
there were diabolicall means used about the said Morse his trouble, and that the 
said Caleb said hee thought to try to find it out.' 

Anthony Morse's testimony. 

I 1 Anthony Mors ocationlly being att my brother Morse's hems, my brother 
showed me a pece of a brick, which had several tims come down the chimne. 
I sitting in the cornar towck the pece of brik in my hand. Within a littell spas 
of tiem the pece of brik was gon from me I know not by what nJfeanes. Quickly 
aftar. the pece of brik came down the chimne. Also in the chimny cornar I 
saw a hamar on the ground. Their being no person near the hamar it was sod- 
enly gone ; -by what meains I know not. but within a littell spas after, the hamar 
came down the chimny, and within a littell spas of tiem aftar that, came a pece 


of woud, about a fute loung ? and within a littell after that came down a fiar 
brend, the fiar being out. This was about ten deays agoo. 
Newbury December eighth, 1679. 

Taken on oath December eighth, 1679 before me 
JOHN WOODBRIDGE ; Commissioner.' 

December 5th, 1679. l The testimony of William Mors and his wife, which 
they both saw one last Thursday night my wife and I being in bed we heard a 
great noies against the ruf with stekes and stones throwing against the hous 
with great vialanse whereupon I myselfe arose and my wife and saw not anny 
body, but was forsed to retunie into the house againe, the stones being thrown 
so vilantly aganst us we gooing to bed againe and the same noies in the hus we 
Lock the dore againe fast and about midnight we heard a grete nayes of A hoge 
in the house and I arcs and found a grete hoge in the huse and the dore being 
shut. I opened the dore the hoge running vilently out. The next morning a 
Stek of Lenkes hanging in the Chemney fast I saw Com Down vilintly and not 
anny body ner to them and Jumped up upon A Chaire before the fire ; I hanged 
them up again and they Com down again into the fire. The next day I had an 
Aule in the window, which was taken away I know not how and Com Dune 
the chimney. I take the same ale and put into a Cubard and fasened the Dore. 
The same ale Com Down 3 or 4 times. We had a basket in the Chamber Com 
Doun the Chemney. I tooke it up myselfe and laide it before me, it was Sud- 
inly taken away I know not how and Com dune the Chimney againe. I then 
took a brick and put into it and said it shold cary that away, if it ded goo up 
againe. It was taken away I know not how and Com dune the Chemney and 
the brick a Letel after it. One Saturday next Corn stekes on Light fire dune 
Chimney and stones, and then my 'awls taken away from me 4 times as I used 
them and Com Douen the Chemney 4 times. My nailes in a cover of A ferkin 
Com douen the Chemney againe. The dore being Locked I heard a hoge in 
the house I let alone until day and found it to bee one of my owne, willing to 
goo out. The next day being Sabath Stekes and stones were thrown viliantly 
[down] the Chemney. One Munday next Mr. Richeson and annother saw many 
things. I sent my boy to se if nothing was amis in my barne. I not being 
abel to tey my Catel up to ni^htes but stel being untied with many other strange 
thinges, the frame being thrown Downe upon the boy : We all run out to help 
him in. 

' When we Com in we saw a Coten whele turned with the Leges upward and 
many thinges set up on it as a Stale and a Spade Lick the form of a ship. 
Potes hanging over the fire Dashing one against the other I being forsed to 
unhang them. We saw A andiron dance up and dune many times and into a 

?ot and out againe up atop of a tabal, the pot turning over and Speling all in it. 
saw a tube turn over with the hop fling of it. I sending my boy to fech my 
toles, which I doe mak Ropes with, so soone as the dore being opened thay 
Com viliantly Doune of themselves. Againe a tub of bred Com dune from a 
Shelufe and turned over. My wife went to make the bed the Clothes Ded fly of 
many times of themselves, and a Chest open and Shut and Dores fli together. 
My wife going into the Seler thinges tumbling dune and the dore fling together 
vialintly. I being at prayer my hed being Cufred with A Cloth A Chaire did 
often times bow to me and then Strike me on the side. My wife Corn out of 
the other rome A wege of Iron being thrown at her, and A spade, but [did] not 
rech her, and A stone, which hurt her much, I seting by the fire with my wife 
and to more neighbours with us A stone Struk against the Lampe and struk it 
out many times, and a shoo, which we saw in Chamber before Com doune the 
Chemney the Dore being shut and struk me A blow one the hed, which ded 
much hurte. A mate of A ship Coming often to me and said he much grefed 
for me and said the boye was the case of all my truble and my wife was much 
Ronged, and was no wich, and if I would let him have the boye but one day 
he would warrant me no more truble. I being persuaded to it he Com the nex 
day at the brek of day, and the boy was with him untel night and I had not any 
truble since} 

The preceding testimony is in the handwriting of William Morse. 



January 5th. ' The town granted liberty to ensign [Stephen] Green- 
leaf and Mr. [Daniel] Davison to build a wharf at the point of rocks 
above Watts his cellar, to be threescore feet in front at high water mark 
and so down to low water mark, provided the inhabitants of the town 
shall have liberty to land wood or hay or other goods so that the said 
goods be not above twenty-four hours, neither at any time to do them 
damage.' ^ 

At the same meeting Nathaniel Clarke, doctor John Dole, Rich- 
ard Dole, Benjamin Rolf, and Robert Coker in ' the behalf of his 
son Benjamin Coker, each proposed for a place to make a wharfe.'* 

February 6th. ' Joseph Pike was chosen to gather the rest of the 
contribution for the college.' # 

March 1st. The town granted to Nathaniel Clarke a parcel of 
the flats on the southeast of the point l of rocks, that was granted to 
captain White provided it be done within three years.-' # 

The town also voted to grant the proposition of ' Benjamin Rolf, 
doctor John Dole and Richard Dole for four or five rods on the flats 
from Watts cellar spring to ensign GreenleaPs for a place to build 
a wharf and a place to build vessels upon provided they come not 
within ten or twelve feet of the spring and make up said wharf 
within three years' and so forth.* 1 

March 2-Wi. Sixteen tithing men were chosen.* 1 

At the March term at Ipswich court the following additional tes- 
timony was produced in the case of Caleb Powell, taken February 
twenty-seventh, 1680. 

' Sarah Hale aged thirty-three and Joseph Mirick testify that Joseph Moores 
hath often said in their hearing that if there were any wizards, he was sure 
Caleb Powell was one.' 

NOTE. This Joseph Moores was the boatswain of the ship, of which Caleb Powell 
was mate, and Joseph Dole, captain. 

1 Deposition of Mary Tucker aged about twenty. 

1 She remembereth that Caleb Powell came into their house and sayd to this 
purpose that he coming to William Morse his house and the old man being at 
prayer he thought not fit to go in. but looked in at the window and he sayd he 
had broken the inchantment. for he saw the boy play tricks while he was at 
prayer and mentioned some and among tlie rest that he saw him to fling the sliooe 
at the old man's head} 

The court, after reading all the testimony that could be produced 
against Caleb Powell, came to the following conclusion. 

1 Upon hearing the complaint brought to this court against Caleb Powell for 
suspicion of working by the devill to the molesting of the family of William 
Morse of Newbury, though this court cannot find any evident ground of pro- 
ceeding farther against the sayd Powell, yett we determine that "he hath given 

* Town records. 


such ground of suspicion of his so dealing that we cannot so acquit him but 
that he justly deserves to beare his owne shame and the costs of prosecution of the 

1 It is referred to Mr. Woodbridge to hear and determine the charges.' 

The court at this time must have been men of profound wisdom 
and accurate discrimination, as they appear to have determined, first, 
that he was just guilty enough to pay the expense of being'Wspect- 
ed, secondly, that he ought ' to bear his owne shame,' and, thirdly, that 
they had no reason to believe that he was guilty at all. This some- 
what resembles the case, which is not found in the books, where A. 
sues B. for breaking a borrowed kettle. The defence was, ' first we 
never had the kettle, secondly, it was broken when we borrowed it, 
and thirdly, it was whole when we returned it.' 

The people, however, were not so lenient as the judges. If Ca- 
leb Powell was innocent, some other person must be guilty of ' be- 
ing instigated by the divil,' for, in their opinion, no agency merely 
human could produce effects so strange and unaccountable. They 
accordingly selected Elizabeth Morse, the wife of William Morse, 
as the guilty person, as we shall hereafter see. 

April 13th. i In answer to the proposition of Ipswich inhabitants 
to prohibit all sorts of cattle from going any more on Plum island 
winter or summer, the town's conclusion is that they do not consent 
to such an act.' ^ 

May 17th. ' The town granted Mr. Richardson twenty pounds in 
money, and forty pounds in other pay, to build an addition to the 
ministry house, and so forth.' ^ 

May 19th. On petition of some of the inhabitants ' of Newbury 
the selectmen were authorised to raise by way of rate sixty pounds 
per annum to be to the use of the schoolmaster there.' # 

June 28th. ^ Governor Bradstreet thus writes to England. ' The 
principal townes of trade within our government are Boston, 
Charlestown and Salem. Some little trade there is for country 
people at Ipswich, Newbury and so forth. 

* The number of merchants in the colony is nearly forty, and 
about one hundred or one hundred and twenty ships, sloops, ketches 
and other vessels.' 

( At a court of assistants on adjournment held at Boston May twentieth 1680. 

1 The grand Jury presenting Elizabeth, wife of William Morse senior. She 
was indicted by the name of Elizabeth Morse for that she not having the fear 
of God before her eyes, being instigated by the Divil and had familiarity with 
the Divil contrary to the peace of our sovereign lord the king, his crown and 
dignity, the laws of God, and of this jurisdiction, after the prisoner was at the 
barr and pleaded not guilty, and put herself on God and the country for triall, 
the evidences being produced were read and committed to the jury." 

'The jury brought in their verdict. They found Elizabeth Morse, the 
prisoner at the barr, guilty according to indictment. The governor on the 
twenty-seventh of May after ye lecture pronounced ye sentence. 

' Elizabeth Morse, you are to goe from hence to the place from whence you 

* Town records. 


came and thence to the place of execution and there to be hanged by the neck, 
till you be dead, and the Lord have mercy on your soul. 

The court was adjourned diem per diem and on the first of June 1680 the 
governor and magistrates voted the reprieving of Elizabeth Morse condemned 
to the next session of tke court in October as attests. 

EDWARD RAWSON, Secretary? 

It appears from the record, that the reprieve was not agreeable to 
the deputies, who, on assembling in November, thus complain : 

' The deputies on perusal of the acts of the honorable court of assistants 
relating to the woman, condemned for witchcraft doe not understand why exe- 
cution of the sentence given against her by said court is not executed and that 
her second repreevall seems to us to be beyond what the law will allow and 
doe therefore judge meele to declare ourselves against it with reference to the 
concurrence of our honored magistrates hereto. 

WM. TORRE Y Cleric. 
November third, 1680. 

Not consented to by the magistrates. 
EDWARD RAWSON, Secretary. 1 

No record gives us any farther information concerning Elizabeth 
Morse this year. 

August 18th. ' The selectmen ordered that Anthony Morse 
should every sabbath day go or send his boy to Mr. Richardson 
and tell him when he is going to ring the last bell every meeting 
and for that service is to have ten shillings a year added to his 
former annuity.' * 

October 22d. < It was agreed that Mr. Burly should keep school 
in the watch house.' * 

The Essex regiment was divided into two, to be commanded by 
major N: Saltonstall, and major D. Denison. Newbury to have 
two companies, and Ipswich three. 

This year, Thorlas bridge was, on the petition of Rowley people, 
made a county bridge. 


The case of Elizabeth Morse, who had been reprieved by the gov- 
ernor, was again brought before the general court, to whom William 
Morse, her husband, sent two petitions, the one on May fourteenth, 
in the elegant handwriting of William Chandler of Newbury, ihe 
other on May eighteenth, in the handwriting of major Robert Pike 
of Salisbury, who was the next year chosen one of the assistants. 

His first petition is as follows. 

c To the honored generall court now sitting in Boston. 

1 The humble petition of William Mors in behalfe of his wife, Elizabeth 
Mors your distressed Prisoner, humbly begging this that you would be pleased 
to give your petitioner leave to present to your consideration what may clere up 
the truth in those evidences wch hath bin presented and what is otherwise as 
first. To Joseph Bayley his testimony. Wee are ignorant of any such thing. 

* Town records. 


Had it bin then spoken of, we might have cleared ourselves. He might have 
observed some other as my wife, it being a frequent thing for Catle to be at a 

1 To Jonathan Haines. As to his Catle, or himselfe, not making good work 
at such a time, when Catlft are haggled out, to place it on such account) yt his 
neglect in not bringing us a bow of mault was the cause, which had it bin spo- 
ken of wee might have given full satisfaction. 

1 To Caleb Moody. As to what befell him in and about his not seeing my 
wife, yt his cow making no hast to hir calfe, wch wee are ignorant of, it being 
so long since, and being in church communion with us, should have spoken of 
it like a Christian and yn proceeded so as wee might have given an answer in 
less time yn tenn yeares. Wee are ignorant yt he had a shepe so dyed. And 
his wife knowne to be a pretious godly whoman, yt. hath oftne spoken to hir 
husband not to be so uncharitable and have and doe carry it like a Christian 
with a due respect in hir carridge towards my wife all along. 

* To John Mighill. About ye loss of his catle was yt he came one day to 
worke, and would have had him come another day to finish it because ye raine 
came in so upon us, and his not coming, judges my wife was angry and yrfore 
had such loss, wch wee never knew of. This being twelve yeares agoe did 
amaze us now to here of it. 

1 To Zachariah Davis. To sensure my wife now for not bringing quills aboute 
sixteen yeares agoe yt his loss of calfes was for that, when his father being in 
communion with us did profess it to us yt he judged it a hand of God and was 
farr from blaming us but rather troubled his sonn should so judge. 

' To Joshua Richardson loosing a shepe and his taking it forth off our yard, 
my wife should say you might have asked leave, and whether overdriving it or 
what, now to bring it in I hope will be considered. 

' To John March Test. He heard John Wells his wife say she saw imp o 7 God 
into said Morss howse. She being prosecuted would not owne it and was ad- 
judged to pay damages, and now this is brought in. 

' To James Browne Test, yt one day George Wheeler going forth, my wife 
should say for a trifle she knew he should not come in againe, which my wife 
knowes not of it, nor doth some of ye owners ever remember such a thing as to 
judge or charge it on hir, but now is broughi forth sixteen yeares after when his 
wife said to goody Hale yt said /Browne was mistaken. Hir husband did come 
home well that voyage; and that James Browne should say to Robert Bedell yt 
yt Powell, whom wee sued did put in these words and not himselfe in the test 
and yt said Browne did oune to his unkle Mr. Nicholas Noyes yt he could not 
sware to such a test ; and did refuse to doe it before Mr. John Woodbridge, and 
Mr. Woodbridge did admire he had sworne to it. And for his seeing my wife 
amongst troopers. What condition he might be in wee leave it to consideration. 
Wee are ignorant of such a thing till now brought in so many yeares agoe as 
he saith. 

1 To good wife Ordway. Hir child being long ill, my wife coming in and 
looking on it, pitting of it, did feare it would dy, and when it dyed Israeli Web- 
ster our next neighbour heard not a word of it, nor spoken of by others, nor any 
of ye family, but hir conceite, and now brought in. 

1 As for William Chandler's test, aboute his wife's long sickness and my 
wife's visiting hir, she through hir weakness acted uncivilly and yet now to 
bring in against my wife, when for so many yeares being in full communion 
with us never dealt with us aboute any such thing, but had as loving converse 
with him as Christians ought, and knew no otherwise till now. 

( To widow Goodwin hir having hir child sick, gave forth yt it was bewitched 
by my wife, as she thought ; wee hearing of it dealt with hir aboute it, and she 
brake forth in teares, craving forgiveness, and said it was others put hir upon it 
to say as she did, but now urged by Powell to say as she now saith. 

1 To John Chase so saying yt he saw my wife in the night coming in at a little 
hole, and ye like, when he himselfe hath said he did not know but he was in a 
dreame, and yt unto several persons he hath so said, though now as he test., 
when my wife disowns any such thing. 

1 To John Glading yt saw halfe of my wife about two a clocke in ye day time, 


if so might then have spoken, and not reserved for so long a time, which she 
utterly denies it, nor know of any such thing, where she should be at yt time 
as to clere hir selfe. 

' To William Fanning should say my boy said the devill was at his howse. 
Upon Fanning's saying to the boy ye devill was at their howse, and he 
would have me chide ye boy, which I tould said Fanning ye boy might be 
instructed to know ye devill was every where though not as at our howse, and 
should not in time of affliction upbraid him to our griefe. 

1 To Jonathan Woodman, seeing a catt, and so forth, he struck at it, and 
it vanisht away and I sending for doctor Dole to see a bruise my wife had by 
the fall of a peece reching downe some bacan in our chimly, which was many 
days before this time, as doctor Dole affirms it was no green wound, though 
neglected to send for said Dole till then. 

' To Benjamin Lowle about my boy's ketching a pidgin ; my boy desired of 
me to see to ketch a pidgin, by throwing a stone, or ye like, and he brought a 
pidgin, which I affirm was wounded, though alive. 

1 To good wife Miricke about a letter. My wife telling her somewhat of ye 
letter, which she judges could not be and my wife hearing of it there was a 
discourse and so forth aboute this love letter, might speake something about it by 
guess, and not by any such way as she judged, and many have spoken, guess- 
ing at things, which might be. 

1 As to our troubles in ye howse it hath bin dreddfull, and afflictive and to 
say it ceased upon hir departure, when it ceased before for a time and after she 
was gone there was trouble againe. 

1 As to rumors of some great wickedness committed in ye house, which should 
cause ye divill so to trouble us, our conscience is clere of ye knowledge of any 
such thing more than our common frailtyes and I reverence the holy sourainty 
of God in laying such affliction on us. and that God's servants may be so afflic- 
ted in this manner as hath bin knowne. And that Mr. Wilson of Ipswich, 
where she hath bin twenty-eight weekes, did declare to me yt my wife's con- 
versation was christian-like as far as he observed. Thus praying for you in 
this and all other your conceraes, am your distressed servant. 


Newbury May fourteenth 1681.' 

From the preceding petition of William Morse, and his attempted 
answers to the accusations and charges brought against his wife 
Elizabeth, and sent to the general court, it appears that seventeen 
persons had given in their testimony in writing, stating their reasons 
why they verily believed goody Morse was really a witch, and ought 
to be hung, according to the old Mosaic law, which says, c thou shalt 
not suffer a witch to live.' Of these testimonies only one is to be 
found on the files of the general court. If this one is a fair speci- 
men of the whole, the loss of the remainder is not greatly to be 
regretted, except as a specimen of the logic of that day, and of the 
manner in which some of our ancestors stated their premises, and 
drew thence their most profound conclusions. It is here presented 
entire, and if it. does not most conclusively prove that Elizabeth 
Morse was guilty of witchcraft, and ought not to have been suffered 
to live, it will only furnish another evidence that belief and demon- 
stration are not identical, and that what is sincerely believed is not 
for that reason always true. Zechariah Davis thus testifies verbatim 
and literatim. 

1 When I lived at Salisbury, William Morses' wife asked of me whether I 
could let her have a small passell of winges and I told her I woode, so she 


would have me bring them over for her the next time I came over, but I came 
over and did not think of the winges, but met goody Morse, she asked me 
whether I had brought over her winges and I tel her no I did not thinke of it, 
so I came 3 ore 4 times and had them in my minde a litel before I came over 
but stil forget them at my coming away so meting with her every time that I 
came over without them aftar I had promised her the winges, soe she tel me 
she wonder at it that my memory should be soe bad, but when I came home I 
went to the barne and there was 3 cafes in a pen. One of them fel a danceing 
and roreing and was in such a condition as I never saw on cafe in before, but 
being almost night the cattle came home and we put him to his dam and he 
sucke and was well 3 or 4 dayes, and on of them was my brothers then come 
over to Nubery, but we did not thinke to send the winges, but when he came 
home and went to the barne this cafe fel a danceing and roreing so \vee put 
him to the cowe, but he would not sucke but rane a roreinge away soe wee gate 
him againe with much adoe and put him into the barne and we heard him roer 
severall times in the night and in the morning I went to the barne and there he 
was seting upon his taile like a doge, and I never see no cafe set aftar that 
manner before and so he remained in these fits while he died.' 

Taken on oath June seventh, 1679. 

From the date of the preceding testimony, it is evident it was 
used in the county court prior to the transfer of the case to the 
state tribunals. On the eighteenth of May, William Morse pre- 
sented the following petition. 

c To the honored governor, deputy governor, magistrates and deputies now 
assembled in court May the eighteenth 1681. 

'The most humble petition and request of William Morse in behalf of his 
wif (now a condemned prisoner) to this honored court is that they would be 
pleased so far to hearken to the cry of your poor prisoner, who am a condemned 
person, upon the charge of witchcraft and for a wich, to which charge your 
poor prisoner have pleaded not guilty, and by the mercy of God and the good- 
ness of the honored governor, I am reprieved and brought to this honored court, 
at the foot of which tribunal I now stand humbly prayinp your justis in hearing 
of my case and to determine therein as the Lord shall direct. I do not under- 
stand law, nor do I know how to lay my case before you as I ought, for want of 
which I humbly beg of your honors that my request may not be rejected, but 
may find acceptance with you it being no more but your sentence upon my 
triall whether I shall live or dy, to which I shall humbly submit unto the Lord 
and you. 

William Morse in behalf of his wife 

For reasons, which do not appear on the records, the deputies 
had changed their minds, and, instead of being dissatisfied with her 
respite, were willing to grant another hearing of the case. This 
the magistrates opposed. In the court record it is thus stated : 

* The deputyes judge meet to grant the petitioner a hearing the next sixth 
day and that warrants goe forth to all persons concerned, from this court then 
to appear in order to her further triall our honored magistrates hereto con- 

WM. TORREY, Cleric. 
May twenty-fourth; 1681. 

Not consented to by the magistrates. 
EDWARD RAWSON, Secretary.' 


The following additional testimony, taken from the county files, 
is here presented, as necessary to a full understanding of the whole 
case. It is in the handwriting of John Woodbridge, esquire, and 
was undoubtedly copied by him from the original, written by 
William Morse " himself, and should have been inserted in 1679. 
The curious reader will be much amused in comparing this, and 
the preceding testimony of William Morse, with the report of the 
same case, made by Increase Mather in his ' Remarkables,' and 
especially that made by Cotton Mather, in volume second, pages 391 
and 392' of the Magnalia. In that ' wonderful ' book, the latter 
gentleman perverts and amplifies the testimony to a 'prodigious 
and nefandous ' extent. If his ' fourteen astonishing histories ' in 
his ' Thaumatographia Pneumatica,' have been as much indebted 
to his imagination for the dress which they now wear, as that of 
William Morse, it is no wonder that Mr. Savage, in his appendix 
to Winthrop, volume first, page 417, says of him, that ' instead of 
weighing evidence, [he] had not discretion enough to be trusted to 
wipe the scales.' 

( The testimony of William Morse, which saith together with his wife aged 
both about sixty-five yeeres, that Thursday night being the twenty-seventh day 
of November, we heard a great noyes without round the house of knocking the 
boards of the house and, as we conceived, throwing of stones at the house, 
whereupon myselfe and wife lookt eut and saw no body and the boy all this 
time with us, but we had stones and sticks thrown at us that we were forced to 
retire into the house againe, afterwards we went to bed and the boy with us 
and then the like noyes was upon the roof of the house. 

1 The same night about midnight the doore being lockt when we went to bed, 
we heard a great hog in the house grunt and make a noyes, as we thought 
willing to gett out, an cT that we might not be disturbed in our sleep I rose to let 
him out, and I found a hog in the house and the doore unlockt. The doore was 
firmly lockt when we went to bed. 

' The next morning a stick of links hanging in the chimney, they were 
thrown out of their place, and we hanged them up againe and they were 
thrown downe againe and come into the fire. 

' The night following I had a great awle lying in the window, the which 
awle we saw fall downe out of the chimney into the ashes by the fire. 

1 After this I bid the boy put the same awle into the cupboard, which we saw 
done and the doore shut to. this same awle came presently downe the chimney 
againe in our sight, and I took it up myselfe. Againe the same night we saw 
a little Indian baskett, that was in the loft before, came downe the chimney 
againe and I took the same baskett. put a piece of brick in it, and the baskett 
with the brick was gone, and came downe againe the third time with the brick 
in it and went up againe the fourth time and came downe againe without the 
brick, and the brick came downe a little after. 

c The next day being Saturday, stones, sticks and pieces of bricks came 
downe so that we could not quietly eat our breakfast, and sticks of fire also 
came downe at the same time. 

1 That same day in the afternoon my thread four times taken away and came 
downe the chimney againe ; my awle and a gimlett wanting, came downe the 
chimney. Againe my leather taken away came downe the chimney. Againe 
my nailes being in the cover of a ferkin taken away, came downe the chimney. 

1 The next day being Sunday many stones and sticks and pieces of bricks 
came down the chimneye. On Monday Mr. Richardson [the minister] and my 
brother being there, the frame of my cow house they saw very firme, I sent my 
boy to skare the fowles from my hogs' meat. He went to the cow house and it 


fell downe, my boy crying with the hurt of the fall. In the afternoone the potts 
hanging over the fire, did dash so vehemently one against the other, we sett 
downe one that they might not dash to pieces. I saw the andiron leap in to the 
pott and dance, and leap out, and againe leap in and dance, and leap out againe, 
and leap on a table and there abide, and my wife saw the andiron on the table. 
Also I saw the pott turn itselfe over and throw down all the water. Againe we 
saw a tray with wool leap up and downe and throw the wool out and saw no 
body meddle with it. Againe a tub his hoop fly off, of itselfe and the tub turne 
over and no body neere it Againe the woolen wheele upside downe and stood 
upon its end and a spade sett on it. Stephen Greenleaf saw it and myselfe and 
wife. Againe my rope tooles fell downe in the ground before my boy could 
take them being sent for them and the same thing of nailes tumbled downe 
from the loft into the ground and no body neere. Againe my wife and the boy 
making the bed, the chest did open and shutt, the bed clothes would not be 
made to ly on the bed, but fly off againe. 

* l Thomas Rogers and George Hardy being at William Morse his house 
affirme that the earth in the chimney corner moved and scattered on them, that 
Thomas Rogers was hit with somewhat, Hardy, with an iron ladle, as is sup- 
posed. Somewhat hitt William Morse a great blow, but it was so swift that 
they could not tell what it was but looking downe after they heard the noyes 
they saw a shoe. The boy was in the corner at first, afterward in the house. 

1 Mr. Richardson on Saturday testifyeth that a board flew against his chaire 
and he heard a noyes in another roome, which he supposed in all reason to be 

i John Dole saw a large fire stick of candle wood to fall downe, a stone, a fire 
brand, and these things he saw not whence they came, till they fell downe by 

1 Elizabeth Titcomb aifirmeth that Powell sayd that he could find out the 
witch by his learning 1 , if he had another scholar with him. 

1 John Emerson amrmeth that Powell sayd he was brought up under Norwood 
and it was judged by the people there that Norwood studied the black art.' 

In another paper entitled * a farther testimony of William Morse 
and his wife,' he states that ; we saw a keeler of bread turn over 
a chair did often bow to me and rise up againe the chamber door 
did violently fly together and the bed did move to and fro and not 
any body neer them.' 

He also states that the cellar door did violently fly down and a 
drum rolled over it his ' barn door was unpinned four times, and 
going to shut the doore, the boy being with me, the pin (as I did 
judge) coming downe out of the aire did fall down neer to me.' 

1 Againe Caleb Powell came in as before and seeing our spirits very low by 
the sense of our great afflictions, began to bemoane our condition and sayd that 
he was troubled for our affliction, and sayd that he eyed the boy, and drawed 
neere to us with great compassion, poore old man, poore old woman, this boy is 
the occasion of your griefe, for he does these things and hath caused his good 
old grandmother to be counted a witch. Then sayd I, how can all these things 
be done by him ? Then sayd he although he may not have done all. yet most 
of them, for this boy is a young rogue, a vile rogue. I have watched him and 
see him do things as to come up and downe. 

1 Caleb Powell also said he had understanding in Astrology and Astronomy 
and knew the working of spirits, some in one country and some in another, and 
looking on the boy said you young rogue to begin so soone. Goodman Morse, 
if you be willing to let mee have the boy, I will undertake you' shall be freed 
from any trouble of this kind while he is with me. I was very unwilling at 
the first, and my wife, but by often urging me to, and when he told me whither 
and in what employment and company he should goe, I did consent to it and 


we have been freed from any trouble of this kind ever since that promise made 
on Monday night last till this time being Friday afternoone.' 

After enumerating a great variety of marvellous exploits, such as 
' hearing a great noyes in the other roome,' ' his chaire would not 
stand still but ready to throw me backward,' * my cap almost taken 
off my head three times,' i a great blow in my poll,' ' the catt 
thrown at my wife and thrown at us five times, the lamp standing 
by us on a chest, was beaten downe,' and so forth, he thus con- 
cludes : 

1 Againe a great noyes a great while very dreadful. Againe in the morning 
a great stone being six pounds weight did remove from place to place. We 
saw it. Two spoones throwed off the table and presently the table throwed 
downe, and being minded to write, my ink home was hid from me, which I 
found covered with a rag and my pen quite gone. I made a new pen and 
while I was writing, one eare of corne hitt me in the face and fire sticks and 

stones and throwed at me, and my pen brought to me. While I was 

writing with my new pen, my ink-home taken away. Againe my specticles 
thrown from the table, and throwne almost into the fire by me, my wife and 
the boy. Againe my booke of all my accounts throwne into the fire and had 
been burnt presently, if I had not taken it up. Againe boards taken of a tub 
and sett upright by themselves, and my paper, do what I could, I could hardly 
keep it, while T was writing this relation. Presently before I could dry my 
writing, a monmouth hat rubbed along it. but I held it so fast that it did blot 
but some of it. My wife and I being much afraid that I should not preserve it 
for the publick use, we did think best to lay it in the bible and it lay safe that 
night. Againe the next [night] I would lay it there againe, but in the morning 
it was not to be found, the bag hanged downe empty, but after was found in a 
box alone. Againe while I was writing this morning I was forced to forbeare 
writing any more, I was so disturbed with so many things constantly thrown at 

This relation taken December eighth, 1679.' 

On the court records I find nothing more concerning Elizabeth 
Morse. From an essay on witchcraft, by the reverend John Hale, 
of Beverly, and published in the year 1697, I make the following 

1 She [Elizabeth Morse] being reprieved was carried to her own home and 
her husband (who was esteemed a sincere and understanding Christian by those 
that knew him) desired some neighbour ministers, of whom I was one, to dis- 
course his wife, which we did, and her discourse was very Christian, and still 
pleaded her innocence as to that, which was laid to her charge. We did not 
esteem it prudence for us to pass any definitive sentence upon one under her 
circumstances, yet we inclined to the more charitable side. In her last sickness 
she was in much trouble and darkness of spirit, which occasioned a judicious 
friend to examine her strictly, whether she had been guilty of witchcraft, but 
she said no, but the ground of her trouble was some impatient and passionate 
^ speeches and actions of her while in prison upon the account of her suffering 
'wrongfully, whereby she had provoked the Lord by putting contempt upon his 
word. And in fine she sought her pardon and comfort from God in Christ and 
dyed so far as I understand, praying to. and resting upon, God in Christ for 

It was owing, we believe, to the firmness of governor Bradstreet, 
that the life of Elizabeth Morse was saved, and the town of New- 



bury thus prevented from offering the first victim, in Essex county, 
to that lamentable spirit of delusion, which twelve years after left so 
dark a stain on its annals. 

The following is a view of the house occupied by William 
Morse and family, and which, in the language of the excessively 
credulous Cotton Mather, ' was so infested with demons ' in 1679, 
and where, ' before the devil was chained up, the invisible hand did 
begin to put forth an astonishing visibility!' The house is still 
standing at the corner of Market street, opposite to saint Paul's 
church. The lot on which it stands was granted to William Morse 
in 1645, but in what year he erected it, no record informs us ; but 
from all that I can ascertain, the house, or at least a part of it, must 
have been erected soon after the lot was granted. 

March 8th. The town granted the petition of John Badger for 
4 two rods of land over against his house to set up a mill to make 
oatmeal.' This mill was kept in operation till 1810. The last 
proprietor was Mr. Nicholas Lunt, who, between 1763 and 1810, 
manufactured thirty-seven thousand, five hundred and sixty bushels 
of oatmeal. 

March 8th. < The selectmen (hearing that Jeremy Goodridge 
and his family was in a suffering condition) sent up Joseph Pike to 
know how the case stood with him, and upon his inquirie Jeremy 
Goodridge told him he was in a way to get a house of his owne 
and for provision he was in a way also to provide for himselfe, for 
he had corne paid for, which he hoped he should have. And Joseph 
Pike told him if he was like to suffer he should come and acquaint 
the selectmen with it and they would make him supply.' ^ 

* Town records. 


'August 29th. James Merrick chosen sexton, and to have three 
pounds and ten shillings a year for his service.' # 

' October 12th. It was voted that whereas the scholars are so few 
that such as come to learne English shall pay three pence a week 
for their schooling.' ^ 

October 19lh. The town voted to impower the selectmen to 
petition the general court to grant Mr. Woodbridge magi strati cal 
power. In their petition they say, among many other things, ' by 
reason of the largeness of the towne and frequent concourse of 
vessels to trade among us, they wish to have Mr. Woodbridge, as 
he is the fittest and most able for such a work in this place.' 

'November 28th. The town voted that henceforth the general 
towne meeting should be the first Tuesday in March.' * 


Early this year, a small baptist church was formed in Newbury, 
as appears from the following extract from the records of the first 
baptist church in Boston. 

' February 6th, 1681 -2. [It was] agreed upon a church meeting 
that we the church at Boston have assented unto the settling of the 
church at Newbury.' 

The persons who formed this church, were, probably, George 
Little and Philip Squire, who united with the baptist church in 
Boston in 1676, Nathaniel Cheney, William Sayer and wife, 
Benjamin Morse and wife, Mr. Edward Woodman and wife, John 
Sayer, and Abel Merrill, all of whom became members of the same 
church in 1681. All these were residents in Newbury at that time. 
This comprises all the information that I can find on the subject. 

Among the papers of George Little, above-mentioned, the fol- 
lowing petition, in the elegant handwriting of William Chandler, 
is still to be seen. It has neither date nor signature, but was 
probably written between the years 1661 and this year. The just- 
ness of the sentiments, and the beauty of the style, warrant the 
insertion of it here. 

* To the honored generall court. 

1 Whereas wee have these many yeares bin preserved by the good providence 
of God under a peaceable government in this wildemesse and many worthy 
things have by you bin donne unto and for this people, which we acknowledge 
with all thankfulnesse, notwithstanding, may it please you to take notice of 
some greevance of many of the people of God in this country which lieth on 
their spirits, respecting some streightnes and streightening of yt Christian liberty 
which wee think ought to be allowed unto all Christians houlding the founda- 
tion and walking orderly, though of different perswations, namely, to worship 
God according to their owne judgement and consciences without being 
restrained to the judgements of others by human laws ; and forasmuch as our 
gratious king is pleased in his letter f to declare (as wee apprehend) that a prin- 
cipall end of this plantation granted is yt liberty of conscience may bee heere 

* Town records. t September, 1661. 


enjoyed. Wee hope therefore it will be noe griefe of mind to you to consider 
of it, and to repeale such lawes as are a hinderance or restraining in any respect 
to ye people of God either in their joining together in church fellowship or 
exercising in the ordinances of God accordinge to ye pure gospel rule. Our 
humble petition is that all such laws, as occasion or cause any such streightnes, 
restraint or hinderance may be repealed, and that such Christian liberty may 
bee allowed and confirmed, the which wee believe will tend much to ye glory 
of God in ye peace and settlement of his people heere. And soe shall wee 
pray for your peace and remaine (as in duty wee are bound) your faithful and 
humble petitioners. 7 

< March 22d. The selectmen agreed with William Bolton to keep 
the dry herd and to come upon the first day of May and fetch the 
cattle and drive them up into the upper commons^ and so forth and 
William Bolton is to have paid him by the owners of the cattle 
sixpence a head to be paid in malt or Indian corne.' 

' And he is to burrie the woods and to make up the fiatts' fence 
and for that he shall be paid fourteen shillings.' f 

' At a legall meeting of the towne April nineteenth 1682. 

1 There was voted to go to Ipswich to subscribe according to 
court order about Mr. Mason's clayme, captain Daniel Pierce, Mr. 
Richard Dummer, sergeant [Tristram] Coffin, sergeant [Caleb] 
Moody, Mr. John Woodbridge, Mr. Henry Sewall, Nicholas Noyes.' 

In October, the general court renewed the license of Hugh March 
to keep an ' ordinary.' In his petition to the court, he states, that 
4 the town of Newbury some years since were destitute of an ordi- 
nary and could not persuade any person to keep it. For want of 
an ordinary they were twice fined by the county and would have 
been fined a third time had I not undertaken it. It cost me,' says 
he, ' one hundred and twenty pounds to repair the house, and more 
than four hundred pounds in building house, barn, stables and so 

March 22d. ' It was ordered that all swyne that goes upon the 
cow commons shall be ringed under the penalty of twelve pence 
a head and so forth and that all horses and horse kind and dry 
cattle shall be cleared out of the commons and Plum island between 
this and the first of May next under the penalty of two shillings a 
head ' and so forth. All these were to be driven up into the upper 
commons, except ' such horses that are kept for the necessary use 
of their owners.' These were ( to be fettered under a like penalty,' 
in case of neglect, f 

From this extract, from the petition sent to the general court in 
1679 by the inhabitants of Ipswich, and from other circumstances 
and allusions, it is evident that large numbers of cattle and horses 
were, by the inhabitants of Newbury, for many years after the first 
settlement of the town, driven on to Plum island in the fall of the 
year, there to spend the winter and live as they could till the spring 
of the year, or turned out in the lower commons to shift for them- 
selves. Tradition informs that many of the cattle, especially those 

* ' The upper commons,' see March twenty-first, 1642. 
t Town records. 


on Plum island, became so wild, that it became necessary for their 
owners to shoot them as they would other wild beasts. 

As may be easily supposed, neat cattle were much smaller than 
those which are kept by our farmers at the present day. At the 
same time that their cattle were thus neglected, large quantities 
of hay were sent to Exeter, Portsmouth, Dover, Lynn, and so forth. 

March \\th. Sergeant Nathaniel Clark was appointed by the 
selectmen, ' to warne Evan Morris out of the towne of Newbury.' f 

In this year, March twenty-second, I find the following regula- 
tions concerning sheep. 

4 It was ordered that all sheep shall be kept in that part of the 
commons where their owners live. The inhabitants of the old 
town to keep their sheep there. The next flock to be kept from 
Lob's pound* and over the mill bridge to Henry Jaques his pas- 
ture. And the next flock from thence to James Smith's and over 
Trotter's bridge. And the inhabitants from James Carrs to Mr. 
John Sewalls and Jacob Toppans are the frog pond flock and their 
range shall be the Aps swamp from James Smith to George 
Marches bridge and dismal ditch and Robin's pound, and Moses 
Pilsbury and the further end of the towne are to have the plaines 
for their flock.' f 

May VI th. i The towne voted that the selectmen shall have 
power to take care that the poore may be provided for and to build 
cottage or cottages for them according to their discretion and so forth.' f_ 

June 20th. The highway from Newbury to Andover, was this 
day laid out, to ' go by James Smiths and so by George March his 
farme, thence to said George's high field and from thence by 
marked trees to falls river upon as straight a lyne as the ground 
will admit, and so forth.' f 

In April, twenty-nine men and thirty-one women were ' seated ' 
in five new seats in the gallery. 

Mrs. Ann White had her license renewed to keep an ' ordinary.' 

November 23d. i Thanksgiving appointed on account of a very 
plentiful harvest' 


On the fifteenth of February, the general court ordered, c that 
major Sallonstall with the deputies take care to make a division of 
the soldiers of Newbury into two foot companies in as equall a 
manner as they can, and that captain [Daniel] Pierce and his com- 
mission officers shall have the first choice, and captain Thomas 
Noyes and his commission officers, the other. Consented to.' J 

On February ninth, the court of assistants l order that the port 
of Boston to which Charlestown is annexed, and the port of Salem, 

* ' Crowdero, whom in irons bound, 

Thou basely threwst into Lob's pound.' . . Hudibras. 

t Town records. J General court records. 



to which Marblehead, Beverly, Gloucester, Ipswich, Rowley, New- 
bury and Salisbury are annexed, as members, shall be the lawful 
ports in this colony, where ships and other vessels shall lade or un- 
lade any of the plantation's enumerated goods, or other goods from 
foreign parts and no where else and so forth.' 
This occasioned the following petition : 

( To the honored general court now sitting in Boston, the humble petition of 
some of Newbury. 

1 Wee humbly crave the favour that your honors would be pleased to consider 
our little Zebulon and to ease us of that charge, which at present we are forced 
unto by our goeing to Salem to enter our vessells and thereby are forced to stay 
at least te-w days, before we can unload, besides other charges in going and 
coming. That some meet person might be appointed to receive the enter of 
all vessells, and to act and doe according as the law directs in that case arid we 
shall be bound forever to pray for your honors. 
May fifteenth, 1683. 





Referred to the next general court.' 

By referring to the preceding year, it will be seen, that the whole 
of the ' lower commons,' that is, the territory, south of Artichoke 
river, was divided by the town into five distinct * ranges,' or ( sheep 
walks,' which were to be occupied by five flocks of sheep, each of 
which must be kept within its own prescribed limits, 'under penalty 
of twelve pence a head for every sheep so disorderly ' ^ as to be 
out of place night or day. Each flock was under the care of a 
shepherd, hired by the owners of the sheep. From an ancient doc- 
ument, found among the papers of the late deacon Nathaniel Little, 
of which the following is a copy, we are enabled to ascertain the 
manner, in which each company managed its concerns. The 
company here alluded to, resided in the vicinity of the upper green, 
and comprehended those living within the third * range.' 

1 April 16th, 1683. At a legall meeting of the company, whose names are 
here set down [we] have agreed that every man shall take his full turn of fold- 
ing for this year in order according- as their names are set down ; and for the 
next year it shall begin with that man, that had no benefit, or that had not his 
whole benefit of folding upon his corn and so successively from year to year 
till every man hath had that benefit of folding upon his corn or otherways in 
season. And also it is agreed that every man shall bring a sufficient gate for 
every score of sheep he doth bring or send to the flock belonging to this com- 
pany according to the number of sheep given in for folding as witness our 
hands ; 





1 It is also agreed that Mr. Nois and Mr. Gerrish shall tack account of every 
man's sheep, and proportion to every man his share of foulding, and to conclude 

* Town records. 


the end of foulding the fifth of November and let the first share of foulding be 
the bigest, if they make any difference in every man's two shares. 


' It is agreed that Evan Morris shall keep sheep for this year 1683 and he is 
to have six shillings a week in pay, and he that have above forty in the fold 
shall give him one shilling out of the whole in money, and all that are under 
thirty shall pay sixpence in money a man.' l They whose sheep are kept shall 
allow him his dyett besides the said six shillings per week where the sheep are 

The following is a list of the company, and number of their sheep. 

Mr. Moses Gerrish, . 90 Richard Brown, ... 24 

John Atkinson, ... 40 Thomas Noyes, ... 40 

Cousin Pettingell, . . 14 Robert Long, .... 30 

Samuel Pettingell, . . 30 James Smith, .... 44 

Captain [Daniel] Peirce, 105 John Woolcot, ... 54 

Joshua Morss, .... 27 John Smith, .... 12 

Serjeant Trist. Coffin, 55 Widow Stickney, . . 24 

Doctor [Peter] Toppan, 80 John Webster, . . . .35 

441 263 


Total, ... 704 

Here we find sixteen individuals, in one neighborhood, owning 
seven hundred and four sheep. How many more there were in 
the remaining four flocks, we have no means of accurately ascer- 
taining, but estimating the number owned by each individual in 
town, to be in proportion to the tax he paid in 1685, the whole 
number of sheep, owned in Newburv this year, would be five 
thousand six hundred and eighty-five, a number, which is probably 
not far from the truth. 

As there may be some things in the preceding quotations, which 
will need a little explanation, I will here furnish it from a few other 
old papers, and an old account book kept by Richard Bartlet, junior. 
It will be recollected that our fathers found it necessary, on account 
of the wolves, to have their sheep securely folded every night 
This necessity they turned to the advantage of their corn land, by 
folding the sheep upon it Having set the day on which shepherd 
Morris was to commence his services, which this year was the 
twenty-third of April, and designated the man, who was to have 
the first 'benefit of folding,' who this year was Richard Brown, 
each one of the company brought to his corn land his share of the 
materials, (' a gate^ for every score of sheep/) with which they set 
up the pen. After remaining there the prescribed time, it was taken 
down and set up on l Cousin PettingelTs ' land, and thus it passed 
round from one to another, like a mug of flip at an i ordinary ' in, 

* Thus, 'September ninth. 1702. John Ordway Dr. for your help in carting tw 
load of sheep gates into my field.' BarthCs account book. 


olden time, each one receiving, ' upon his corn,' or corn land, < the 
full benefit ' of the top dressing, which seven hundred sheep could 
give. Wherever the pen was erected, there the shepherd was to 
have his ' dyett,' and thus like a menagerie, or traveling circus, he 
and his animals were continually in motion. At other times, and 
in other places, the pen was erected on some part of the common 
land, and was, after a suitable time, removed, and a crop of turnips 
raised, which, in the fall, were divided pro rata among the owners 
of the sheep. Turnips at that time, and for half a century after, 
supplied the place of potatoes. In 1662, the price of a cord* of oak 
wood, and a bushel of turnips, was the same, namely, one shilling 
and sixpence. In 1702, a cord .of oak wood was three shillings, a 
cord of walnut five shillings, and a bushel of turnips from one shil- 
ling and sixpence to two shillings.^ From Mr. Richard Bartlet's 
old journal I take the following. ' In 1676, turnips one shilling per 
bushel, hemp and butter sixpence per pound. In 1687, cotton wool 
was one shilling and sixpence per pound.' 

The inquisitive reader will excuse the minuteness of these 
details, as it gives a picture of some of the customs of our fore- 
fathers, which the lapse of more than a century and a half has 
either materially changed or entirely effaced. 

A negro woman, named Juniper, came to Newbury this year. 
She was warned out of town, but, refusing to go, the selectmen 
appealed to the county court, ' to be eased of such a burthen.' 


January 2d. ' At a generall legall meeting of the towne it was 
proposed and voted on the affirmative, whether or no we think it 
expedient and meet to divide a part of the commons, if we can 
agree upon a rule to do it by.' f 

A committee of fourteen persons were chosen, ' to consult and 
consider about a rule.' It was also voted ' to divide the commons 
above the hedge.' f J 

< January Wth. At a legall meeting of the freemen and freehold- 
ers it was voted that six thousand acres of the upper common shall 
be lotted out, namely, one thousand acres to the non-freeholders 
and soldiers, and five thousand acres to the freeholders, to every 
freeholder alike with an addition to some few men that have de- 
served more and this shall not be a precedent to the future in the 
ordering or dividing of any other part of the common.' f 

In consequence, however, 'of some, that did manifest dissatisfac- 
tion at the votes it was voted that there shall be no further proceed- 

* John Knight's journal. t Town records. 

f ' The hedge,' so called, was near Artichoke river, and was the dividing line between 
* the lower commons,' and ' upper commons,' or ' upper woods,' as it was sometimes 
called. The upper commons was appropriated for the pasturage of ' the dry herd.' 
The lower commons was divided into ' cow commons, ox commons, steer commons, and 
calf commons.' The sheep pasture covered ihe same ground, but was differently divided. 


ing upon that vote, nor any division of the common until the free- 
men and freeholders do agree who the persons shall be that deserve 
any addition, and what they do deserve more than an equall share.' ^ 

On the subject of dividing the commons, nothing more was done 
until March, 1686, when, as will be seen, the division was made. 
The cause of the dissatisfaction, which existed among a large por- 
tion of the inhabitants, originated in the order passed the seventh 
of December, 1642, which ' declared and ordered that the persons 
only abovementioned [ninety-one in all] are acknowledged to be 
freeholders by the towne and to have a proportionable right in all 
waste lands, commons, and rivers undisposed of and suet as by, from 
or under them or their heyrs have bought, granted and purchased from 
them or any of them theyr right and title thereunto and none else.' * 

This order of course excluded all the other inhabitants of the town 
from any right or title to any of the common lands, the river lots, 
and Plum island. As early as 1680 attempts were made by the 
non-freeholders to own and occupy the commons equally with the 
freeholders, using language to the freeholders to this effect. 

< We think it hard to be deprived of the right of commonage. 
We pay according to our property as much as you for the support 
of public worship, the support of schools, the repairing of the roads, 
and our equal proportion of all other taxes, and some of us have 
served as soldiers for your defence, and yet you have rights and 
privileges, of which we are deprived.' This was at least plausible, 
and after many meetings, they, in 1686, as we shall see, succeeded, 
with the assistance of some of the rich freeholders, in partially 
accomplishing their object, and establishing a rule, by which the 
division was made. 

May l'5th. At this session of the general court, Nathaniel Clarke 
of Newbury was chosen naval officer for Newbury and Salisbury. 
This was in accordance with the last year's petition of Newbury, 
and with that of Salisbury, who at this session of the court, pre- 
ferred a similar petition, stating that they ' had some small trade.' 

May 31st. Honorable Nathaniel Saltonstall, of Haverhiil, thus 
writes to captain Thomas Noyes of Newbury. 'In ye major gene- 
ral's letter I have order also to require you, which I herein do, with 
all convenient speed, to provide a flight of colours for your foot 
company, ye ground field, or flight whereof is to be green with a 
red cross with a white field in ye angle, according to the antient 
custome of our o\vn English nation, and the English plantations in 
America and our own practice in our ships and other vessels. The 
number or bullets to be put into your colours for distinction, may 
be left out at present without damage in the making of them.' f 

Sr faile not 

Your friend and servant, 


* Town records. t Robert Adams's manuscripts. 


Thus it appears that the cross in the colors, which Endicott, at 
the instigation of Roger Williams, had cut out in 1634 as a 'relique 
of antichrist,' and had been laid aside for many years, was again 
ordered to be inserted. The scruple, however, against its use, still 
continued in many minds. ' Judge Samuel Sewall, who in 1685 
was captain of the south company of militia in Boston, resigned 
his commission November eleventh, 1686 on account of an order to 
put the cross in the colours.' # 

In his diary, under date of August twentieth, 1686, he says : 
1 read tenth Jeremiah, was in great exercise about the cross to be put 
into the colours, and afraid, if I should have a hand in it, whether 
it may. not hinder my entrance into the Holy land.' 

This year, for the first time, a list of the town debts is given in 
full, from which the following extracts are taken. It is in John 
Pike's handwriting. 

1 To Mr. Edward Tomson for keeping school this year, . . . 30 Os Od 
To Richard Herring for sweeping the meeting house, .... 2100 
To Anthony Somerby for keeping the town booke, -....100 

To Daniel Lunt an houre glass, 16 

To John Hendrick one day at the hedg, 30 

To Samuel Sawyer burning the woods in olde time, .... 40 

To Mrs. White tavern expences, 524 

To James Brown, watch house glass, 96 

To Samuel Plummer ferriage, . . . . > 10 

To William Sawyer karting lime to meetting house, .... 20 

To James Ordway and Jonathan Clark, twenty-eight bushels lime ISO 7 

From the same account it appears that the ' coullers ' for the troop 
cost two pounds and fourteen shillings, and for the two foot com- 
panies six pounds, six shillings, and seven pence. The whole 
amount of the town tax for all purposes this year was three hund- 
red and thirty-eight pounds and eighteen shillings, of which one 
hundred and twenty-eight pounds, six shillings, and sixpence, was 
the salary of reverend John Richardson. 

November 24th. Inquest on the body of John Poore, senior. 

' We judge that being in the woods and following his game, he 
was bewildered, and lost himself and in his pursuit plucked off his 
clothes, and scattered them some good distance one part from an- 
other till he had left nothing on save his waistcoat, and drawers, and 
breeches and hose and shoes.' f 


February Stk. l Sabbath afternoon there was an earthquake.' J 
January 17th. ' Boston harbour frozen over down to the castle, 

and nine hundred men on the ice at once.' J 

The following petition was sent in t6 the town of Newbury by 

some of the inhabitants at the west end. 

* Quarterly register, February, 1841. f County records. J Judge Sewall's diary. 


{ March 10th, 1684-5. To the town of Newbury the humble request of some 
of the inhabitants of this lown doe sire and intreat that you would be pleased to 
grant us your consent, approbation and assistance in geting some help in the 
ministry amongst us, by reason that we doe live soe remote from the means, 
great part of us that we cannot with any comfort or convenience come to the 
publick worship of God ; neither can our families be brought up under the 
means of grace as Christians ought to bee, and which is absolutely necessary 
unto salvation ; therefore we will humbly crave your loving compliance with 
us in this our request/ 

The preceding petition is the first recorded intimation, that is to 
be found, that the people of the west end of the town desired to 
have public worship among themselves. This was the commence- 
ment of a contest, which, as we shall see, involved the whole town, 
and especially the westerly part of it, in difficulties and quarrels, 
which were not settled for many years, the injurious consequences 
of which are even now perceptible. 

April 20th. King James proclaimed king ' in the market place, 
Boston, by the governor, deputy governor, eight soldiers and one 
troop to guard the governor.' 

This year, May twentieth, William Bolton was chosen Mo keep 
the dry cattell in the upper commons above the hedge, and to take 
care for ye repayring of such breaches as should be in the hedg 
from time to time,' and so forth. 

June 18/A. The selectmen defined the limits of the five flocks of 
sheep. They were called ' the old-town flock,' 4 Henry Short's 
flock,' ' captain Pierce's flock,' l the frogg pond flock,' and ' the Arte- 
choak flock.' 

In November the selectmen ordered the names of all the tax- 
payers to be recorded, with the amount paid by each individual 
toward ^Ir. Richardson's salary, which was ' forty pounds in money 
and seventy pounds in other good pay.' The word 'pay' at this 
time meant all kinds of grain, and so forth, and sometimes cattle 
and horses. By a warrant from the state treasurer ' to the select- 
men and constables of Newbury, the town was required to collect 
of the inhabitants eighteen pounds, two shillings and ten pence in 
money, and thirly-six pounds, five shillings and eight pence to be 
paid in country pay, wheat at five shillings and sixpence, barley and 
barley malt and pease at four shillings and sixpence, rye at four 
shillings, Indian corn at three shillings, and oats at two shillings per 
bushel, and all other things at money prices, provided no leane 
cattle or horses be paid, and in case any pay money in lieu of 
country pay they are to be abated one third,' and so forth. 

The whole number of persons rated, was two hundred and thir- 
teen, among whom are the names of eight with the title of ' Mr.,' a 
mark of distinction at this time, one esquire, three captains, three 
lieutenants, two ensigns, eight sergeants, three corporals, three dea- 
cons, and two doctors. 



' January 24^/z, Sunday. So cold that the sacramental bread is 
frozen pretty hard and rattles sadly into the plates.' ^ 

At the March meeting this year, ' it was ordered that the select- 
men shall have twenty shillings apiece for the bearing of their 
charges and the expence of their time about the towne buisiness 
and ye commissioner to have ten shillings and what they spend 
more they are to pay out of their owne estate.' f 

March 16th. ' The towne being sensible of their great want of 
another corne mill,' a committee of five persons was chosen ' to 
view such place or places, as may be most convenient for ye setting 
up of a mill.' f 

' For the preservation of convenient shades for cattle and sheep 
in ye home commons,' all persons were forbidden, under penalty 
of twenty shillings a tree, ' apses, birches and alders excepted, to 
cutt, fall, girdle or lopp any tree in any of the towne's high wayes or 
in 'any of ye commons' within certain specified limits, f 

i Juniper proposed for a liberty to build a cottage to dwell in 
upon ye common neer frogg pond. The towne voted in the nega- 

March 22d. ' At a legall meeting of the selectmen twenty tything 
men were appointed and chosen for the year ensuing.' 

' Benjamin Mors was appointed to burn the woods this year above 
Artichoke river and to have for his pains ten shillings.' 

Hugh March and Mrs. Ann White were licensed to keep an 

* ordinary.' 

' At a county court March thirtieth captain Daniel Pierce, captain 
Thomas Noyes and lieutenant Stephen Greenleaf are commissioned 
to be magistrates by the court, as there was no magistrate among 
them,' that is, the people of Newbury. So says John Badger in his 

March 23d. ' At a legall meeting of the freemen and freeholders,' 
another attempt was made to divide a part of the upper commons. 
Among the votes passed was one, forty-three to thirty-eight, that 

* each freeholder should have twenty acres of land laid out in the 
upper commons on Merrimack river and on the southwest side of 
the upper commons ' and so forth, and ' it was also determined and 
agreed that if this land in time to come shall be improved by fenc- 
ing or otherwise the improvers of it shall pay to all public towne 
charges,' and so forth.f 

From this and other votes and allusions, it is evident that the 
larger part of the land lying above Artichoke river, was still com- 
mon, unfenced, and unimproved except for pasturage. Large 
quantities of timber in this tract were granted to various individuals 
to make 'long shingle,' as it was called, 'to cover houses,' for ' pales ' 

* Judge SewalFs diary. f Town records. 


for 'clapboards/ 'for posts and rayles,' for buildings of various 
kinds, and for wheelwrights and coopers' use. 

In the month of April, complaints were 'made to the selectmen of 
great spoyle of timber that was made in the towne's commons, 
constable' Moses Pilsbury seized and delivered to Joseph Pike 
twenty-one red oak trees and sixteen white oak trees at the southeast 
end near Savages' rock and the westerly end of Long hill near 
Merrimack river.' 

J/fl/y 5th. A committee of seventeen was chosen, to 'agree upon 
a meete way of dividing the commons and bring in theyr result and 
conclusion to the towne,' and so forth.^ 

On October twentieth, the committee reported, and the ' towne 
voted that the upper commons be divided in manner following, 
namely, the six thousand acres, one half of them in quantity and 
quality be divided among the freeholders, to every freeholder a like 
share, and the other half of said commons be divided among all 
such inhabitants of this towne and freeholders as have paid rates 
two years last past, proportionable to w^hat each man paid by rate 
to the minister's rate in the year 1685.' ^ 

' And that about eleven hundred acres of the lower commons be 
divided according to the above method and laid out into five general 
pastures and so forth, and the rest of the commons to be divided and 
laid out into wood lots according to the above division and same rale.'* 1 

' June 19th. James Myricks house burnt down.'f 

The committee, who were chosen October twenty-first, to divide 
and lay out the lands, were captain Daniel Pierce, lieutenant Ste- 
phen Greenleaf, serjeant John Emery, Joseph Pike, lieutenant Tris- 
tram Coffin, ensign Nathaniel Clark* and Henry Short. 

November 26th. The freeholders of Newbiiry met and passed 
several orders before the lots were drawn. One was, that ' Indian 
river should be free as far as the tide flows for the passing and re- 
passing of boats and canoes. Another, that every freeholder should 
draw his lot as his name is entered in the town booke.^ The free- 
holders' meeting was then adjourned for half an hour to attend the 
towne meeting then to be.' % 

This division of land, which the freeholders had at last agreed to 
make, was one of the most important transactions in which the town 
had been called to engage. It had occasioned, as we learn from a 
protest on record, signed by Margaret Lowle and James Brown, 
'great confusions, contentions, inconveniences, and injuries,' and 
was not settled without much difficulty and opposition. On No- 
vember twenty-ninth, they again met, and 'agreed that the persons 
concerned in the rate division of the upper commons shall be drawne 
into four companyes, then one man of each company shall draw in 
the name, and for the said company, and he that draweth figure one 
that company shall have theyr proportions first,' and so on. ' Then 
every man's name of every company, and the names of the four 

* Town records. t Sewall's journal. 



companyes shall be putt into four several baggs, and the committee 
chosen to lay out the said rate proportion shall take a paper out of 
the bagg belonging to the first company, and that man's name, that 
first comes to hand shall have his lott first laid out and so all the rest 
successively until the whole be laid out and so for the rest of the 
companyes.' ^ 

December 1st. The freeholders again met and voted, that ' they 
would begin the division next Mr. John Gerrish's farm next Brad- 
ford line,' and so forth. The lots were accordingly drawn, and the 
land was laid out by ' the two lott layers, namely lieutenant Tristram 
Coffin and Henry Short,' and thus this perplexing business was 
finally settled, in perhaps the only way which could reconcile the 
conflicting interests and opinions of the great majority of the people. 

December 13th. A committee was chosen to divide eleven 
hundred acres of the lower commons into five general pastures. 

December 2Qth. Sir Edmund Andros came to New England. 

December 21st. The committee were desired to ; measure the 
old towne common and proportion it to the old towne men and 
proportion the rest of the land adjacent to the rest of the inhabi- 
tants in the same proportion.' 3fe 

It may not here be improper to explain the difference between a 
' freeholders' meeting,' a ' freemen's meeting,' and a ' town meeting.' 

A man might be a freeholder and not a ' freeman,' and vice versa. 
He might be a voter in town affairs, and yet neither be a freeholder 
nor a freeman. A freeman was one who had taken the freeman's 
oath, and which alone entitled him to vote in the nomination of 
magistrates, choice of deputies, alias representatives. A freeholder 
was one, who either by grant, purchase, or inheritance, was entitled 
to a share in all the common and undivided lands. When any 
town officers were to be chosen, or money raised by way of rate, 
all the inhabitants could vote. Thus we sometimes find the expres- 
sion, ' at a meeting of the freemen,' sometimes ' a meeting of the 
freeholders,' or ' a meeting of the freeholders and proprietors,' or ' a 
meeting of the freeholders and inhabitants,' or * a generall towne 
meeting,' and sometimes ' a legall towne meeting.' These expres- 
sions always indicate the nature and object of the meeting, and 
were necessary, as all the transactions were recorded by the town 
clerk, in the same book. In this year, two sets of books began to 
be kept, one for the town, and one for the proprietors, and were 
kept separate till the final settlement of the proprietors' concerns, in 
the sale of' Plum island in 1827. To the division of the land in 
the upper commons, on the plan proposed, many were opposed, 
some from principle, and some from interest. The division was at 
last settled by a compromise, which evinced a good deal of man- 
agement, quieting the non-freeholder, and, at the same time, enrich- 
ing the wealthy freeholder at the expense of the poorer freeholder. 
That a rich freeholder would obtain a larger share by consenting 

* Town records. 


that the rate-paying non-freeholders should share with him accord- 
ing to ' the rule/ is evident. For example, were one hundred and 
thirteen acres of land to be divided among the freeholders alone, 
each would have an acre ; but were the same amount to be divided, 
one half among the freeholders, and the other half among the free- 
holders and rate payers, a freeholder would have half an acre on 
the first division, and if he paid a sixteen shillings tax, he would 
obtain eight times as much on the other half as a freeholder who 
only paid a two shillings tax. 

November 21st. ' The three deacons namely, deacon Nicholas 
Noyes, deacon Robert Long and deacon Tristram Coffin were at 
the request of the selectmen, chosen standing overseers of the poore 
for the town of Newbury.' 

December 1st. ' Captain Daniel Pierce and captain Stephen 
Greenleaf senior, were added to the deacons as overseers of the 
poor, and that any three of them shall have power to make a valid 
act.' # The town also engaged ' to ratify and confirm whatsoever 
bargain the overseers of the poore shall make, provided alwayes 
that they do not engage money.' * 

December 13th. The town empowered a committee l to lay out 
a convenient. high way of such breadth as they shah 1 see meet thro' 
the plaines to sergeant Emery's mill.' * 

' The first range of lots for the freeholders began at sergeant John 
Emery's farm [near Artichoke river] and so ran up Mem mack river 
unto Air. John Gerrish's farm [near or adjoining to Bradford.'] 

The committee, consisting of Mr. Daniel Pierce, with Tristram 
Coffin, and Henry Short, lot-layers, laid out a road ' four rods wide 
and no more from Artichoke river to Lowell's brook [now Brown's 
spring] and thence to Bradford line.' * 

Joseph Dudley was appointed president of Massachusetts, 
Plymouth, New Hampshfre, and Maine, with a council, but no 
house of representatives. In six months he \vas superseded by 
sir Edmund Andros. He was very arbitrary and oppressive. Five 
only of the councillors joined with governor Andros in his 
measures ; the greater part refusing to act with him. 


January 5th, 1687. A committee was appointed < to treat with 
Peter Cheney about setting up a corne mill and a fulling mill upon 
the Falls river, and to treat with William Moody concerning his 
Indian purchase and the quantity of land he claims thereby,' # and 
so forth. 

January 8th. Town granted Mr. [D.] Davison a ' piece of 
ground twenty foot wide next Mr. Richard Dole's ware house grant 
and thirty-five foot long towards doctor Dole's house,' and laid it 
out second of April. 

* Town records. 


Town sent a petition to sir Edmund Andros, knight, praying 
him to appoint and empower some man or men to take the 
acknowledgment of deeds, and give oaths, and a clerk to issue 
i forth all needful writs and warrants, there being not one of your 
excellencys council within twenty miles.' 

February 15/A, 1687. Peter Cheney proposed to ' build and 
maintaine a good sufficient grist or corn mill within two years, and 
a fulling mill within three yeares at ye upper falls, and to full ye 
towne's cloth on the same terms that Mr. John Pearson doth full 
cloth, and resign up his interest in Little river on condition that the 
town give him fifty acres of land joyning to Falls' river,' ^ and so 
forth, which the town granted. 

March 28th. The town granted to eleven young men, i liberty to 
build a pew in the hindmost seat in the gallery, that is before the 
pulpit.' # 

October ISth. The committee chosen by the .town, ' agreed with 
Mr. Seth Shove to be ye lattin Schoolmaster for ye town of New- 
bury for the present year.' 

April 6th. ' A warrant was granted to warne out of ye towne 
Win. Nisbett, Edw. Badger and one David that lives at Mr. 
Thurlos.' * 

' This year the worms did much mischief in the summer, eating 
up trees, grass as -though they had been mown, leaving weeds.' f 

October 25th. A new ferry across the Merrimac was granted 
by sir Edmund Andros, to captain John March, and was the first 
ferry granted within the limits of what is now Newburyport. It 
was situated just, where it is now. The first was granted at Carr's 
island, and, till this year, had monopolized the whole travel of the 
country, from the mouth of the river to Amesbury ferry. This 
grant was in consequence of a petition sent by captain March, 
September twenty-third, 1687. James Carr remonstrated against 
it, stating that * the first bridge at Carr's island cost more than three 
hundred pounds, that the ferry at George Carr's death was worth 
near four hundred pounds and that the injury to him by March's 
ferry was fifty or sixty pounds a year.' Mr. March, in a letter to the 
town of Salisbury, offered to be at one half of the expense of mak- 
ing their part of the road passable to the ferry. 

During the vacation of the charter, and the tyrannical adminis- 
tration of Andros, it was asserted that the people had no title to 
their lands. The following letter from Mr. Robert Mason, who, in 
consequence of a grant to his father from the council of Plymouth, 
before the settlement of Massachusetts, claimed all the land from 
Naumkeag river, [Salem,] to Merrimac, will be read with interest. 
Mason was one of Andres's council, and resided at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire. 

* Town records. t Se wall's journal. 


1 Great Island, August 13th, 1687. 

' To his excellency Edmund Andres, 


1 Your excellency may please to remember I proposed some persons as 
fitting to serve his majesty in the town of Newbury both in civil and military 
affairs. In my return to this place I had discourse with several persons, the 
most considerable of that town, that by want of justices of the peace, nothing 
hath been done at the meeting of thos'e inhabitants for settling the rates and 
other concerns of the publick. Mr. Woodbridge. one of the justices is very an- 
cient and crazy and seldom goes abroad. Mr. Dummer the other justice lives 
six miles from the place and therefore very unfit for that servic.e for the town of 
Newbury, besides his other qualites in not being of the loyal party as he ought 
to be. I doe therefore intreat of your excellency, that in the commission of the 
peace my two friends, Daniel Pierce and Nathaniel Clarke may be put, which I 
assure myself will be for his majesty's service and to your excellency's satisfac- 
tion. There are no military commissions sent to that place and therefore I doe 
entreat your excellency's favour that commissions be sent these following per- 
sons. Daniel Davison, captain of horse for Newbury and Rowley. Stephen 
Greenleaf junior lieutenant. George March cornet. Of the first company 
Thomas Noyes captain, Stephen Greenleaf senior lieutenant, James Noyes 
ensign. Of the second company Nathaniel Clarke captain, John March lieuten- 
ant, Moses Gerrish ensign. I shall desire your excellency that Mr. Davison 
may have his commission first for raising the troops, there being many young 
men, that will list themselves under him. if not before listed by the captain's 
foot. He is very well beloved and I presume will have the completest troops 
in the country. 

1 1 shall be extream glad to heare of my good lady's safe arrival, which so 
soon as I shall understand, I will make a speedy journey to Boston to kiss her 
hands. I came last night to this place. / hope all things will go easy so that I 
may have no occasion of using the former severities of the law against my tenants. 
I had rather see them rich than poor. I humbly kiss your excellency's hands 
and am Your excellency's servant 



January 26th. John Woodbridge, esquire, and eight others, sent 
in a written prostestation ' against the injurious and unreasonable 
dealing of some invading and disposing of the town's commons, 
which (as they suppose) they have no right nor authority to do,' 
and so forth, and ' demanded that whatsoever is already done to the 
dividing and impropriating our commons may be made void and 
nulled,' and so forth. 

The town granted * their interest in the stream of the little river 
to the mouth of it where it vents into the great river to Henry Short 
to build a grist mill upon for the towne's use, provided he build it 
within one year, and if he do not build within one year he is to pay 
five pounds and the towne to have theyr interest in the stream 
againe.' * 

This summer, the people of Massachusetts, in addition to the 
grievances, which they suffered under the tyrannical administration 
of sir Edmund Andros, were again, after a twelve years' respite, 
afflicted with the horrors of an Indian war. It was called Castine's 
war from the baron de saint Castine, a Frenchman, who had rnar- 

* Town records. 


ried a daughter of Madochawando, the Penobscot chief, and whose 
house, in his absence, had been plundered by the English. The 
Canadian French also united with the Indians in their depredations, 
which were continued at intervals till 1698. Notwithstanding all 
the difficulties, under which the people labored, they were, in gene- 
ral, very patient under the ' new government.' ^ There were, how- 
ever, a few exceptions. ' One John Gould was tried, convicted 
and fined fifty pounds for treasonable words.' The reverend John 
Wise and Mr. John Appleton, of Ipswich, were imprisoned for 
remonstrating against the taxes as a heavy grievance.^ 

Caleb Moody of Newbury was imprisoned and Joseph Bayley 
put under bonds of two hundred pounds to answer for an alleged 
offence, which is best related in Moody' s own words. 

1 Caleb Moody of Newbury aged fifty-two years testifyelh that some time in 
January 1688 Joseph. Baylie of ye same towne gave me a paper, which he told 
me he had taken up in the king's highway, the title of it was, 

1 New England alarmed, 

To -rise and be armed, 

Let not papist you charme, 

I mean you no harme,' and so forth. 

1 The purport of the paper was to give notice to the people of the danger they 
were in, being under the sad circumstances of an arbitrary government, sir Ed- 
mund Andros having about one thousand of our souldiers, as 'I was informed, 
prest out of the Massachusetts colony and carried with him to the eastward 
under pretence of destroying our enemy Indians (although not one Indian killed 
by them that I heard of at that time.) We had no watching nor warding at our 
towne by order of those yt sir Edmund put in command there. Justice Wood- 
bridge and Justice Epps sent me a warrant to bring a paper that was in my 
hands, which I did, and told them I received the paper from Joseph Baylie, who 
owned it to them, whereupon I was cleared, and they bound said Joseph Baylie 
in a bond of two hundred pounds to answer it at Salem court ye fifth of March 
following and they took me for his bondsman. Notwithstanding this, about a 
week after the said justices by a warrant brought me before them and then 
committed me to Salem prison (though I proffered ym bayle) they would not 
take it but I was to be safely kept to answer what should be charged against me 
upon the king's account for publishing a scandalous and seditious lybell. After 
I had been in prison a whole week then judge Palmer and Mr. Grayham, ye 
king's attorney came to Salem and examined me and confined me to close im- 
prisonment ordering that neither my friends, or acquaintance nor fellow-prisoners 
to come to me, which continued for about a week's time, and then judge P. and 
Mr. G. came againe, and said G. sent for me, and after some discourse he refused 
any bayle, but committed me to close prison, and after, Charles Redford, the high 
sheriff, came to prison and told Joseph Baylie and myself that he had orders to 
examine us, and to put a new mittimus upon us and charge us with treason, and 
the time came when the court should have sent to try us and there was no court. 
Afterwards there came news of ye happy arrival and good success of ye prince 
of Orange, now king of England, and then by petitioning I got bayle. The 
time of my imprisonment was about five weeks, and I doe judge my dammage 
one way and another was about forty pounds. 

Boston New England, January ninth, 1689-90. 'f 

Caleb Moody appeared personally January ninth, 1689-90 and gave evidence 
upon oath of the truth of the above written before me 


Assistant for ye colony of ye Massachusetts 
bay in New England.' 

* Hutchinson. t Colonial files. 


The ' one thousand souldiers,' mentioned by Moody in the pre- 
ceding statement, were in fact only seven or eight hundred, whom 
governor Andros had impressed, and marched at their head in the 
eastern country in November, a ' measure universally condemned,' 
as ' not an Indian was killed,' and ' many of the sokliers died with 
hardships.' The names of those impressed by his order from New- 
bury, November, 1688, were, captain John March, Charles Stuart, 
Benjamin Goodridge, William Goodridge, John Cram, Joseph 
Short, Edward Goodwin. 

In the January following, Giles Mills, Nicholas Cheney, Jacob 
Parker, John Richards, and Andrew Stickney, were impressed. 

Joseph Moring, a soldier, in his will, dated November fifth, 1688, 
says, ' I give to the ' new town ' in Newbury twenty pounds to help 
build a meeting house, if they do build one, if they do not build one, 
then I give twenty pounds towards rebuilding or repairing the 
meeting-house that is now standing in Newbury.' 

In Richard Bartlet's old account book I find, in 1689, the follow- 
ing. * Bought boards and shingles and nails for the meeting house.' 
The west parish meeting-house was therefore built in 1689. 


For the last three years, there is nothing of interest to be found on 
the town records. The reason of this, probably, is^ that nothing of 
consequence was done. Under the tyrannical and arbitrary govern- 
ment of Andros, the people were kept under great restraint. 

4 Every town was suffered to meet once a year to choose their 
officers, but all meetings at other times or for other purposes, were 
strictly forbidden.' ^ 

The body of the people, who had borne with great patience the 
tyranny of Andros's administration, were determined to bear it no 
longer. On Thursday, the eighteenth of April, the inhabitants of 
Boston and the vicinity ' seized and confined the governor and such 
of the council, as had been most active, and other obnoxious per- 
sons and reinstated the old magistrates.' ^ Some went from New- 
bury. Among them was Samuel Bartlet, a staunch friend of lib- 
erty, a very facetious but decided man. ' He was a basket maker, 
fidler and farmer. On the first intimation of any difficulty, he 
armed himself, mounted his horse, and so rapid, it is said, was his 
flight to Boston, that his long rusty sword, trailing on the ground, 
left, as it came in contact with the stones in the road, a stream of 
fire all the way. He arrived in season to assist in imprisoning the 
governor.' f 

The following is the first article on the records for this year. 

1 May 6th. The committee of safety in Boston having desired 
us to send a man or men for consulting with them what may be 

* Hutchinson. 

t Interleaved almanacs of the late honorable Bailey Bartlet, esquire, Haverhill. 


best for the conservation of the peace of the country. Our inhabi- 
tants being met this sixth day of May 1689 have chosen captain 
Thomas Noyes and lieutenant Stephen Greenleaf senior for the 
end aforesaid,' and on May twentieth the inhabitants of the town 
met for consultation, and among other things declared that being ' in 
full expectation of enlargement of privilege and liberty of choyce for 
the future,' they * give their consent to the freemen of the towne to 
make choyce of the governor, deputy governor, and assistants to be 
our lawful authority.' It was therefore voted * by the lowne and by 
the freemen,' with only two dissenting votes, that the charter should 
be reassumed, though nothing had then been heard from England. 
On May twenty-sixth, news arrived at Boston that William and 
Mary had been proclaimed king and queen of England. * This,' 
says Hutchinson, ' was the most joyful news ever received in New 

July \st. Town desired ' for the present exigence to have all the 
military officers, that were in commission May twelfth 1686,' to be 

4 Also we desire and empower the said committee of militia to 
appoint so many houses to be fortified among us as they shall see 
cause and to proportion so many families to each fortification ac- 
cording to theyr discretion.' 

August 22d. ' Brig Merrimack of Newbury, captain John Kent, 
was captured by pirates in Martin Vineyard sound.' 

August 24:th. The governor and council and representatives 
desired the town of Newbury to raise a ' subscription for a loan of 
money, goods and provisions for the carrying on of the Indian war.' 
The town, ' in answer thereunto,' say, ' it is our desire to maintaine 
ye soldiers of our own towne as to provision and wages.' % 

September 23d. Samuel Sayer was licensed by the court to sell 
victuals and drink, living conveniently by the road to Bradford and 

December 25th. Peter Cheney was allowed one year longer to 
finish his fulling mill. 

December 26th. l The towne granted all theyr right, title and 
interest in the stream of the little river to Henry Short so long as 
he shall build and maintaine a sufficient corne mill,' and so forth. 

Sometime this year, the first meeting-house in the west end of 
the town was erected. It was about thirty feet square, and was 
built at the cost and charge of sixteen persons. It stood on what 
is called ' the plains.' 


February 25th. 'Divers of the inhabitants of the new towne 
having made a proposition unto ye towne in order to their calling 
of a minister amongst them, 

* Town records. 


1 The towne considering the great weight of such a thing and yt 
such an aflfayre may be duly considered the towne have desired [a 
committee of eight persons] to advise with ye reverend Mr. 
Richardson about the said proposition and to draw up such pro- 
posals to the next meeting of the towne as they shall think may 
best conduce to peace that the towne may consider farther of it.' ^ 

March 3fl?. The committee waited on INIr. Richardson, who 
declined giving ' advice on the one side or the other, knowing he 
must of necessity give offence.' The committee reported, 'that 
considering the times as troublesome, and the towne being so much 
behind with Mr. Richardson's salary, the farmers and the neck 
men being under greater disadvantages upon many accounts do 
desire and expect, if such a thing be granted that they should have 
the same privilege to provide for themselves, which we think can- 
not conduce to peace, therefore desire the new towne to rest satis- 
fied for the present.' ^ 

1 March 1690. The committee of Newbury appoint the house of 
Mr. Abraham Merrill to be a garrison house and request him with 
all convenient speed to fortify his house. 


March \\tli. At this meeting, fifteen men, belonging to the 
west end of the town, after stating that ' it was well known how 
far they had proceeded as to a meeting house,' left two propositions 
with the town, one that the town would agree to support two min- 
isters, so that one could preach ' at the west meeting house,' or that 
the town would consent to have the ' ministry amongst them upon 
their own charge and that the town would lovingly agree upon a 
dividing iine between them that so they might know what families 
may now belong to the west meeting house,' and so forth. 

This year, Isaac Morrill, a native of New Jersey, came to New- 
bury, to entice Indians and negroes to leave their masters and go 
with him, saying that the English should be cut off, and the negroes 
should be free. He was arrested May twenty-ninth, 1690, and sent to 
Ipswich for trial. What was the result of his examination, I have 
not ascertained. / Their intention was to take a vessel out of the dock 
at Newbury, and go for Canada and join the French against the 
English, and come down upon the backside of the country and save 
none but the negroes and Indians. They intended to come with 
four or five hundred Indians, and three hundred Canadians, between 
Haverhill and Amesbury, over Merrimac river, near ' Indian river 
by Archelaus' hill on the backside of John Emery's meadow and 
destroy, and then they might easily destroy such small towns as 
Haverhill and Amesbury. Morrill said that he had viewed all the 
garrisons in the country and that captain Gerrish's was the 
strongest.' f 

The persons implicated in this scheme to obtain their inalienable 

* Town records. t Quarterly court files. 



rights, were James, a negro slave of Mr. R. Dole, and Joseph, 
Indian slave of Mr. Moody. 

George Major, a Jersey man, was also implicated. How many 
slaves, Indian and African, there were at this time in Newbury, we 
have no means of ascertaining. The number was probably small, 
as governor Bradstreet, in a letter dated May nineteenth, 1680, to 
the lords of the privy council, says among other things, ' now and 
then two or three negroes are brought hither from Barbadoes. In 
our government [Massachusetts] about one hundred and twenty in 

Fifteen soldiers were sent from Newbury to Salisbury, Amesbu- 
ry, and Haverhill, April twelfth. 

April %Sth. Sir William Phipps, with a fleet of eight small ves- 
sels, sailed against Port Royal, [now Annapolis,] which he took 
* with little or no resistance,' and returned the thirtieth of May. His 
success encouraged the court to attempt the acquisition of Canada, 
which after much expense and loss of men proved a total failure, 
which occasioned so great an expense as to induce the government 
to issue bills of credit from two shillings to ten pounds' denomina- 
tion. The soldiers were great sufferers by this paper money, the 
first seen in New England. 

The situation of Newbury during the present Indian war may be 
in part ascertained by the following order, which is similar to the 
one passed in 1638. 

August "7th. c - These are in his majesty's name to require all the soldiers be- 
longing to this towne to bring their arms and ammunition to ye meeting house 
evary saboth day and at all other publick meetings, and also they ar required to 
carry their arms and ammunition with them into meadows and places, where 
they worke, and if any man doe refuse or neglect his dewty as above expressed 
he shal pay five shillings for every such neglect. * 

DANIEL PIERCE, captain. JONA. MOORES, lieutenant, 

THOMAS NOTES, captain, JACOB TOPPAN, ensign, 


July 15th. ' John March is appointed a captain of one of the 
companies for the Canada expedition, and ordered to enlist a com- 
pany under him.' 

The following letter from Nathaniel Saltonstall, esquire', may not 
be uninteresting. It is from Robert Adams's manuscripts. 

1 Haverhill August 20th } 1690. 
1 Captain Noyes, 

1 After you were gone being thoughtfull how yourself and the rest 
with you last night would get home, I began to have some hopes concerning 
you, because I did not believe your dinners would ly upon your stomachs so as 
to indispose you in riding unless in vexation for the want of one there being a 
common saying ; a man after a good dinner is most airy and most agile and 
readie for riding or such kind of imployments. 

1 James Sanders just now promised me to call for this letter, which incloses 

* Robert Adams's manuscripts. 


ye papers, yt are to be improved ye next lecture day about Joseph Bayley and 
John Chase. 

I Fail not of giving me a true account of your management of ye matter, and 
now it comes just into my mind to propose to you for your farther proceeding ; 
and if you act accordingly hereto it shall be owned by me notwithstanding the 
issue made : which will without doubt fully be known to all your people. It is 
this, if ye said Joseph or John do, carry it submissively and give you thereby 
ground to hope that their confession was from ye heart, which I for some reason 
account so to be, you may tell them you will venture to stop their publique 
appearance on ye lecture day ; which if they afterward run into ye like evils 
will be a great aggravation of their fault. 

I 1 will tell you. Formerly when I had prosecuted several for offences in ye 
field at court too, and judgment given for their open confession at ye head of ye 
company, I did abate it and I found I did not offend ye court, but engaged ye 
person to civility and thankfulness. 

1 Let me have a punctual return yt I may know what I have to do. 

1 If they or either of them be insolent let not them or him, yt is so, be abated 
of ye full extent of what is written in ye judgment. 

1 Give a little assistance to James Sanders to obtain my lettre, which brother 
Woodbridge writes me word he sent long since by major Davison. I suppose it 
was at yt time when - Clark had ye to gett a canonical auricular con- 
fessor for himself and family. 

1 Present my service to ye lady Noyes, and ye major the C**** Mr Rich- 
ardson, and any one else, who will send me a cheap freight of good hay, I 
care not how cheap. Believe it, sir, and yt I am your servant. 


October. < Captain Stephen Greenleaf, lieutenant James Smith, 
ensign William Longfellow serjeant Increase Pilsbury, William 
Mitchell, Jabez Musgrave of Newbury and four more were cast 
away and drowned at Cape Breton.' # 

Of Jabez Musgrave, mentioned above, Mather, in his Remarka- 
ables, thus speaks in 1684. 

' Remarkable also was that which happened to Jabez Musgrave 
of Newbury, who being shot by an Indian [in 1676] the bullet en- 
tered in at his ear and went out at his eye on the other side of his 
head, yet the man was preserved from death yea and still is in the 
land of the living.' 

Musgrave was one of the sixteen soldiers from Newbury, who 
volunteered to go in this disastrous expedition. 

This year, major Robert Pike, of Salisbury, thus writes : 

* Captain Pierce, captain Noyes, captain Greenleaf, and lieuten- 
ant Moores with the rest of the gentlemen of Newbury, whose 
assistance next under God was the means of the preservation of our 
towns of Salisbury and Amesbury in the day of our distress by 
the assaults of the enemy. 

' First I give you my hearty thanks for your readiness to adven- 
ture yourselves in that service, as always you have been ready to 
do and so forth. 

* Second, to request the like favour of you upon the like occasion, 
if any such be offered. 

1 Third, that no duntfi which is common pay in the country, may 

* Judge Sewall's diary. f ' I hae a guid braid sword, 

I '11 take dunt s frae naebody.' Burns. 


hinder any advised man from doing thayr duty, which is the advice 
that I give to myself, which you cannot but think have and shall have 
as much dunt as I can bear,' and so forth. 

Captain John March and Mrs. Ann White were this year licensed 
as innholders. 

This year, Essex soldiers were divided into three regiments. 


March 10th. The selectmen were desired to take care that per- 
sons infected with the small pox should be confined, and that their 
' families should not suffer, if they were themselves unable.' ^ 

May 13th. * The town voted that from this time forward the 
moderator shall be chosen by papers, and that it shall not be in the 
po*wer of any moderator to adjourn a towne meeting but by vote of 
the towne.' % 

' The town grants Mr. Seth Shove thirty pounds for the year 
ensuing, provided he will be our schoolmaster and so forth as fol- 
io weth namely to teach readers free, Latin scholars v six pence per 
week, writers and cypherers fourpence per week, to keep the school 
one third part of the year at the middle of the new towne, one third 
part at the school house, and the other third part about middle way 
between the meeting house and oldtown ferry.' ^ 

June 21st. The officers of the two militia companies issued an 
order to Henry Short, requiring him * in his majesties name to take 
care of his watch every night.' They were fifty-one in all. ' They 
are alike required to come to your house to take their charge. You 
are to order them to go to George Little's garrison, and there one of 
them is to keep his post all the night. The rest are to walk three 
in a night to the mill bridge, and from thence to Anthony Morse's 
house and elsewhere according to your direction. The number of 
men belonging to your care and charge are under express,' and so 
forth, and so forth. 

July Hth. i The towne understanding that several of the inhab- 
itants of new towne are about calling of Mr. [Edward] Tompson 
.to be their minister, the towne did by vote manifest their dislike 
against it, or against any other minister, whom they should call, 
until ye church and towne are agreed upon it, looking upon such a 
thing to be an intrusion upon ye church and towne.' 

August 21st. The commissioner with the selectmen states the 
number of ratable polls to be two hundred and fifty. 

October. Several of the inhabitants of the west end of the town 
petitioned the general court * to be established a people by them- 
selves for the maintenance of the ministry among them.' 

December. The town did by vote manifest themselves 'against 
the new town having their petition granted,' and chose a committee 
to present a counter petition to the general court. 

* Town records. 


This year Newbury was allowed by the general court to have 
another house of entertainment 


In February of this year, commenced the witchcraft delusion, 
which, for a long time, occasioned so much terror, distress, and 
suffering, in several towns in Massachusetts. It originated in Salem 
village, now Danvers, in the family of the reverend Samuel Parris, 
whose * daughter and niece, girls of ten or eleven years of age, and 
two other girls in the neighborhood, began to act very strangely, 
appeared to fall into fits, would creep into holes, under benches and 
chairs,' put themselves into odd postures, and, as the physicians who 
examined them could give no satisfactory name to their apparent 
disorder, and probably feeling that he must say something, one of 
them very gravely pronounced them bewitched. From this begin- 
ning, originating in fraud and imposture, and continued by the 
grossest superstition and ignorance, combined with great fear, for 
no one was safe, arose those accusations and l prosecutions of the 
people, under the notion of witches, whereby twenty suffered as 
evil doers, (besides those that died in prison,) about ten more 
condemned, a hundred imprisoned, and about two hundred more 
accused, and the country generally in fears, when it would come 
then* turn to be accused.' * In the language of the reverend Charles 
W. Upham, < all the securities of society were dissolved. Every 
man's life was at the mercy of every other man. Fear sat on every 
countenance ; terror and distress were in all hearts; silence pervaded 
the streets; many of the people left the country; all business was 
at a stand, and the feeling, dismal and horrible indeed, became 
general, that the providence of God was removed from them, and 
that they were given over to the dominion of Satan.' f From this 
awful scourge, New^bury was wholly exempt, though we have 
abundant evidence, that the inhabitants participated in the almost 
universal belief, that witchcraft was a reality. It was a fault of 
the age, from which the most pious, and, in other respects, learned 
men, were not free. Sir Matthew Hale was a firm believer in 
witchcraft, and the celebrated Richard Baxter, in a preface to one 
of Cotton Mather's sermons, on a case of supposed witchcraft, 
declares, ' that this instance comes with such convincing evidence, 
that he must be an obstinate Sadducee, \?ho will not believe it' It 
is well observed bv governor Hutchinson, that ' in all ages of the 
world, superstitious credulity has produced greater cruelty than is 
practised among the Hottentots, or other nations whose belief of a 
deity is called in question.' 

March. Several of the west end people, again made a petition 
and proposition about calling a minister. 

* Robert Calef. t Lectures on witchcraft. 


May l^th. Sir William Phipps arrived at Boston, with the new 
charter for the Massachusetts province. 

July 14^. Thanksgiving appointed on account of peace, the 
charter, and so forth. 

November 1st. By special order of Sir William Phipps, twelve 
soldiers were sent from Newbury to Haverhill. 

December 13th. Town ordered that < whosoever shall build any 
vessels on the towne common shall pay to the town threepence per 
ton for the use of the building yard, that they shall improve.' ^ 

December 20th. The town voted ' that they would call another 
minister at the west end of the towne.' Against this vote, twenty- 
two of the ' west end ' men entered their dissent. =fc 

December 27th. A committee was chosen 'to enquire after a 
suitable person to preach to the west end and to keep schoole.' # 

This year, a petition to divide Essex county was presented to the 
general court ; Newbury was allowed to have another house of en- 
tertainment ; and the grand jury of Essex county ' presented Joseph 
Bailey for saying the men appointed by the town to answer the 
petition of those, who wanted another minister were devils incarnate.' 


April 20th. The town < chose Tristram Coffin treasurer for the 
poor.' ^ 

May 12th. * Towne voted that Mr. John Clarke be called to 
assist Mr. Richardson in the work of the ministry at the west end 
of the towne to preach to them one year in order to farther settle- 
ment and also to keep a grammar schoole.' * 

May 31st. The selectmen of Newbury, in their petition to the 
general court, state that ' a long difference has existed between the 
people of Newbury, and those in the west end of the town about 
calling a minister, that the west end people had called Mr. Edward 
Tomson to preach to them without acquainting the minister, church 
or towne with their proceedings in that affair, the which when our 
town did understand that they were about to bring him into town, 
the town being met to consider of it by their vote did declare that 
they were against his coming, or any other until the church and 
town were agreed, yet they persisted in their design and brought 
him in, and when he was come in our minister warned him to 
forbear preaching till the church and town were agreed, yet he 
presumed to set up a lecture, and preach without any allowance of 
ministers, church or town, which when the church did understand, 
they did call him to account, and declared their dislike of his irreg- 
ular proceeding, yet he hath persisted in these irregularities to the 
great disturbance of our peace, and since upon the request of sev- 
erall of the inhabitants of the west end of our towne, called another 
minister, Mr. John Clark, who hath accepted of the call, and yet 

* Town records. 


there are severall, who refuse to accept of him, pretending they are 
bound to said Tomson, which agreement they made when the rest 
of their neighbors were about to make application to the town, 
which was since the late law was made to direct the town to call 
the minister.' 

June 15th. A committee of the west end people, in their petition, 
thus reply. They request the governor and council * to pity and 
help them,' 'to ease them of a heavy burden of travel on God's day.' 
1 We have been,' say they, < endeavoring above these five years to 
have the publick worship of God established among us on the 
Lord's day for reasons such as these. The bulk of us live four 
miles from the ould meeting house, some six or seven. Our num- 
ber is above three hundred. Few of us have horses, and if we 
could get down to the ould meeting house, it is impossible it should 
receive us with them so that many [would] lay out of doors, the house 
is so little. Some of us have groaned under this burden this thirty 
years, some grown old, some sickly, and although we were favored 
with the liberty granted by king James the second and had erected 
an house to the worship of God on our o^n cost and charge, and 
acquainted the two next justices with our intent before we built the 
said house. A committee of five were appointed to ;come on the 
place, but before they had finished their work, the governor arrived, 
which caused them to desist. We complained to the governor, 
who granted us a protection from paying to the ould meeting house, 
then countermanded it. The town had a meeting they intend to 
delude us by granting the help of a schoolmaster at sometimes for 
one yeare. We believe our neighbours would be glad to see us 
quite tired out. We beg the honorable court to establish peace 
among us a rational dividing line.' 

< June 15th, 1693.' 

July 5th. < The towne in theyr votes for the choyce of a minister 
for the west end of the towne in order to a full settlement in the 
work of the ministry and Mr. John Clarke was then chosen and not 
one vote against him.' ^ 

July 5th. Twenty-five persons of the west end entered their 
dissent against * calling Mr. Clark. The reason is because the new 
towne people have a minister already.' # 

This year, a jury of twelve women held an inquest on the body 
of Elizabeth Hunt, of Newbury. The following is an accurate 
copy of their verdict, which was doubtless perfectly conclusive and 

' We judge according to our best light and contients, that the 
death of said Elizabeth was not by any violens or wrong dun to 
her by any parson or thing, but by som soden stoping of her breath/ 

September 26th. On this day, the court of common pleas held 
its first sessions in Newbury. The court was held in the first parish; 


* Town records. 



February 21st. Liberty was granted to the petitioners ' to erect 
between captain Noyes' lane and Mr. Woodbridge's [upper green] 
a little house for the accommodation of a good and sufficient schoole 
dame.' A similar petition was granted to deacon William Noyes, 
1 to sett up a schoole house upon the towne's land.' 

A salary of ( twenty pounds in money and fifty pounds in graine 
was voted to ye reverend Mr. John Clarke so long as he carry on 
the worke of the ministry.' Mr. Clark having declined the call, 
Mr. Christopher Toppan was invited ' to preach at the new towne.' 
Mr. Toppan having declined settling, but expressing his willingness 
' to help in the work of the ministry for a year,' the town voted ' to 
give Mr. Toppan forty pounds in money and four contributions a 

March 26th. The town granted permission to John Kelly, senior, 
to keep a ferry over the Merrimac, at Holt's rocks, ' in the place 
where he now dwells.' Ferriage, ' sixpence for horse and man, 
and twopence for a single man.' 

September 4th. ' Mr. Joseph Pike and Richard Long,' both of 
Newbury, ' were shot by the Indians as they were traveling near 
the end of Pond plain,' ^ in Haverhill. 

September 5th. A committee, consisting of Joshua Brown, John 
Ordway, and Samuel Bartlet, petitioned to the general court, ' in 
behalf of the company, that as they had erected a meeting house, 
and supplied themselves with a minister yet nevertheless our 
distresses do continually grow upon us toward an insupportable 
extremity, since the imprisoning of some of our number for their 
signifying our desire to enjoy the minister, whom we had formerly 
invited to preach in the meeting house, which we built at our own 
cost and charge, and some of us have been fined for not delivering 
up the key of the said meeting house.' 

They conclude by requesting the general court, that they would 
1 so far interpose in our concerns as to take some effectual care for 
the relief of your petitioners and for the quiet of the whole town, 
the peace whereof is now so dangerously interrupted.' f 

October 22d. ' The town brought in theyr votes by papers,' for 
a minister for ' the west end of the towne of Newbury and Mr. 
Christopher Toppan had sixty- five votes and Mr. Tompson 
seventeen.' J 

December 2lst. A committee of five were chosen c to draw up 
articles and proposals in order to setting off part of the west end of 
the towne ' f as a separate parish. 

This year, a petition was sent to the governor and council, from 
Newbury and four other towns, for a division of the county of Essex. 

' John and Samuel Bartlet, Abraham Morrill John Emery and 

* Reverend John Pike's journal. t General court files. J Town records. 


Joseph Bailey were bound over and admonished for opposing their 
ordained minister, Mr. John Richardson.' 


January 1st. The town met and 'voted that Pipe-stave hill near 
Daniel Jaques' house shall be the place for the meeting house, and 
those that live nearest to that place shall pay to the ministry there, 
and those that live nearest to the old meeting house shah 1 pay there, 
the inhabitants at the west end to choose a minister for themselves, 
only Mr. Tompson excepted.' ' And the meeting house to stand 
where it do, until the major part of them see cause to remove it' 
t The dividing line shall be from the middle way from the prefixed 
place in Pipe-stave hill and the old meeting house, to run on a 
straight line to Francis Brown's house near Birchen meadows and 
so straight over to the little pond.' ^ 

January 3d. Tristram Coffin, Henry Short, and Abraham Mer- 
rill, divided the town into two parishes. 

Hugh March, in behalf of himself and brother, captain John 
March, petitioned the town ' to grant them a piece of ground and 
flatts to build a wharf and dock near captain March's barn.'^ 
This petition was granted on certain conditions, January sixteenth, 
provided they are built ' within three years.' ^ 

March 17/A. ' Mr. John Woodbridge dies, a good man and a 
constant attendant upon God in his publick worship on the Lord's 
day.' f 

'June 5th. ' Town voted to give Mr. Christopher Toppan twenty 
pounds yearly in money and three hundred pounds a year in good 
country pay so long as he carries on one half of the ministry among 
them, and thirty pounds a year so long as he shall keep a grammar 
and a writing st-hoole, the scholars to pay as they did to Mr. John 
Clarke,' which proposals Mr. Toppan accepted, July seventeenth. 

September 9th. l Twenly-four men at Pemaquid, going to get 
wood, are shot, four of whom are dead. Serjeant Hugh March, 
[of iNewbury,] George's son, was killed at the first shot.' f 

October 1th. On the afternoon of this day, five Indians attacked 
and plundered the house of John Brown, who lived on the westerly 
side of Turkey hill, and captivated nine persons ; one only of the 
family escaped to tell the tale. On the same day, colonel Daniel 
Pierce sent the following letter to colonel Appleton and colonel 
Wade, of Ipswich. 

1 Sir, this afternoon there came the enemy to a house in our town and went in 
and took and carried away nine persons and plundered the house, and as near 
as we can gather, they went southwestwardly between Boxford and Bradford. 
We can not gather that there were above five of the enemy, but night came on 
so that we could not pursue them, but we have lined Merrimac river with about 
fourscore men to watch lest they should carry the captives over the river, and 

* Town records. t Judge Sewall's diary. 



do design in the morning to pursue them and range the woods with all the force 
we can make, and think it advisable that you range the woods towards Andover, 
and that Rowley towards Bradford, for if they escape us it will be an encourage- 
ment to them. Sir, I do think the case requires our utmost industry who am 
your friend and servant, 


October 1th, 1695.' 

To this letter was appended the following. 

1 Colonel Gedney, 

Honored sir, it is thought advisable on the consideration abovesaid yt it 
may be beneficial for the several companies in the several townes to range ye 
woods with all possible speed towards Bradford and Andover and so towards 
Merrimack river, so that if it might be ye enemy may be found, and destroyed, 
which spoyle our people. 

Ipswich, October eighth, at five in the morning. 

Your servant, 


Three hours after this, colonel Thomas Wade thus writes from 

1 Honored sir, 

Just now captain Wicom brings information that the last night captain 
Greenleaf with a party of men met with the enemy by the river side, have re- 
deemed all the captives but one, which they doubt is killed. Three of the In- 
dians got into a canoe and made escape, and the other two ran into the woods. 
Captain Greenleaf is wounded in the side and arm, how much we know not, 
which is all at present from your servant, 


Judge Sewall, in his journal, says, ' all the captives were brought 
back, save one boy, that was killed. The Indians knocked the rest 
on the head, save one infant.' 

Reverend John Pike, in his journal, states, that ' the captives Were 
all retaken but some died of their wounds.' 

On the fifth of March, 1696, captain Greenleaf addressed the fol- 
lowing petition to the general court. 

1 The petition of captain Stephen Greenleaf of Newbury, 
1 Humbly sheweth, 

i That upon the seventh of October last about three o'clock in the 
afternoon a party of Indians surprised a family at Turkey hill in said town cap- 
tivated nine persons, women and children, rifled the house, carrying away bed- 
ding and other goods. Only one person escaped and gave notice to the next 
family and they, the town. Upon the alarm your petitioner with a party of men 
pursued after the enemy, endeavouring to line the river Merrimack to prevent 
their passage, by which means the captives were recovered and brought back. 

' The enemy lay in a gully hard by the highway and about nine at night made 
a shot at your petitioner and shot him through the wrist between the bones, and 
also made a large wound in his side, which wounds have been very painful and 
costly to your petitioner in the cure of them and have in a great measure utterly 
taken away the use of his left hand and wholly taken him off from his employ- 
ment this winter. 

Your petitioner therefore humbly prays this honored court that they would 
make him such compensation as shall seem fit, which he shall thankfully 


acknowledge and doubts not but will be an encouragement to others speedily to 
relieve their neighbours when assaulted by so barbarous an enemy ; 
And your petitioner shall ever pray, 


'March 6th. Read and voted that there be paid out of the province treasury 
to the petitioner the sum of forty pounds.' 

From one of John Brown's descendants, William G. White, I 
learn the following particulars as a family tradition. The Indians 
had secreted themselves for some time near the house, waiting for 
the absence of the male members of the family, who, about three 
o'clock, departed with a load of turnips. The Indians then rushed 
from their concealment, tomahawked a girl, who was standing at the 
front door. Another girl, who had concealed herself as long as the 
Indians remained, immediately after their departure gave the alarm, 
which resulted as before related. The coat, which captain Green- 
leaf wore in his pursuit of the Indians, is still preserved by his de- 
scendants, together with the bullet, which was extracted from his 
wound. This, I believe, is the only instance, in which the Indians 
either attacked, captivated, or killed, any of the inhabitants of 

From the original document now in my possession, I copy the 
following. % 

'October 14th, 1695. To Abraham Merrill of Newbury. 

.' These Are In his Majesty's name to will and Requier you to take the Gear to 
seat the watch of five men A night Begining att Samuel Poores and Job Pils- 
buryes and all Bayer's Lean [lane] to Edward Poores and soe Runing by ye 
Road to Hartichoak river and soe Notherly Except the Boundars. You Are 
Likewise Required to Ordar two of said watchmen upon Dewty to walke Dowen 
to Daniei Merrill's and two more to John Ordways att thaier returen Always 
keeping out a Sentinell upon dewty. You are also to Make return of all defacts 
unto the Capten to whom they belong forthwith. It is also desiered that you 
demand and require ye fien for each man's defeact and upon their refusal! to 
make return as aforesaid.' 

December 1.8th. The town, c on the request of the inhabitants of 
the west end of the towne of Newbury, granted them five acres of 
land on the east side of Artichoke river for a pasture for the minis- 
try and one acre of land near the west meeting house, and when the 
major part shall see cause to remove the said meeting house, the 
land shall be at the disposal of the towne to procure land for the 
ministry, near the west meeting house, when removed.''* 


February 28th. A rate was made for payment of building and 
finishing the west end meeting-house and ministry house. The ex- 
pense was twenty-two pounds and three shillings in money, and 
two hundred and eighteen pounds, eighteen shillings, and twopence 

* Town records. 


in pay. This was due from sixty-four persons. Of this number, 
twenty-four, namely, Benjamin and Joseph Morse, Thomas, Daniel 
and Moses Chase, John, senior, John, junior, and Abiel Kelly, Mr. 
Abraham Annis and Isaac, Joseph Richardson, Abel Iluse, Caleb 
Moody, Benjamin Low, Tristram Greenleaf, Daniel Morrison, Ed- 
ward Woodman, John Hoag, Hanariah Ordway, Thomas Follans- 
bee, lieutenant John Emerson, Thomas Williams, Francis Willet, 
and Samuel Sayer, junior, objected to the continuance of the meet- 
ing house on the plains, and wished to have it removed to Pipe 
stave hill. The contest, thus commenced, continued for many years 
with an obstinacy and bitterness, to which the annals of Newbury 
furnish no parallel. Its results we shall hereafter see. 

March 1st. The town granted to Stephen Greenleaf ' four or 
five rods on the flatts from Watts' cellar spring to ensign Greenleaf's 
and Mr. Davison's grant from high water mark to low water mark 
to build a wharfe and a place to build vessels uppon,' on certain 
conditions, one was ' that it come not within ten or twelve feet of 
the spring.'^ 

July 29th. The town offers Mr. Nicholas Webster thirty pounds 
a year in country pay to keep a ' grammer schoole provided he de- 
mand but fourpence per week for Latin scholars and teach the town's 
children to read, write and cypher without pay.'^ 

September 9th. Reverend Christopher Toppan ordained. 

c The winter of this year was the coldest since the first settlement 
of New England.' Lewis's history of Lynn* 


March. Laid out to Stephen Greenleaf a ' parcel of flatts and 
rocks lying on Merrirnack river near Watts' cellar, bounded north- 
erly by the river, easterly by major Davison's grant, southerly by 
the common land of Newbury and the westerly bound comes 
within about fifteen foot of the spring.' 

''March \\ih. The town laid out to Anthony Somerby a piece of 
land three rods square, lying at the place knowne by the name of 
Glading's spring f bounded by the common or undivided land of 
Newbury on every side, bounded with a small rock at every corner, 
for the convenience of dressing of leather.' ^ 

' April 25th, Thursday. This day is signalized by ye achieve- 
ment of Hannah Dunstan, Mary Neff and Samuel Lennardson, 
who killed two men, two women, and six others and brought home 
their scalps.' f 

This year ensign James Noyes made a great discovery. It is 
thus mentioned by Judge Sewall in his diary. 

1 1697. Colonel Pierce gave an account of ye body of limestone 
discovered at Newbury and the order of the selectmen published by 

* Town records. 

t ' Glading's spring' is a few rods southwesterly from Mr. Silas Noyes's house. 

J Judge Sewall. 


James Brown deputy sheriff, to prohibit any persons from carrying 
any more away under ye penalty of twenty shillings. It seems they 
began to come with teams thirty in a day. The town will have a 
meeiing and bring it to some regulation. Our Mumford says 't is 
good marble. Ensign James Noyes found it out.' 

We at the present time can hardly conceive of the excitement 
occasioned in the town and neighborhood by this discovery. It was 
deemed by judge Sewall worthy of special notice, as an ans\ver, 
among other things, to a letter written from New England to Old 
England, ' discoursing of an impossibility of subsisting here.' lie 
thus writes in his ' Phenomena quoedam apocalyptica,' page sixty- 
fourth, published this year. 

1 This summer ensign James Noyes hath happily discovered a 
body of marble at Newbvry, within half a mile of the navigable 
part of Little river, by which means very good lime is made within 
the province.' 

From this extract it would appear that this body of limestone was 
the first discovered in Massachusetts. Certain it is, that vast quan- 
tities of lime of the best quality were annually made in Newbury, 
for nearly a century, for export as well as for home use. Prior to 
this time, lime was manufactured from oyster and clam shells. Lewis, 
in his very minute and accurate history of Lynn, informs us under 
the year 1696, that ' immense numbers of great clams were thrown 
upon the beaches by storms. The people were permitted, by a vote 
of the town, to dig and gather as many as they wished for their own 
use, but no more ; and no person was allowed to carry any out of 
the town, on a penalty of twenty shillings. The shells were gath- 
ered in cart loads on the beach and manufactured into lime.' 

July. * Sore and long continued drought.' 

July 22d. ' Drought continuing many of the towns and churches 
had days of fasting and prayer.' # 

September 12th. i Our army abroad under the command of ma- 
jor John March [of Newbury] going ashore at a place, called Dam- 
aris cove, a small island in the eastern parts, the Indians being there, 
they waylaid them and killed several of them. Our English fought 
bravely and drove them off the island.' ^ 

September 22d. The town chose ' major Daniel Davison, corpo- 
ral George March and ensign James Noyes, as a committee, who 
shall inspect into all matters concerning the lime stones in any of 
the undivided lands in the town, who shall have the sole ordering, 
disposing and importing said lime stones for the town's use in what 
way and manner they shall judg shall most conduce to the benefit of 
the towne,' and so forth, and so forth. The committee were to keep 
accurate accounts of all disbursements and profits, which were to be 
read once every six months in a public town meeting. All persons 
were prohibited, under a penalty of twenty shillings the hogshead 
and proportionable for smaller quantities, who should presume to 

* Fairfield's journal. 


dig or cany away or dispose of any of the aforesaid limestone, and 
so forth. 

' It was also voted that the kiln for burning said lime shall be 
built at or near the end of Muzzie's lane next Merrimack river.' ^ 

' The kiln ' mentioned above was the kiln in which the lime was 
burnt by the committee for the benefit of the town. Lime kilns 
owned by individuals in various parts of the town were numerous. 

* August. Ordered by the selectmen that the river called by the 
Indians Quasacuncon and has since been called by divers names, 
as Newbury river, Oldtown river, be from this time called by the 
name of the river Parker in remembrance of the worthy, learned, 
and reverend minister Mr. Thomas Parker, who was a first planter 
and pastor of ye church of Newbury and learned schoolmaster.' ^ 

November 8th. The town voted that the assessors ' raise the tax 
on polls one penny on the poll for every penny that they raise upon 
ye pound.' ^ 

' Also voted that the selectmen procure a flagg for the meeting 
house to be put out at the ringing of the first bell, and taken in when 
the last bell is rung.' ^ 

4 As I lay in my bed this morning,' says judge Sewall, 'this verse 
ran in my mind : 

' To horses, swine, neat cattle, sheep and deer, 
Ninety and seven proved a mortal year.' 


May 4:th. l The towne voted that Mr. George March should be 
paid for fencing in the burying place.' 

July 5th. ' The towne voted that they would build a new meeting 
house, and for that purpose chose the worshipful colonel Daniel 
Pierce, captain Thomas Noyes and serjeant Stephen Jaques a com- 
mittee, who on October fifth made their report.' 

December 2\st. i The towne voted that serjeant Stephen Jaques 
should build a meeting house sixty feet in length fifty feet in breadth 
and twenty feet in the stud for five hundred and thirty pounds.' 
The next February, c the town voted to have the meeting house 
twenty-four feet post instead of twenty and to pay serjeant Jaques 
twenty pounds more.' 

October 26th. A church was gathered in the west precinct, and 
on November tenth the reverend Samuel Belcher was ordained 
their minister. 

November. ' Near the close of this month,' says Fairfield, in his 
diary, ' there was a general contribution in the province for the 
relief of captives in Mequinez in Morocco.' In a letter to colonel 
Thomas Noyes on this subject, honorable Andrew Belcher thus 
writes. * On the sixth of December 1698 you paid me three pounds 

* Town records. 


eight shillings and ten pence, it being the collection of some of the 
inhabitants of Newbury, towards the relief of the captives in Sallee.' # 

' This year, Ezra Cottle commenced ship-building, at or near the 
foot of Chandler's lane [Federal street] where Mr. William John- 
son built.' f 

The town made some new regulations about the lime stones, and 
'voted that four shillings per ton shall be paid for lime stones, 
transportation, and that no more be sold out of the towne till further 
order.' f 


1 The town/ on certain conditions, ' granted to Ebenezer Knowl- 
ton nine rods of land for the setting up a tanning trade.' f 

December 18th. ' Colonel Daniel Pierce and colonel Thomas 
Noyes were impowered to employ ye honorable captain Samuel 
Sewall to procure a good and sufficient meeting house bell for the 
towne of Newbury, suitable for our towne considering the remote- 
ness of our dwellings.' f 


4 This year,' says the reverend Richard Brown, in his diary, * has 
been famous for three things, namely : 

' First, for yt the winter w^as turned into summer, or at least we 
have had little or none, the ground being bare for the most part, 
though we have had snow at some times, yet very shallow, not 
exceeding above twelve inches and that by an advance of southerly 
gales faded away speedily. 

' Second, an earthquake on the last of January, which was con- 
siderably great. 

' Third, another on the last of February passingly considerable.' 

April 22d. ' Serjeant Stephen Jaques was ordered to hang the 
old meeting house bell in the new turret' 

September 18th. l The town voted to have the new meeting 
house composed with seats as the old one was, except ten feet on 
three sides for pews and alleys.' 

October ISth. l Voted that a pew be built for the minister's wife 
by the pulpit stairs, that colonel Daniel Pierce should have the first 
choice for a pew and major Thomas Noyes shall have the next 
choice and that colonel Daniel Pierce esquire, and Tristram Coffin 
esquire be impowered to procure a bell of about four hundred 
pounds weight.' f 

This year a house was built for the poor to li ve in. 

November 6th. Permission was granted to twenty persons ' to 
build pews on the lower floor for themselves and families.' 

In November of this year, Hester Rogers, of Newbury, was 

* Robert Adams's manuscripts. | Town records. 


arrested on suspicion of murdering her child. The following is a 
literal copy of the constable's bill. 

' John Pike, constable for ye town of Newbury.' 

1 His bill of cost for seaseing and securing the body of Hester Rogers of said 
Newbury apprehended by one of his majestie's justices for murdering her 
children in ye year 1700. 

Item, for procuring of a warrant for seasing her body . . . ? Is. 
Item ; by guarding of ye body of the said Rogers night and day with two 
men from ye thirteenth of November 1700 until ye ninth day of 

December 1700 . 6, 10 

Item, by setting said guard dayly with new men at sixpence per time 0, 13 
Item, by conveying of her body to Ipswich gaol .... 0, 8 

Item, for fier wood and attendance during said term of time, . . 1, 12 
Item and also for fier wood and trobaling ye house, . . . 1, 00 

10, 045 
JOHN PIKE, constable as abovesaid. ; 

December 6th. The committee appointed to < seat the meeting 
house,' performed their task. The number of men and women to 
whom seats were assigned, were three hundred and thirteen, whose 
names are all recorded. 

From a testimony on file in the quarterly court, it appears, that, 
so late as this year, only two houses had been erected on the banks 
of the Merrimac, in Newbury. One of these, owned by doctor 
Humphrey Bradstreet, stood near the head of Hale's wharf, the 
other, owned by Daniel Pierce, was farther south. 


March 18th. The canopy of the old pulpit was given by the 
town * to the west part of Newbury for their pulpit.' ^ 

In Judge Sewall's diary I find the following, by which it appears 
that Hester Rogers had her trial at Boston. 

' July 15th. Esther Rogers was tried and condemned for murder. 
Mr. Cook pronounced the sentence.' 

From Fairfield's journal I make the following extract: 

'July thirty-first, a young woman, named Esther Rogers was executed at 
Ipswich for murdering her child (a mulatto) of whom it may be noted, she was 
a poor sinful creature, as vile as ordinarily any are under the light of the 
gospel, and one, who had a child by a negro at Newbury, when she was about 
seventeen years of age, as she herself confessed, and that she murdered it and 
buried it in the garden, and four years after had a child again and murdered 
that, but could not conceal it. Of her carriage in prison and at the execution 
there is an account printed with three sermons in Ipswich on occasion thereof.' 

Tradition informs us that Esther Rogers drowned her child in the 
pond behind the first parish meeting-house. 

In October, Thomas Mossum, a colored man, was ordered to 
leave town with his family. 

* Town records. 


* October ~L5th. Voted to give Mr. Richard Brown and Mr. Moses 
Hale twelve shillings per sermon for every sermon that they preached 
to us during Mr. Toppan's sickness.' * 

December 9th. The town voted to abate one half the minister's 
rate of sixteen persons at ' the falls,' for the coming year. # 


January 13th. The town voted to divide according to ' former rule 
eighteen hundred acres of the lower commons, reserving pasturage 
for four cows for the ministry in the east end of the towne, three for 
the ministry in the west end, three for the free school and the herb- 
age of twenty cows for the benefit of the town's poor.' * 

July 22d. Town voted to give Mr. Richard Brown twenty 
pounds for his yearly salary, and to have fourpence a week for his 
Latin scholars. 

Town also chose i the selectmen a committee to consider and re- 
port what it will cost to remove the old meeting house farther from 
the new meeting house and to fitt it up for a court house, towne 
house and school house.' ^ 

Sometime this year, the people residing within the limits of what 
was afterward incorporated as By field parish, built a meeting-house 
near the place where the present house now stands. As the parish 
comprehended a part of Newbury, and a part of Rowley, it was at 
first called ' Rowlbury.' Mehetabel, wife of William IVIoody, and 
daughter of Henry Sewall. who died August second, 1702, aged 
thirty, was the first person interred in the burying ground there. 


March 9th. ' The town voted to pay four pounds to those who 
killed two wolves at the Ipswich end of Plum island.' * 

The town also ' voted to let the ferry over the river Parker for four 
years at four pounds a year to corporal Richard Jackman, who is to 
carry all the court officers, going and returning from court, all town 
officers, when employed by the town, and all the rams, belonging to 
the town, ferry free.' * 

March 17th. Town voted that the old meeting-house be repaired 
and fitted for a court house, * school house and town house.' * 

' Thirty rods of land were granted to Richard Goodwin on the 
southerly side of the great hill, said Goodwin engaging himself and 
heyrs, never to keep a dogg, whilst he or they shall dwell on said 

This year ' Benaiah Titcomb's vessel was captured on his voyage 
from Antigua to Newbury.' 

September 28th. There was a great snow storm. 

* Town records. 



In November, captain John March petitioned the general court to 
grant him some compensation for the losses he sustained in his de- 
fence of Casco fort. He says, l I forsook my own habitation at 
Newbury and removed my family, stock of cattle and so forth to 
the said fort, upon which upon the perfidious breach made by that 
barbarous people, your petitioner was in utmost hazard of losing 
his life, and by a wonderful preservation escaped the hands of those 
infidels, and did actually lose more than five hundred pounds of his 
estate.' Among his losses, he mentions 'sloop and furniture, 
eighty-nine head of sheep and cattle, five and a half acres of wheat, 
six acres of as good peas as ever I saw, four and a half acres of 
Indian corn,' and so forth. 

'November 20th. The general court granted to captain John March 
fifty pounds in consideration of the brave defence of his majesty's 
fort at Casco bay, when lately attacked by the French and Indian 
enemy, and of the wounds he then received.' % 


January 5th. ' The town voted that two shillings and sixpence 
per ton shall be paid for lime stone, provided that they thatbuy them, 
dig them, and burn them in Newbury.' f 

** January \$th. The town chose a committee to measure and di- 
vide the bank against Merrimack river, and voted that two men be 
hired to watch and ward upon the river until it breaks up.' f 

February 24:th. ' This day the new parishioners met in the house, 
built for their minister and agree to call the precinct Byfield.' J 

The following is a copy of a letter from Judge Sewall to his 
brother, William Moody of Newbury. 

'Boston, April 1st, 1704. 

( Loving brother, 

' After your being here last I writt a letter to colonel Byfield and in- 
formed him that you had named your infant parish Byfield, and would from 
henceforth look upon him as your patron, and be ready gratefully to acknowledge 
any countenance or favour he should be pteased to afford you. To this effect 
in more words. This day I received a letter from colonel Byfield, in which are 
these words : 

1 1 am surprised at the account you give me of the name of a new town upon 
the river Parker near Newbury. How they hitt upon my name I can ? t imagine. 
I heartily wish them prosperity ; and if any respect to me was the cause, it is 
an obligation upon me (when God shall enable me) to study how I may be ser- 
viceable to them.' 

1 I called it only a parish. What if Mr. Hale should write a letter to colonel 
Byfield, intimating the matter of fact, that it was in regard to him. You have 
been informed of his parentage. He has only two daughters, Madam Lyde and 
Madam Taylor. I believe he is a good man, and a fast friend, very industrious 
and thorow in promoting what he undertakes.' 


* Province records. t Town records. J Judge Sewall's diary. 


March 28th. The court again confirmed the ferry to colonel John 
March, which was granted him in 1687. 

August 3d. Colonel N. Saltonstall thus writes to colonel Thomas 
Noyes : 

' Sir, by his excellency's express direction I command you in her 
majesty's name forthwith to appoint and set forth one half of your 
company by name and have them ready, well fixt with arms and 
ammunition and ten days' provision to march at an hour's \varning. 
The command is strict.' 

September 28th. He thus writes : < I desire and order that by 
tomorrow morning at farthest you press and post at your block 
houses in Newbury twelve able souldiers, three at each of your four 
[block] houses, to abide there night and day, to watch/ 

The expense this year for these block-houses was one hundred 
and six pounds, ten shillings, and seven pence. 

November llth. ' Henry Lunt, Thomas Newman, and Richard 
Dole,' captains of freighting sloops from Newbury, complained to 
the general court of the conduct of captain Tuthill, of the castle, 
who ' brought all their vessels to an anchor, took them out, carried 
them to the castle, demanded money for a shot, which he said was 
fired at them, made them pay six shillings and eight pence apiece, 
one shilling apiece for pass money, and three shillings apiece to 
carry them back to their vessels again.' ^ 

In 1702, 'walnut wood was five shillings per cord, oak three 
shillings,' cotton wool one shilling and ten pence per pound, corn 
two shillings per bushel. In this year, 1704, cider was six shillings 
per barrel. In 1703, turnips were one shilling and three pence per 
bushel, and 1708, one and eight pence, and in 1711 sturgeon was 
two pence per pound.f 


February 6th. The town ' voted to apportion the flatts among 
the proprietors ' by lot, and on February thirteenth, ' that they should 
begin next Mr. Pierce's meadow and that there should be a w^ay 
above said lots* two rods broad.' J By this it appears that ' Water 
street' was not laid out till this year. 

The number of the river lots was two hundred and twenty-four. 

February 20th. Governor Dudley thus writes to colonel Salton- 
stall : ' I pray you to give direction that your snow-shoe men from 
Newbury to Andover be ready at a moment's warning till the 
weather breaks up, and then we may be quiet awhile.' 

May 23d. The ' old meeting house was granted to Richard 
Brown with liberty to remove it.' J 

July llth. The 'ferry over Merrimack river between Newbury 
and Salisbury near captain Edward Sargent's,' was purchased by 
the town, of colonel John March, for two hunolred and forty pounds, 

* Province Records. t Old account books. J Town records. 


and on March fifth, 1706, ' they sold one half of it to Salisbury for 
one hundred and twenty pounds.' 

June 27th. Governor Dudley orders colonel Saltonstall ' to de- 
tach twenty able soldiers of the Newbury militia and have them 
rendezvous at Haverhill on July fifth.' 

On the appearance of these men at Haverhill, colonel N. Salton- 
stall thus writes to colonel Noyes : 

'HaverhilL My 17th, 1705. 

c I received your return of ye twenty men ye Governor commanded me to 
call for, and when ye persons (which I can ; t call men) appeared, even a con- 
siderable number of them, to be but boys, or children, and not fit for service, 
blind in part, and deaf, and cross-handed, I stopt till I waited on ye governor, 
ye twelfth instant and upon libertie to speak with him, I with ye major have 
taken the best care we can to keep the men and children sent hither for ye 
present, till I may have opportunity to tell you the cmeen likes it not, to be 
served in this manner. 

1 But one in special, Nicholas 'K^***** by name, is blind, and deaf, and 
small, and not fit to be continued, and therefore to be short, I send Nicholas 
*^***^* home to you, and do expect that you will send some able man in his 
place, if you have an able one in Newbury. 

1 The other diminutives are sent out to garrison at present, or else you had 
mett with them to return to you for ye like exchange. 

' My heart, if it speaks, is full, fwait a suitable time, to tell you what I have 
to say on her majesty's behalf. To take boyes for originally prest men, and 
they hired too, I know not ye regularity of it. I shall be glad to see you, and 
intend to do it at Haverhill or Newbury or a middle place, as you will desire, 
if I am able to attend, to see what is right and what is our duty for us to do. 

Your very humble servant, 

To lieutenant-colonel Thomas Noyes.' NATHANIEL SALTONSTALL. 

In another letter he thus writes : 

1 August ^ 1705. 

1 One Smith came this day with two of his sons in order to get a release ibr 
John Danford. I wonder how you concern yourself so much about this man, 
to get Danford home, and disregard your default and have not yet sent a good 
man for that pitiful insufficient sick man Nicholas ^fr****** whom I sent off 
ye sixteenth of July last to you to send a better hand, and he to returne in two 
days time to me, but he is not yet come, nor other for him. Pray consider what 
lyes at your doore and do not deale so unhandsomely with your patient friend 
and humble servant, 


To lieutenant-colonel Thomas Noyes.' 


January kth. c Voted that the new bell be hanged in the turret of 
the meeting house with all convenient speede. Also to take care 
that the bell be rung at nine of the clock every night and that the 
day of the month be every night tolled.' ^ 

The inscription round the bell is: 'let us love as brethren. 
Matthew Bagley fundit, 1705.' 

< The town granted to twelve persons a piece of ground between 

* Town records. 


the watch-house and the meeting house pond joyning to doctor 
Toppan's fence to set up a stable.' # 

March. l Many sheep were drowned this month in Newbury, 
by the overflowing of Merrimack river, the ice being jam'd.' f 

* October 21st. ' The Newbury part of Byfield was set off for so 
long a time as they shall maintain an orthodox minister amongst 
them.' * 

October 23d. Henry Short, the town clerk, died. 

October 30th. Mr. Richard Brown was chosen to supply his 
place. At the same meeting, the town voted to employ ' serjeant 
Joseph Pike to build a bridge over Indian river near his saw-mill.' * 

November 17th. Reverend Moses Hale was ordained the minis- 
ter of the * falls ' parish, but had preached for them about four years.J 

February 2Sth. ' The town chose a committee of three to pro- 
ceed and build a meeting house at Pipe-stave hill.' # For a more 
full account, see under the year 1712. 


January 29th. The ' town voted that there be a gaole or prison 
built in Newbury, for the ease of the subject, for the restraining of 
much vice and keeping up of the order of government, provided 
the county be at one hah of the cost and charge.' # * 


May 26th. The general court < ordered that colonel Thomas 
Noyes [of Newbury] shall for the present ease of her majesty's 
subjects, whose situation makes it disputable to which of the prov- 
inces they belong, notify the gentlemen appointed by Massachusetts 
and New Hampshire, to meet at such time and place as he shall 
appoint,' in order to run the line ' that they may not be oppressed by 
a demand upon them by both governments.' 

June 18th. The town 'voted that the nine a clock bell should be 
rung at nine of the clock precisely, nightly for the year ensuing.' ^ 

July 6th. The town's commons i were divided into four general 
pastures. The first, the common land at the neck. The second, 
the old town common to Mr. Short's farm. The third to extend 
near to the dwelling house of corporal James Smith and to run up 
by the brook, whereon the new bridge is to Mr. March's farm and 
by the southerly side of said farm to the birchen meadows and the 
rest of said common at the new town to be the fourth.' ^ 

'August. There was a great drought.' 

This year Joseph Lunt rode post. 

August 29th. Joseph Bartlet, of Newbury, was taken captive by 
the French and Indians in their attack on Haverhill, and carried into 

* Town records. t Sewall's diary. 

J Parish records. Fail-field's journal. 


Canada, where he remained over four years. See his narrative, 
appendix G. 

Liberty to build a saw mill was ganted to Edmund Goodridge 
and John Noyes, junior, for twenty-one years on ' cart creek.' 


March 8th. The town < voted that the selectmen shall take care 
that the burying place may be fenced.' ^ 

March 15th. < Voted that the selectmen be impowered to dispose 
of the lime stones.' ^ 

' Voted also to petition the court of sessions for liberty to hang 
gates across the country high ways in Newbury where shall be 
thought needful.' % 

March 22d. < Voted that there should be gates hung across the 
town high ways, where it shall be thought most convenient for the 
fencing off the pastures,' ^ that is, the four general pastures. 

< Great drought this year. In October, want of water for men 
and cattle.' f 

' May. An expedition was formed against Canada. On the tenth 
there was an impress for soldiers. Some say every tenth man was 
taken.' $ 


March 7th. A committee was chosen by the town c to discourse 
with Benjamin Rolfe about purchasing the lane called Rolfe's lane 
in order to make it a highway for the town's use.' ^ 

In June of this year there was an extreme drought. 

October 28th. Byfield parish was incorporated. It was at first 
called Rowlbury, being formed from a part of Newbury and a part 
of Rowley. 


April 24th. ' John Kent of the island had his barn burnt by ta- 
backo with six oxen and four calves and a goose, that was bringing 
young ones.' f 

July 30th. Fleet set sail for Canada. 

* Cottle's lane,' once so called, now South street, was bought and 
laid out ' one rod and a half wide from Ezra Cottles to the way by 

The town ' voted that the grammar school be removed to Green- 
leaf's lane or near thereabouts.' Greenleaf's lane is now State 

' John Swett was licensed by the court to keep the ferry at Holt's 

* Town records. t SewalPs diary. J Fairfield's journal. 


rocks September twenty-fifth. Fare twopence for a man and four 
pence for a horse.' 

The town voted that Benjamin Morse should ' ring the bell at 
nine o' clock every night, and sabbath days and lecture days, and 
said Morse is to winge or rub down the principal seats the day after 
sweeping the meeting house and to toull the bell till the minister 
comes.' ^ 

October 9th. Deacon Nathaniel Coffin was chosen town clerk, 
in room of Mr. Eichaid Brown, resigned. On leaving town for 
Reading, where he was ordained as minister, June twenty-fifth, 
1712, he left the following on the fly leaf of the town book. 

' I have served Newbury as schoolmaster eleven years and as town clerk five 
years and a half and have been repaid with abuse, contempt and ingratitude. 
I have sent nigh as many to college as all the masters before me since the rev- 
erend and learned Parker. Those I have bred think themselves better than 
their master (God make them better still) and yet they may remember ye foun- 
dation of all their growing greatness was laid in the sweat of my brows. 

1 1 pray that poor unacknowledging Newbury may get them that may serve 
them better and find thanks when they have done. 

: If to find a house for ye school two years when ye town had none, if to take 
the scholars to my own fire when there was no wood at school as frequently, if 
to give records to the poor, and record their births and deaths gratis, deserves 
acknowledgements, then it is my due, but hard to come by. 

Est all qua ingrato meritum exprobare voluptas 
Hoc fruar, haec de te gaudia sola feram. 

A later writer adds the following lines. 

{ The lines above do seem to me absurd, 
Which by a scholar are left on record 
Such boasting as school master is very wrong, 
Such boasting don't of right to man belong.' 

The town employed Joshua Moody to teach the grammar school 
the remainder of the year, and voted that -the grammar school be 
removed to Greenleaf ? s lane, [State street.] 

Town also ' voted that the selectmen shall forthwith employ sev- 
eral persons to take care ye boys be kept in order on sabbath days 
and satisfie said persons out of ye money of ye parish, to which 
they belong for their sarvice.' 


March llth. The town ' voted that a house for ye keeping ye 
grammar school in shall be built and set up near ye middle way 
between ye old school house and the little old house now standing 
by the way near frog pond.' * 

In the beginning of this year, a few individuals residing near 

* Town records. 


what is called ' the plains,' separated from the church and society, 
with which they had been hitherto connected, and declared them- 
selves in favor of the episcopal form of worship. As the causes, 
which led them to dissent from the accustomed order of the New 
England churches, have never been fully explained, ' the narrative ' 
of those causes, drawn from authentic documents, ' cannot,' in the 
language of the reverend doctor Morss, ' fail of being interesting 
and instructive.' 

As early as March, 1685, the people at the west end of the town, 
on account of the increase of their numbers, and then* distance from 
the ' meeting house,' petitioned the town for ' some help in the min- 
istry amongst ' them. As the reply to this petition was not satisfac- 
tory, sixteen persons in 1689 erected a meeting-house on i the 
plains.' In 1695, the town voted that Pipe-stave hill shall be the 
place for the meeting-house, and so forth. From this time till 1712, 
those, who lived nearer to the meeting-house on the plains than they 
did to Pipe-stave hill, acted in opposition to the votes of the town, 
the authority of the state, and a large part, (forty to twenty-four,) of 
the worshipers in their own precinct, all of whom had decided that 
the right place for the meeting-house was Pipe-stave hill, 'while the 
other party were as decided that it should stand where it was, and 
not be moved. As early as 1696, the reverend Samuel Belcher 
with his family was residing in the precinct.^ In the same year, a 
vote was passed to build a ministry house, and to enlarge the meet- 
ing-house on ' the plains.' In January, 1706, the precinct voted that 
' they either would remove the meeting house and build an addition 
to it, or else build a new meeting house.' February twenty-eighth, 
1 it was voted that ye inhabitants of ye west end of the town of 
Newbury will build a new meeting house upon Pipe stave hill, fif- 
ty-four feet long and thirty-four feet broad within the space of five 
years at ye furthest and to meet in the old meeting house five years, 
not to force any person to pay any money or pay till three years be 
expired, and then to pay one quarter part yearly until ye whole be 

From this vote twenty persons dissented. 

"' Captain Hugh March, Caleb Moody and serjeant John Ordway 
were also chosen a committee to build the new meeting house and 
enlarge the old meeting house.' 3k In February, 1709, the party op- 
posed to the removal of the meeting-house from ' the plains,' to Pipe 
stave hill, petitioned the general court for relief. Among other things 
they say, that, ( having built a meeting house and settled a minister, 
which hath not been effected above twelve years or thereabouts, there 
are certain of our inhabitants since planted in the upper parts of our 
precinct, who under the supposing notion of a major vote of our 
inhabitants have adventured against our declared dissents to make a 
considerable and chargeable process towards the building of another 
meeting house, wherein they have proceeded so far as to adventure 

* Parish records. 


upon ourselves to levy a tax upon that account and to employ a 
collecter to take away our goods, and so forth.' They proceed* to 
state, that, ' if the abovesaid process and design on hand proceed to 
take effect according to the desire of ye managers thereof, namely, 
lo fix ye meeting house and ministry solely there, ivhere they have 
now erected their new meetitig- house, it will not only as we apprehend 
very unreasonably necessitate us to lose ye great charge we have 
been at, but which is worse, frustrate our good ends therein, which 
were our o\vn and our children's enjoyment of ye means of grace, 
and render it in divers respects more difficult and inconvenient than 
before our separation, and so forth. We therefore pray your excel- 
lency and honors to vouchsafe to us a favorable regard to our hum- 
ble address that our so very hard and costly privileges may be con- 
tinued to us in such sort as may not be suppressed by our oppo- 
nents, and so forth. And we humbly pray that if no better method 
may be found out for our relief that we may be set off so far as 
may agree with righteousness and religion, to maintain our minister 
and ministry amongst ourselves, the charge whereof we choose 
abundantly to undergo rather than have our good ends, desires and 
endeavours abovesaid frustrated and made voyde.' * Signed by 
fifty-five persons eleven Bartlets, six Sawyers, three Merrills, four 
Browns, three Baileys, Charles and Joseph Annis, two Thurstons, 
two named Rogers, three Littles, and nineteen others. 

From the preceding petition we learn that the meeting-house had 
been erected on Pipe-stave hill, prior to the date of the petition, 
probably in the latter part of 1708. Judge Sewall, in his diary, 
under the date of May tenth, 1709, says, ' visited cousin Jacob Top- 
pan and laid a stone in the foundation of ye meeting house at Pipe 
staff hill.' 

On March twenty-first, 1710, the inhabitants of the precinct voted 
* that they accepted of what was already done and authorized the 
major part of the committee (who were chosen in 1706, February 
twenty-eighth,) to proceed and finish the meeting house according 
to the time mentioned in said vote.' f 

From this vote twenty-two persons dissented. 

Among the papers on file in the state house in Boston, is one 
written by John Ordway, but without date, giving his reasons why 
he declined acting with the committee appointed in 1706 to build 
the new meeting-house. ' First, because the vote was dissented 
against by many, and more offered their dissent and therefore a 
great likelihood of contention among us. Second, because we had 
no land to set it on, nor order to purchase any. Third, because it 
was so long a time since we were chosen, and I wished to call a 
meeting of our precinct to see if they were united, and if not, I 
thought it very unadvisable to proceed in strife and contention, for 
the building of a meeting house ought to be carried on in love and 
peace. To what is above written captain March and lieutenant 

* General court files. t Parish records. 



Moody or one of them answered, we have a vote for it, and if you 
will not goe on with us, we will goe without you and you shall pay 
for it.' 

On June second, 1710, a notification was sent from the general 
court to the town of Newbury, which was served on them by some 
of the west end petitioners to the court. On June seventh, the town 
chose colonel Thomas Noyes to act in their behalf, who, on June 
ninth, replied to the petition of February ninth, 1709. In his reply 
he states, that, ' of the fifty-five signers to the petition, thirty-four 
were at no charge in building their meeting house, several live 
within a mile of Mr. Toppan's [first parish rneeting-house] and ten 
more to the west and northwest of the new meeting house, so that 
it is impossible that the major part should be any ways aggrieved 
by putting down the old, or putting up the new meeting house.' 
He concludes by saying, among other things, that ' the whole of the 
western precinct assemble in a house of not above thirty feet square 
and yet rather than not have their wills they would have two 

This produced a long reply, dated June twentieth, in which they 
state, ' that we now have one hundred and thirty families, seventy of 
which do not live two miles from the old meeting house.' 

They conclude by saying, c we must acknowledge ourselves obliged 
to him in the superlative degree for speaking the very truth concern- 
ing us namely, rather than not have our wills, which are not the 
sparing of our purses but ye propagation of ye gospel and ye pro- 
moting ye edification of ourselves and ours, particularly our young 
ones under the means of grace and ye welfare of immortal souls, 
we had rather have two churches and meeting houses also, most 
convenient for the obtaining those good ends. We only pray the 
general court to prove their servants awhile with their petitioned 
pulse and water and afterwards as ye shall see and find our counte- 
nances, so deal with your humble servants.' 

This petition was not granted, and on the twenty-second of June 
it was ' resolved in council that Pipe-stave hill is the most conven- 
ient place, and so forth, and that a committee of the principal inhab- 
itants in the said precinct, do forthwith attend the reverend Mr. 
Belcher and acquaint him with the desire of this court that when a 
meeting house shall be erected there and a convenient dwelling 
house thereto for his reception with suitable accommodations of 
land and so forth he be content to remove thither.' They also 
resolved that ' a tax be laid on all the inhabitants.' % 

Determined, as it would appear, not to worship in the meeting- 
house on Pipe stave hill, twenty-seven of the petitioners signed the 
following document, which is accurately copied from the original 
now before me. 

c July ye 12th, 1710. 
' We whos names Are hearto Subscribed doo Agree And oblidge oursealves to 

* General court files. 


each other to mayntain the publick ministry At the old meeting house in ye 
west precinct in Newbury Although we are forsed to pay Elswhare what shall 
be lavid upon us.' 

On the next day, July thirteenth, the inhabitants of the west 
parish held a meeting, and ' voted to observe the direction and re- 
solve of the general court June twenty-second in every particular.' 
On July seventeenth they had another meeting, in which they l voted 
to levy a tax of four hundred pounds to defray part of the charges 
of building a meeting house ministry house and so forth, to pay 
back all they had taken by distraint and to confirm all that the 
building committee, chosen in 1706, had done and gave them full 
power to finish and so forth.' ^ 

On the nineteenth of April, 1711, the precinct had another meet- 
ing, and as the time of five years, during which they had deter- 
mined, in February, 1706, to meet in the old meeting-house, had 
expired, the majority proceeded to carry the remainder of the vote 
into execution. To this end, they chose a committee of three, to 
dispose of the ministry house and land near the old meeting-house, 
and obtain a house and land near the new meeting-house, at Pipe- 
stave hill. They also voted ' to take the seates and boards and 
glass out of ye old meeting house to be improved in the new meet- 
ing house and also to remove the old meeting house and sett it up 
att Pipe-stave hill to be improved for a barn for the ministry in con- 
venient time.' 

It will readily be seen, that, as soon as the ' convenient time ' came, 
to carry the preceding vote into effect, the minority would find it 
impossible to c mayntain the publick ministry at the old meeting 
house, 1 as they had obligated themselves to do, July twelfth, 1710. 
The c convenient time ' soon came, but not in the manner contem- 
plated by the vote. Corroborated tradition informs us> that a party 
of men from the upper part of the parish, came down in a riotous 
and disorderly manner, in the night, tore down the ' old meeting 
house,' and carried it off. The parish, however, March fifth, 1712, 
on account of the ' difference amongst ye inhabitants about pulling 
down ye old meeting house agreed to leave it to the determination 
of three men and to sit down satisfied and rest contented with their 
determination/ * 

This, without doubt, increased the opposition of the minority, 
who, being as determined not to submit, as the majority were to 
govern, immediately commenced preparations to build a new meet- 
ing-house. This undertaking, the majority determined to frustrate, 
if possible. A committee of six persons, petitioned the general 
court, in July, to take notice of the matter, and state that ' Samuel 
Bartlet, Joseph Bailey, lieutenant Samuel Sayer, Josiah Sayer, John 
Bartlet junior, John Bartlet third, Nathan Bartlet, Richard Bartlet 
third, William Huse, Joshua Brown junior, Stephen Brown and 
Skipper Lunt, their carpenter, and several others have cut and hailed 

* Parish records. 


timber in order to build a meeting house and intend to raise said 
meeting house within one fortnight and set it at or near the east 
end of the west precinct in Newbury as they inform us, not regard- 
ing the late resolve of the great and general court,' and so forth, 
and so forth. 

' July 19^A, 1711. The court advised and directed for the preser- 
vation of the peace of the town of Newbury that the persons herein 
named and others concerned, desist their proceeding to the raysing 
their meeting house until there be a hearing of the matter before 
the court.' 

To this advice and direction the minority paid no attention, but 
went steadily on with their work. Fervet opus. This caused an- 
other petition against them, in which a committee of the majority 
state, August twenty-fourth, 1711, that 'they, [the minority,] had 
raised and in part covered a meeting house and set it near the divi- 
ding line, notwithstanding the advice and direction of the court.' 

The court immediately ordered that ' Samuel Bartlet, John Ord- 
way, deacon Joshua Brown, Joshua Bailey, Skipper Lunt, and 
Penuel Titcomb be anew served by the sheriff with a process and 
order of this court of nineteenth July, strictly forbidding them and 
their associates proceeding in the work of their intended meeting 
house and so forth, and that said persons be summoned to attend 
this court on the second Wednesday of their fall session.' 

On the twenty-third of October, 1711, they again petition the 
court, 'to grant them leave to goe on with their meeting house 
that they have begun, that the farthermost of forty families and 
about thirty more of our neighbours are not above one and a half 
miles from the meeting house we are about to erect and prepare 
and that we deem it our duty to maintain the reverend Mr. Belcher, 
(for ivhom we have a peculiar respect,) until we may be orderly 
dismist? They also request the court ' to set them off as a precinct, 
making Artichoke river the dividing line, and that there are now 
ninety-six families above Artichoke river.' 

In the general court records, under date of November second, 
1711, is the following. ' Upon hearing the case of Newbury referring 
to the house late pretended to be raised for the publick worship of 
God on or near deacon Joshua Brown's land, contrary to the direc- 
tion of this court, of which there is no present necessity. It is or- 
dered that the building of the said house be not on any pretence 
whatever further proceeded in but that the division of the town into 
two precincts between the old meeting house and that upon Pipe- 
stave hill be the present division of the auditory and is hereby 
confirmed and established and all persons concerned are to yield 
obedience accordingly, and that the disorders, that have been in the 
proceedings about the said house in Brown's land, be referred to the 
next sessions of peace in Essex.' 

On November fourth, 1711, another petition was prepared to be 
presented to the general court, signed by Abraham Merrill, Joshua 
Brown, and sixty-five others. In it, among other things, they pray 


the court 'to indulge us with your favorable grant of liberty to 
proceed in ye finishing of our meeting house, and to call some 
orthodox approved person to preach ye word of God to us there, 
whom (notwithstanding ye usual objections framed on yt account 
against us) we trust under God's blessing we shall so accommodate 
as may be approved by your honors and satisfactory and comfortable 
to himself. Thus praying,' and so forth. 

This petition, which is now in my possession, was, of course, not 
presented, probably on account of the peremptory order of the court, 
passed November second, two days before their petition was drafted, 
but which they probably had not seen. Here was a difficulty, 
which the petitioners knew not how to obviate. They had erected 
a meeting-house, in which they had intended to settle ' some ortho- 
dox approved person,' but which the court would not allow them 
either to use or finish. Up to this time, it is evident, from their own 
petitions, that they had intended to settle a congregational minister 
in the meeting-house, which they had erected for that purpose. The 
manner in which a part of them became episcopalians, is best told 
in the following extract from a narrative of the proceedings of the 
precinct, from its commencement to 1734. It was found among the 
papers of Mr. Nehemiah Bartlet, and was written many years ago. 

1 Our fathers did not regard what the court sent to them, but had raised said 
building and had got on to finish it. This honorable court sent on express to 
forbid us going on under any pretence whatever. Resolved Pipe-stave hill to 
be the place for the whole parish. Our people went to this court to show their 
grievances. No relief. Met with a gentleman Mr. [John] Bridger, churchman, 
telling a way to protect them, to come under the church of England he would protect 
them. Some being acquainted with tJie church complied. Reverend Mr. Harris 

came and preached, went home, sent Mr. Lampton, chaplain of a station 

ship, some abiding with him, some went back to Pipe-stave hill,' and so forth. 

This Mr. Bridger was ' surveyor of the king's woods,' as I learn 
from several letters of his, between 1707 and 1715. In the latter 
year, he was in London. In Judge Sewall's diary, I find the 
following : 

1 December 15th, 1707. Governor calls a council, reads a letter 
from Mr. [John] Bridger, complaining of trees cut contrary to char- 
ter. Mr. Bridger has been here above a twelvemonth.' 

On the twenty-first of October, 1711, Mr. Bridger thus writes 
from Portsmouth, to colonel Thomas Noyes, of Newbury : 

4 Sir, pursuant to the governor's orders I do apply to you for a 
guard of six or eight troopers for my guard while doing* my duty 
as surveyor of his majesty's woods for America. 
I am your most humble servant, 


From the same diary of Judge Sewall, I make the following 
extract, namely : 

1 Wednesday, February 27f/t. 1711-12. Joseph Bailey of Newbury, introduced 
by Jlr. Myles, Mr. Harris and Mr. Bridger presented a petition to the governor 


signed by Abraham Merrill, Joshua Brown, Samuel Bartlet, John Bartlet, Sam- 
uel Sayer, Joseph Bailey, twenty-two in all, declaring that they were of the 
pure episcopal church of England, would no longer persist with their mistaken 
dissenting brethren, had sent to their diocesan, the bishop of London for a minis- 
ter and desired protection. 

1 February 28th. Governor dates his letter to ye episcopal church at Newbury.' 

In another part of the same diary, he says, ' on the twenty-sev- 
enth of February last 1711-12 I saw the certainty of what I could 
not believe before namely deacon Merrill and deacon Brown and 
twenty-two others and so forth. Now though it is well enough 
known what was the spring of yr motion and notwithstanding their 
aprons of figieaves they walk naked.' 

Their petition to governor Dudley, and his reply, are as follows, 
namely : 

1 To his excellency Joseph Dudley, the humble petition of several freeholders 
and the inhabitants of the town of Newbury. 

I Whereas your excellency's petitioners have declared themselves members 
of the church of England, and have raised a building, for the worship of almigh- 
ty God according to the manner of service prescribed in the said church we 
humbly desire your excellency's protection and encouragement in our just and 
laudable undertakings. We are convinced that the church of England is a 
pure orthodox church, and so are resolved to continue no longer in that separa- 
tion, which has so unhappily prevailed among the mistaken and prejudiced 
inhabitants of this country. This resolution has occasioned ye ill will of our 
dissenting- brethren, who levy upon us more than ordinary rates towards the 
maintenance of their minister, and other purposes of that nature, w r hich act of 
theirs is a very great hardship and grievance to us, since we have addressed a 
letter to our right reverend diocesan ye bishop of London to send us a minister, 
which w r e shall most gladly receive, but think ourselves under no obligation to 
any other ; it being a thing unknown in her majesty's dominions yt ye members 
of the church of England are obliged to contribute to the support of the dissent- 
ing teachers. We therefore pray your excellency's favour,' that we may not be 
molested for the future upon this account and beg leave to subscribe ourselves 

Your excellency's most dutiful and obedient servants.' 

The following is a copy of the reply : 

'Boston, February 28th, 1711-12. 

' I received yesterday an address and petition, signed by twenty-two freehold- 
ers and inhabitants of the town of Newbury, setting forth that they are de- 
clared members of the episcopal church of England, as by law established, 
and that they have raysed a building for the service of God according to the 
manner of service prescribed in the said church, desiring protection and encour- 
agement therein accordingly, and that they have addressed the right reverend 
the bishop of London to have a minister sent to them, and that thereupon they 
may not be obliged to contribute to the subsistence of the other ministers of any 
other profession as at large is set forth in this petition. 

I 1 am also informed by the reverend Mr. Harris, one of the ministers of the 
church of England in this place, that at their desire he has visited and preached 
to that new congregation, and had a very considerable auditory, and that he 
shall continue so to do, until their said address to the lord bishop of London 
shall be considered and orders given therein. I am thereupon of opinion that 
the said petitioners and others that joyne with them ought to be peaceably al- 
lowed in their lawful proceedings therein for their good establishment ; and ought 
not to be taxed or imposed upon for the support and maintenance of any other 
public worship in the said town. Of which I desire all persons concerned to 
take notice accordingly. Given under my hand, 



At what precise time their letter was addressed to the bishop of 
London, I have found no record. It must have been between 
November fourth, 1711, and February twenty-eighth, 1712. I have 
in my possession an original letter from the bishop of London, of 
which the following is a copy. 


1 1 am very glad of the assurance from you. how well your people are dis- 
posed to hold communion with us ; and you need not doubt of all due encour- 
agement so far as the difficulty of the times will allow, and therefore I should 
be glad to hear what it is particularly, that may suffice for this encouragement ; 
and in the mean time I shall endeavour to gett the best advice I can in refer- 
ence to the deed. I pray God prosper your pious endeavours and pray believe 
me Sr your most assured friend 

and humble servant, 

Fulham, April 19th, 1712.' HENRY LONDINI. 

As the superscription of this letter is torn off, I am not able to 
say to whom it was addressed. 

The next allusion to the church that I find, is the following ex- 
tract from a letter, written by the reverend Benjamin Colman, of 
Boston, to bishop Kennet. It is dated November seventeenth, 1712. 

' This last year a difference happened in the town of Newbury about placeing 
their meeting house. The matter was brought before our general court, who 
determined it according to the free vote and act of the precinct, whereby they 
had obliged themselves to each other. Whereupon a number of them declare 
themselves for the church of England. Many of them I will suppose persons 
of sobriety and virtue only in a pett and to save their rate to their aged and 
worthy minister, Mr. Belcher, utterly ignorant of the church they declare for, 
nor offended in the least with the form of worship or discipline, which they 
turn from ; and as wide herein from their old pastor's spirit and principles ; which 
are as catholick as can well be found among ministers of any denomination; being 
till now among the most narrow and rigid dissenters, who would before this have 
disowned me in particular for the use of the Lord's prayer, reading the scrip- 
tures and a freer admission to the Lord's table, than has been generally prac- 
tised in these churches.' * 

The lines in the above letter, printed in italics, are entirely omit- 
ted by the reverend James Morss in his century sermon, delivered 
December thirty-first, 1837, the words ' difference,' and ' turn from,' 
are changed to ' difficulty,' and ' had observed,' and the words ' they 
were,' before ' most narrow,' added. 

Since the compilation of the foregoing narrative, the following 
letter, or part of a letter, written by the reverend Matthias Plant, and 
published in the Christian Witness, January twenty-eighth, 1842, 
has been pointed out to me. The date is not given, nor the name 
of the person, to whom it was addressed. It was obtained, as I am 
informed, by the reverend doctor Hawkes, during his recent visit to 
England, and is undoubtedly accurate in its statements. 

'NEWBURYPORT. We copy the following from the Church Record; and, as it 
gives some interesting incidents in the early history of the ancient church in 
Newburyport, we presume it will be acceptable to our readers : 

* Turell's life of Colman, pp. 124, 5. 


c First, the history of building the church, et cetera. It was erected for a 
meeting-house, in 1711, by the inhabitants, about forty-five families in number, 
but being opposed -by a greater body of people within the same division or par- 
ish, who had erected another meeting-house, they complained of them to the 
j ustices of the peace, who committed some of them to prison, and others were 
compelled; for their safety, to appeal to the governor and council, where they 
met with no better treatment, for erecting a meeting-house contrary to law ; (for, 
according to the laws of the province, the major part appoints the place where 
the meeting-house shall be built.) Mr. Bridger, of Portsmouth, in New England, 
having information of the severity used towards these people, came to Newbury, 
and told the inhabitants that if they would convert their intended meeting-house 
into a church, he would engage them protection from the governor. They 
complying with his motion, (after the perusal of several church books,) he ob- 
tained their easement. The salary is weekly contributions by the auditors ; 
about twenty pounds per annum. The materials with which the church is built 
are wood. The dimensions of it ; fifty feet long and thirty wide, but accommo- 
dated with no house or glebe. 

c Second, the number of hearers was about one hundred, who at first frequented 
the church ; (for many who contributed towards building the church never con- 
sented to convert it to that use.) Their condition of fortunes is like unto our 
ordinary farmers, who rent thirty or forty pounds per annum. They commonly 
add some trade to their farming. In matters of religion, dissenters. Their set- 
tlements dispersed after the manner of our cottages, upon commons, some per- 
haps having thirty to sixty acres of land. Some of my hearers live in the adja- 
cent towns, from two to six miles distance. Marblehead is the nearest church, 
thirty-two miles remote. My constant auditors are from one hundred and fifty to 
two hundred, or thereabouts, and daily increase, as doth my salary. Their for- 
tunes are no otherwise improved than by their lands becoming more valuable, 
which is occasioned by people becoming more numerous in the country. 


At what time the reverend Mr. Lampton came to Newbury, I 
have not been able to ascertain. It must, however, have been sub- 
sequent to twenty-seventh of February, 1712, as, in the petition to 
the governor, of that date, we find the expression, ' send us a min- 
ister, which we shall most gladly receive.' 

From a letter in the library of the American Antiquarian Society, 
at Worcester, written by the reverend Christopher Toppan, to Cot- 
ton Mather, November twenty-eighth, 1712, I make the following 
extract : 

1 Perceiving that some of the ceremonies were camels too big for them at first 
to swallow, he [Mr. Lampton] told them they should be left to their liberty as 
to kneeling at the sacrament, baptising with the sign of the cross and so forth. 
This has been wonderfully taking with them and a great" means to encourage 
them in their factious proceedings. 7 

Notwithstanding the ' opinion,' that the petitioners of February 
twenty-seventh ' ought not to be taxed ' for the support of the con- 
gregational ministers, the precinct ' voted fourteenth of April that 
captain Hugh March should go to the general court and ask advice 
of them about gathering Mr. Belcher's rate and the meeting house 
rate of those persons that pretend to sett up ye episcopal way of 
worship,' and on October seventh, desired captain March to proceed 
in ' that affaire.' 

As to what was done 'in that affaire,' no record informs us. 


March 5th. The west parish held a meeting, on account of the 
difference among the inhabitants about pulling down the old meet- 
ing house, selling the parsonage house and land and so forth, and 
agreed to leave the above mentioned particulars to lieutenant John 
White of Haverhill, lieutenant John Foot of Amesbury and Mr. 
Thomas Kimball of Bradford, promising to set down satisfyed and 
rest contested with their determination.'^ 


1 February 3d. Deacon Abraham Merrill, deacon Joshua Brown 
[and six others] were requested by a committee of the church to 
give their reasons for absenting themselves from the communion of 
the church.' Their reasons were : 

' First, we do count that you acted illegally in disposing of a 
house, that you never built. 

4 Second, for violently pulling down our meeting house and car- 
rying it away contrary to our minds and consent. 

' third, taking away from our brethren and neighbours part of 
their estates by distress/ and so forth.f 


January 15th. The west parish agreed to concur with the 
church in calling the reverend John Tufts to settle with them in the 

March 30th. The parish i voted to give the reverend John Tufts 
eighty pounds a year till he settles and keeps house, and then ninety 
pounds a year.' 

April 2d. The parish < voted to free all that are, or shall be, for 
the episcopal way of worship and also all quakers.' 

April 5th. The town i voted to grant liberty to Mr. Benjamin 
Woodbridge and Mr. Henry Somerby to cut timber on Plum island 
to finish two wharfs with.' 

June. The ferry at Holt's rocks, was settled for forty years on 
Newbury and Haverhill by the court. 

June 3Qth. Reverend John Tufts ordained. 

In judge Sewall's diary, I find the following, which is all I have 
been able to find on the subject : 

' December 25th. Mrs. Bradstreet of Newbury, her killing her 
negro woman [is] much tallied of.' 

In this year, the reverend John Tufts, of the west parish, pub- 
lished a small work on music, entitled, 'a very plain and easy 
introduction to the art of singing psalm tunes, with the cantus or 
trebles of twenty-eight psalm tunes Contrived in such a manner as 

* Parish records. t Church records. 



that the learner may attain the skill of singing them with the greatest 
ease and speed imaginable, by the reverend Mr. John Tufts. (Price 
sixpence or five shillings per dozen.' 

Small as this book must have been, to be afforded for sixpence 
per copy, it was at this time a great novelty, it being the first publi- 
cation of the kind in New England, if not in America. As late as 
1700, there were not more than four or five tunes known, in many 
of the congregations in this country, and in some, not more than 
two or three, and even those were sung altogether by rote. These 
tunes were York, Hackney, Saint Mary's, Windsor, and Martyrs'. 
To publish at this time a book on music, containing the enormous 
number of twenty-eight psalm tunes, (which were in three parts, 
and purely choral,) although it was only a reprint of Ravenscroft, 
which was first published in 1618, was a daring innovation on the 
old time-honored customs of the country, and the attempt to teach 
singing by note, thus commenced by Mr. Tufts, was most strenu- 
ously resisted, and for many years, by that large class of persons, 
everywhere to be found, who believe that an old error is better than 
a new truth. Many, at that time, imagined, that fa, sol, la, was, in 
reality, nothing but popery in disguise. A writer in the New Eng-" 
land Chronicle, in 1723, thus observes. 'Truly I have a great 
jealousy that if we once begin to sing by rule, the next thing will 
be to pray by rule and preach by rule and then comes popery. 1 

In 1721, reverend Thomas Walter, of Roxbury, published a book 
on music, entitled ' the grounds and rules of musick explained, 
or an introduction to the singing by note fitted to the meanest 

In the preface, Mr. W. says: 'the tunes now in use in our 
churches, when they came out of the hands of 'the composers of 
them, were sung according to the rules of the scale of musick, but 
are now miserably tortured and twisted, and quavered in some 
churches into a horrid medley of confused and disorderly noises. 
Oar tunes are for want of a standard to appeal to in our singing, 
left to the mercy of every unskilful throat to chop and alter, twist 
and change, according to their infinitely divers and no less odd 
humours and fancies. No two churches sing alike. At present 
we are confined to eight or ten tunes and in some congregations to 
little more than half that number.' 

September 1st. Town ' voted to give forty shillings for every 
grown wolf and ten shillings apiece for wolf's whelps killed within 
the towne.' 

March ll/z. A highway, of two rods broad, was laid out, from 
Kent street to Ordway's lane, now Market street. 

March \kth. John Emery, Archelaus Woodman^ Stephen 
Emery, and Benjamin Sawyer, petitioned the town to grant them 
' liberty to set up a fence across the way to Turkey hill that we may 


keep our sheep from running away before we have sheared them.' 
The petition was granted. 

May 3d. ' Town voted to give five pounds per head for every 
grown wolfe, which shall be killed within the town of Newbury.' 

May 20th. Mr. John Bridger sent a letter 'to the churchwardens 
and vestry at Newbury,' from London, by Mr. Henry Lucas, who 
had been appointed their minister, and says : ' I have no reason to 
doubt he will fully answer your expectation and advance the church 
amongst you to the praise and glory of almighty God and to the 
edification of many souls,' and so forth. 

October 27th. A committee of the west end precinct church, 
was appointed, ' to discourse with certain members of the church, 
who had withdrawn from their communion and see if something 
could not be said or done to draw them to our communion again, 
and if we cannot draw them by fair means, then to determine what 
means to take with them.' ^ 


January 24:th. A day of humiliation was kept by the church in 
the west precinct, for several reasons ; one was, * that God would 
prevent ye spread of errors in this place, especially the errors of the 
quakers.' f 

We, at the present day, can hardly conceive of the feelings enter- 
tained and manifested by our ancestors, against the quakers. In 
the law, passed by Massachusetts, in 1658, the fourth section thus 
commences. ' Whereas there is a cursed sect of hereticks lately 
risen up in the world, which are commonly called quakers,' and so 
forth. In 1661, another law was passed, ' to prevent the intrusions 
of the quakers, who do like rogues and vagabonds come in upon 
us,' and so forth. In 1658, Robert Adams, of Newbury, was in- 
dicted for attending a friends' meeting, in Salem, at the house of 
Nicholas Phelps, to hear William Brend and William Leddra. In 
1680, governor Simon Bradstreet thus writes to ' the right honorable 
the lords of his majesty's privy council.' l We have no beggars 
and few idle vagabonds, except a few quakers from Road Island, 
that much molest us.' In 1704, Judge Sewall thus writes. ' 1 told 
Mr. [Nicholas] Noyes of Salem of ye quaker meeting at Samuel 
Sayers and of ye profaneness of /ye young Hoags professing that 
heresy.' These 'young Hoags,' were all sons of John Hoag, and 
resided in the west parish of Newbury. In this year, [1716,] says 
judge Sewall, there was a ' quakers' dispute at Newbury.' 

In the account book of Stephen Jaques, I find the following, 
namely : 

' October 21s, 1716. On the sabath day about eleven of the clock in sarman 
time it grue so dark that one could not see a parson from one end of the metting 

* West parish records. t Church records. 


hous to the other except it was against a window, nor could know another four 
seats off, nor read a word in a psalm book. It continued near half an hour. 
Sum ministers sent for candels, sum set still, till it was lighter. Sum was ready 
to think ye world was at an end ; all seemed to be consarned. It was a time 
when ye air was very full of smoke. It came dayly down \vhen it was a south 
west wind, the wind now being as I remember at est, which might bring ye 
smoak back, and dark clouds pass over, as it being cloudy weather. I was an 
eie witness of this myself. 


For a similar account of the same darkness, see Philosophical 
Transactions, number four hundred and twenty-third. 

In October of this year, ' governor Shute went from Boston to 
Portsmouth, was met by the Newbury troop, conducted to lieutenant 
governor Dummer's house, where his excellency was finely enter- 
tained that night and morning.' ^ 

J| In judge Sewall's diary, under date of June twenty-second, I find 
1 the following. ' I essayed to prevent negroes and Indians being 
\/ I rated with horses and cattle, but could not succeed.' 

'-^Instances like the following, were formerly frequent. In the 
inventory of the estate of Samuel Morgaridge, who died in 1754, 
I find, 

' Item, three negroes, ...... 133, 6s. Sd. 

t Item, flax, ....... 12, 2, 8.' 

In the inventory of Henry Rolfe's estate, taken in April, 1711, I 
find the following, namely, 

' Fifteen sheep, old and young, . . . . . 3, 15s. 

' An old gun, ....... 2 

1 An old negroe man, ...... 10, 

In Moses Gerrish's inventory, I find, 

6 Barley, Indian corn, and oats, .... 10. 

4 An Indian slave, ...... 20.' 

From the tax book of William Titcomb, junior, I make the 
following extract. This year the number of ratable polls in New- 
bury was six hundred and eighty-five, of which four hundred and 
thirty-seven were in the first parish, one hundred and ninety-six in 
the west parish and fifty-two in the falls parish. In August, a val- 
uation of the town's property was taken. Plough land and meadow 
were estimated at twelve shillings per acre, pasture land at six shil- 
lings. The whole valuation of property, real and personal, was nine 
thousand and sixty-two pounds, and one shilling. 

In 1712 and 1713, the number and valuation stood thus : 

1712, polls 584, estate 7857. 

1713, 613, " 7790. 

The province rate was 5s. per poll, and 6d. on the pound. 
The town rate was 2, 3d. and 2 1-2 " " 
Mr. Toppan's rate was 2, 6d. " and 3 " " " 

* News Letter. 



This year is rendered memorable, by the unusual quantity of 
snow, which fell on the twentieth and twenty-fourth of February. 
In these two storms, the earth was covered with snow, from ten to 
fifteen feet, and, in some places, to twenty feet, deep. Many one- 
story houses were covered, and, in many places, paths were dug, 
from house to house, under the snow. Many visits were made, 
from place to place, by means of snow shoes, the wearers having 
first stepped out of their chamber windows, on these excursions. 
4 Love,' we know, l laughs at locksmiths,' and, of course, will disre- 
gard a snow-drift. Tradition informs us, that a Mr. Abraham 
Adams, wishing to visit his 'ladye love,' Miss Abigail Pierce, 
mounted his snow shoes, took a three miles' walk, for that purpose, 
and entered her residence as he left his own, namely, by the cham- 
ber window. He was the first person the family had seen from 
abroad, for more than a week. Cotton Mather has left in writing 
a particular account of ' the great snow, 1 and the many marvels and 
prodigies attending it. 

Stephen Jaques, in his account, thus writes. c The year 1717-18 
aftar this darkness * was the sadest time for sickness. A mortal 
feaver spred throw ye country and in about three months time it 
made twenty widows, besides many other parsons swept away.' 


May \\th. i The selectmen were desired not to grant approbation 
for above five taverns and not above three retailers of strong drink.'f 

Town voted ' to invite the neighbouring towns in the county of 
Essex to join with us in endeavouring to obtaine a dividing of ye 
county of Essex into two counties.' f 

June 23d. Richard, son of captain Richard Gerrish, of Ports- 
mouth, was dro\vned at the end of Long wharf. 

September 24th. The town granted to Moses Chase, Abraham 
Annis, Joseph Pike, William Morse, Benjamin Smith, Abiel Kelly, 
Jonathan Kelly, John Swett, John Carr, and Joshua Bayley, on 
their petition, c eighty rods of the flatts above Holt's rocks to fish on, 
on condition they pay as an acknowledgement to ye town two 
salmon per year one to Mr. Toppan, ye other to Mr. Tufts, if they 
catch them. 1 

The value of salmon at this time, may be estimated, by the fol- 
lowing letter to Anthony Morse. 

1 Mr. Morse, 

This is to desire ye favonr of you to gett me one, two or three or more of 
ye first sammon yt can be had this year. I am willing to give a good price and 

* October twenty-first, 1716. t Town records. 


a great price rather than not have it and will pay a man and horse for bringing 
it to content, but observe he do n't bring for any body else at ye same time. If 
there be but one single sammon, send away forthwith. If more, then it will help 
ye extraordinary charge, but do n't let them be kept till almost spoiled in hopes 
of more. Pray give my sarvice to your father Moody and I desire his help in 
this affair. If you have success let ye bearer call at Mr. Woodbridge's and at 
captain Corner's in his way to me, for they may happen at ye same time to 
have some. I shall take it very kindly if you will be mindfull. 

I am your friend 

Boston. March twenty-first, 1728.' 


March 6th. Cottle's lane, now South street, was laid out, < one 
rod and a half wide from High street to Merriinack river.' 

March Wth. Town voted to give Mr. John Woodbridge, forty 
pounds ' for the year ensuing to keep a free school for latin scholars, 
readers, writers and cypherers, and sixty pounds for maintaining 
schools in the remote parts of the town.' 

This year, potatoes were introduced, by some emigrants from 
Ireland. They were raised in the garden of Mr. Nathaniel Walker, 
esquire, of Andover. Tradition informs us, that the first which 
were raised in Newbury, grew on the land, once owned by Henry 
Sewall, lately by Mr. Stephen Noyes, and now by Mr. William 
Sargent, but in what year this valuable root first made its ap- 
pearance in Newbury, no record informs us. In 1732, I find, in a 
Mr. Morgaridge's journal, ' half a bushel of pertaters, six shillings,' 
and in the same year, ' one peak of pertaters.' In the diary of a 
farmer of Lynn, he mentions ' patatas,' in 1733. In 1737, the rev- 
erend Thomas Smith, of Portland, says, in his diary, ' there is not 
a peck of potatoes in the whole eastern country.' In 1739, Robert 
Adams chronicles the sale of a bushel and a half of 'pertaters.' 
Their introduction into general use, was slow, and, so late as 1750, 
should any person/ have raised so large a quantity as five bushels, 
great would have been the inquiry among his neighbors, in what 
manner he could dispose of such an abundance. They were, at 
first, raised in beds, like onions. 

May 12lh. The town voted * that all the country roads should 
be four rods broad, if they are not now.' 

In the latter end of this year, the people of New England were 
much excited and alarmed, at the appearance of the northern lights, 
which were to them a novelty, and were supposed to betoken some 
dire calamity. In the journal of Mr. Stephen Jaques, under the 
date of December eleventh, 1719, he thus writes. 

1 December llth, 1719. Between seven and eight o'clock at night, the moone 
being neare the full, it might want two days, there appeared in ye> north above 
like a rainbow, but it was white. It seemed to reach from norwest to northeast, 
and it was more strait in the middle than a rainbow. It seemed to be eight 
foot wide. It looked like a cloud. There appeared in the north clouds, which 


looked very red and seemed to flie up allmost overhead, as if they had been 
driven with a farse wind and then parted to the east and so vanished away. 
The white cloud or bow remained an hour or two. Between ten and eleven 
there appeared a cloud, which came from ye norwest like a mist. We could 
see the stars through it. It was as red as blood or crimson, but not a thick red. 
My eies saw it. 


Lewis, in his history of Lynn, says, ' the northern lights were 
first observed this year on the seventeenth of December.' As the 
moon was ' neare the full,' any person, with an almanac for 1719, 
can easily ascertain which is correct, December eleventh, or 
December nineteenth. 


' This year,' says doctor Holmes, in his annals, l tea began to be 
used in New England.' It must, however, have been used in small 
quantities, many years before. The first tea kettles were small 
articles, made of copper, and first used in Plymouth, in 1702. The 
first cast iron tea kettles, were made in Plympton, now Carver, 
between 1760 and 1765. < When ladies,' says Lewis, ' went to 
visiting parties, each one carried her tea cup, saucer and spoon. 
The tea cups were of 'the best china, very small, containing as much 
as a common wine glass.' % 

From an unpublished letter, written in England, in the year 1740, 
January first, I extract the following. 

' They are not much esteemed now that will not treat high and gossip about. 
Tea is now become the darling of our women. Almost every little tradesman's 
wife must set sipping tea for an hour or more in a morning, and it may be again 
in the afternoon, if they can get it, and nothing will please them to sip it out of 
but china ware, if they can get it. They talk of bestowing thirty or forty shil- 
lings upon a tea equipage, as they call it. There is the silver spoons, silver 
tongs, and many other trinkets that I cannot name.' 

' 1720 March ye first about half an hour after eight of ye clock 
there appeared a thick strack from ye northwest to ye southest all- 
most right ovar my head like an arch and it seemed to be about 
eight or ten foot in breadth. It was like a very thick black smoke 
of a chimney, and seemed very low. It began in ye norwest to 
vanish and disappear and so by degrees to pass away, the moon 
about half an hour high a going down.' Stephen Jacques* journal. 

i August 20th. 'Tis said Mr. Lucas, the church of England 
minister, cut his own throat at Newbury. However the minister of 
Marblehead set a good face on it, had the corpse carried into the 
church and preached a funeral sermon.' f 

4 November 24=th. There appeared on this day about eight of the 
clock at night a light in ye north almost like that, which appeared 
the last year, it being red, but not so much. The Friday night 

* History of Lynn. | Judge Sewall's diary. 


before there appeared in ye north between seven and eight a light 
like the day light, when it breaks three quarters of an hour high.' 

Stephen Jaques* journal. 


September 20th. The town chose deacon Nathaniel Coffin, en- 
sign William Titcomb, and lieutenant Henry Rolfe, to receive the 
town's part of the fifty thousand pounds, granted by Massachusetts, 
thirteenth of July, 1720, and let it out, on good security, in sums 
not less than ten pounds, nor more than thirty pounds, at five per 
centum, for no longer period than one year at a time. For the use of 
this money, the town was to pay the state four per centum. This was 
the famous ' land bank ' scheme, as it was called, which proved so 
injurious to the estates of many individuals. 

In judge Sewall's diary, of this year, I find the following. 

' Thomas Hale [was] made a justice. I opposed it, because there 
are five in Newbury already and he had lately kept an ordinary and 
sold rum. I was answered he had laid it down. I fear it will not 
be for the honour of the persons, nor of the governor and council, 
nor for the welfare [of the town] unless perhaps dwelling on the 
neck he may give check to traveling on the Lord's day.' Within 
the limits of ' ould Newberry,' there are now forty-four justices. 

September 21st. This year, the small-pox prevailed in New 
England. More than eight hundred died in Boston, where it began. 
Newbury sent twenty pounds to the poor of Boston, in wood. 

The town's stock of ammunition was, this year, examined, and 
found to consist of seven"bags and two casks of bullets, and eight 
casks of powder, consisting of five hundred and forty-three pounds 
of bullets, and three hundred and fifty-seven pounds of powder. 

' The fever began at Rowley and many peopel dyed. The like 
was not known in that town.' # 

September 17th. The first parish in Newbury, gave their assent 
to the formation of another parish, in Newbury, which was formed 
September nineteenth, and was called the third parish in Newbury, 
now first in Newburyport. 


' February 25th. An unusual high tide, higher by twenty inches 
than was ever known before. At the same time the sea at Hamp- 
ton broke over its banks for some miles together and continued 
running for several hours.' f 

* Stephen Jaques' journal. t Cotton Mather. 


February 25th. ' Second parish bought of deacon William 
Morss for seven pounds ten shillings half an acre of land near 
Swett's ferry, and a quarter of an acre of Ezekiel Hale for a bury- 
ing place.' Swett's ferry was near Holt's rocks, now Rock's bridge. 

' March 12th. A committee of three was chosen to compute the 
cost of an alms nouse and to view a place ' to set it, and so forth. 1 ^ 

April 19th. Mr. Daniel Holbrook died. He had been called to 
assist in the work of the ministry, and would have been ordained, 
had his life been spared. * He was taken sick in the pulpit on Sun- 
day April fourteenth, after he had commenced preaching and was 
obliged to leave the meeting house.' f 

i This year,' says Stephen Jaques, in his journal, 'was the sadest 
year as ever was known in Newbury, for in ye month of April there 
died near forty parsons, most of them grown up, sometimes two a 
day, sometimes three a day, young men and wimmen. About the 
twenty-fourth day of the month the town capt a fast. There was 
nine parsons lay dead that day and I do believe fifty or sixty or 
more lay sick and it pleased God to hear the prayers of his people 
and to ansar them in a wonderfull mannar, for the nues was the 
next morning they were all better, and so it was, for very fue dyed 
aftarward. . O that men would praise the Lord for his goodness 
and his wonderfull works to ye children of men.' 

4 May 3d, 1723. Newbury. Time of health now. No person 
that I know of having been lately seized with the distemper that 
hath proved so mortal.' f 

On occasion of this mortality, John Calef, son of John Calef of 
Newbury, aged nineteen, wrote and published three elegies, which 
a writer, thus notices, in the New England Chronicle, of August 
fifth, 1723. 

' It is with the utmost concern I would now represent to you the hard fate, 
which our countrymen are like to suffer, who happen to die with a good name. 
The dead have been long enough abused and the living disturbed by the very 
dregs of the college and the plough in their elegiac performances insomuch 
that some considerable persons amonsr us have beerAonstrained to do but little 
good and appear useless all their lifetime, to avoid the persecution of an elegy 
at their death. We have indeed flattered ourselves that it would be better living 
and better dying for all honest men in New England than it has been for a hun- 
dred years past, but to our mortification we find that this spirit of versification 
has spread itself among the neat cattle, no less than three elegies having been 
lately wrote and published by Mr. John Calf of Newbury, one of which is upon 
the death of the reverend Mr. Daniel Holbrook of Newbury, who was taken sick 
on the day he designed to preach madam Fryer's funeral sermon ; and how well 
this bleating Calf has performed his task and embalmed the memory of the de- 
ceased the following lines may shew. 

' On sabbath day he went his way, 

As he was used to do, 

God : s house unto, that they might know 

What he had for to shew. 

When he came there he went to prayer, 

But veiy faint he spoke, 

* Town records. t New England Chronicle. 



His mortal wound inclosed round, 

And gave a fatal stroke. 

His hat he took, his head he shook, 

A mournful sigh he gave, 

A shepherd true, the flock went through, 

Not daunted to the grave. 

He often said, when that he laid, 

His dying bed upon, 

Distracted he should surely be, 

Before his breath was gone. 

God's holy will he must fulfil, 

But it was his desire 

For to declare the sermon rare 

Concerning madam Fryer. 

A man in pain doth pray in vain, 

Unless he prays to God 

To him let 's pray both night and day, 

To ease his heavy rod.' 

1 His second performance is a mournful elegy occasioned by the great mor- 
tality in the family of Mr. Henry Clark of Newbury, which is chiefly made up 
of the days of the month and ages of the persons deceased. And after he has 
barbarously buried the dead one after another as they were born ? he cries out 
in a rapture 

' If such vines wither well may we, 
Whose bodies so corrupted be. 

( His third set of jingles is called a funeral elegy occasioned by the death of 
Mr. Edmund Titcomb, at the close of which he has a few lines to shew that 
death is certain, but the time when very uncertain, and to make his argument 
good, he mentions the death of Sampson and says 'no body can deny but that he 
died. 7 But methinks this is but a poor way of arguing for allowing it to be true 
that Sampson did die, yet it is as true that he died by his own hands and some 
are of opinion that if he had not been so foolishly heroic as to pull his house 
down about his ears he might have lived till this time. 

I To omit any further remarks on this elegiographer, "T think it necessary to in- 
form the world that since the publication of his elegies he has been inspired 
with a great desire of learning, and in order to prepare himself for college he 
has made a vigorous attempt upon his accidence and could boast before two 
credible witnesses that he had got it all by heart twice in a week. 

I 1 hear his next trial of skill will be on Cole's dictionary, and that he promises 
to get that by heart in three months' time, which if he does, it will be the 
interest of all gentlemen and ladies, deacons and ministers to beware of dying in 
good terms with his calve' s head and pluck, for then no doubt 

c His brains will issue forth and as they fly 
Congeal into a mournful elegy, 
The sense of which, if mortal man can dim in 
His verse may raise the dead or kill the living. 


This year there was a ship-yard, and ships were built, by Thorla's 


The war with the Norridgewock Indians, which began in 1721, 
was this year ended, by the death of Sebastian Ralle, the French 
Jesuit. He was killed by lieutenant [Richard] Jaques, of Newbury. 
This information we obtain from Hutchinson, who obtained from 


4 captain [Jeremiah] Moulton a minute and circumstantial account 
of the ' battle. He says, i captain Moulton, with about eighty men 
reached Norridgewock about three P. M. August twelfth and com- 
menced the attack. After driving the Indians (about sixty men 
and one hundred women and children) over the river and killing 
many, they returned to the town and found the Jesuit in one of the 
wigwams firing upon a few of our men, who had not pursued after 
the enemy. Moulton had given orders not to kill the Jesuit, but by 
his firing from the wigwam one of our men being wound, a lieu- 
tenant Jaques stove open the door and shot him through the head. 
Jaques excused himself to his commanding officer, alleging that 
Ralle was loading his gun and declared that he would neither give 
nor take quarter.' 

On July sixth of this year, reverend Christopher Toppan, of 
Newbury, wrote a long letter to Cotton Mather, who, if any thing 
strange, prodigious, or unnatural happened, was sure to obtain an 
account of it. From this letter, now in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society, in. Worcester, I make the following extract. 

c Concerning the amphisbena.* as soon as I received your commands I made 
diligent enquiry of several persons, who saw it after it was dead, but they could 
give me no assurance of its having two heads, as they did not strictly examine 
it, not calling it the least in question because it seemed as really to have two 
heads as one. They directed me for further information to the person I before 
spoke of, who was out of town, and to the persons, who saw it alive and killed 
it, which were two or three lads, about twelve or fourteen, one of which a pert 
sensible youngster told me yt one of his mates running towards him cryed out 
there was a snake with two heads running after him, upon which he run to him, 
and the snake getting into a puddle of water, he with a stick pulled him out, 
after which it came towards him, and as he went backwards or forward, soe the 
snake would doe likewise. After a little time, the snake upon his striking at 
him, gathered up his whole body into a sort of quoil, except both heads^ which 
kept towards him, and he distinctly saw two mouths and two stings (as they are 
vulgarly called) which stings or tongues it kept putting forth after the usual 
manner of snakes, till he killed it Thus far the lad. This day understanding 
the person mentioned before was returned. I went to him, and asked him about 
the premises, he told me he narrowly examined the snake being brought to him 
by the lads after it was dead and he found two distinct heads one at each end, 
opening each with a little stick, in each of which he saw a sting or tongue, and 
that each head had two eyes, throwing it down and going away, upon second 
thoughts he began to mistrust his own eyes, as to what he had seen, and there- 
fore returned a second time to examine it, if possible, more strictly, but still 
found it as before. This person is so credible that I can as much believe him 
as if I had seen him myself. He tells me of another man yt examined it as he 
did, but I cannot yet meet with him. 

1 Postscript. Before ensealing I spoke with the other man, who examined the 
amphisbena (and he is also a man of credit) and he assures me ytit had really 
two heads, one at each end. two mouths, two stings or tongues and so forth. 

Sir I have nothing more to add but that he may have a remembrance in your 
prayers, who is, Sir, your most humble servant 


' A smart close winter, ending February twenty-eighth, 1725.' f 

* Amphisbena, a snake with two heads, one where the tail should have been, 
t Reverend T. Smith's diary. 



This year, the third parish in Newbury, now first in Newbury- 
port, erected their meeting-house, of which, the earliest notice that 
I find, is the following, from a letter, written by William Moody, 
of By field, to his brother, judge Sewall, dated seventeenth of Feb- 
ruary, 1725. He thus writes : ' our people at towne are going to 
build another meeting house, but intend to set it so nigh to Mr. 
Toppan's, that I fear it will make great contention. Newbury are 
great sufferers this day for what have happened by contending about 
the place of a meeting house.' 

February 25th. The town ' voted that a towne house should be 
built and should be set at the upper end of Greenleaf's lane,' % 
[now State street.] 

June 25th. On this day, the third parish meeting-house, now first 
in Newburyport, was dedicated. The sermon was preached by the 
reverend John Tufts, of Newbury. The house was at first forty-five 
by sixty feet, in length and breadth, but, in i736, was enlarged, thus 
making it sixty by eighty feet. It stood in what is now the market 
place, in Newburyport, the steeple fronting the river. The pulpit, 
which was on the westerly side, standing near where the town 
pump now stands. 

August 3d. The reverend John Lowell was called to the work 
of the ministry, having preached to the people from June twenty- 

August 3\st. ' About midnight a company of rioters assembled 
on horseback and with crow bars broke the doors, bolts and locks 
of the gaol in Newbury and took off on spare horses, Isaac Brown 
and Hugh Ditson charged with capital offences. Governor William 
Dummer offered a reward of fifty pounds for their apprehension.' f 

November '30th. A committee, consisting of ' lieutenant colonel 
Richard Kent, major Joseph Gerrish, deacon Caleb Moody, lieuten- 
ant Charles Pierce and captain John March were appointed to use 
all proper means with others of other towns for to get the county of 
Essex divided into two counties.' 3k 

In November, the general court ' ordered a committee to view 
the situation of the westerly end of the first parish.' This committee 
met December first, and reported December eighth. 

December 29th. i The third parish voted to give Mr. John Low- 
ell one hundred and thirty pounds yearly salary and two hundred 
to build him a house.' 

The general court confirmed the dividing line of the third parish, 
which was ' Chandler's lane, [now Federal street,] thence to captain 
John March's farm, [now Samuel Thurlow's,] thence to the line of 
the second parish,' with this condition, that those who wished, might 
remain with the first parish. About thirty remained. Eight fami- 
lies, south of Chandler's lane, wished to belong to the new society. 

* Town records. t News Letter. 



January 12th. The third congregational church in Newbury, 
was this day gathered, by the reverend Caleb Gushing, of Salisbury. 
Twenty-two of the male members had been dismissed, January 
second, from the first church in Newbury, for that purpose. The 
day was observed as a day of fasting and prayer. A sermon was 
preached by the reverend Moses Hale, of By field. 

January 19th. The reverend John Lowell was ordained pastor 
of the third church in Newbury. Sermon by the reverend Thomas 
Foxcroft, of Boston. 


January 17th. The town ' voted that a work house and a house 
of correction should be built.' ^ 

March 22d. First parish 'voted to give the third parish the 
old bell.' 

3Iay 10th. A highway, of two rods wide, was laid out, < from 
ye country road near to his honor the lieutenant governor Dummer's 
house to the parsonage land in Byneld parish on the land of John 
Dummer esquire, Mr. Richard Dummer and Mr. Joseph Noyes.' * 

May 23d. The third parish < voted to get a bell weighing about 
four hundred pounds.' 

July 25th. c Town voted to make a good and sufficient way over 
Ash swamp said way to be covered with suitable wood of thir- 
teen feet in length and the wood to be well covered with gravel all 
across fhe swarnp,' * and so forth. 

September 16th. ' A mighty tempest of wind and rain, which 
did much hurt by land and sea.' f 

4 In the month of September.' says Stephen Jaques, < on Saturday 
in ye afternoon ye wind began to be very strong and increased more 
in the night. It blew down and brake six trees in my ould orchard 
and trees all over ye woods. There never was ye like known. It 
twisted young walnut trees in ye midst. It raised a great tide, 
which swept away near two hundred load of hay, that was in swath.' 

As the earthquake, which happened in October of this year, was 
one of the most violent ever felt in New England, and as, according 
to Hutchinson and other writers, ' the shock w T as greater at Newbury 
and other towns on Merrimack river than in any other part of Mas- 
sachusetts.' I shall be a little more minute, in my extracts from ac- 
counts written in Newbury at the time. From the records of the 
episcopal church in Newburyport, kept by the reverend Matthias 
Plant, I make the following extract. 

c October 29th, 1727. Being the Lord's day at forty minutes past ten the same 
evening, there was a most terrible, sudden and amazing earthquake, which did 

* Town records. t Reverend Mr. Phillips. 


damage to the greatest part of the neighbourhood, shook and threw down tops 
of chimnies and in many places the earth opened a foot or more. It continued 
very terrible by frequently bursting and shocking our houses and lasted all that 
week (the first being the loudest shock, and eight more that immediately fol- 
lowed, louder than the rest that followed) sometimes breaking with loud claps 
six times or oftener in a day and as often in the night until Thursday in the said 
week and then somewhat abated. Upon Friday in the evening and about 
midnight, and about break of day and on Saturday there were three very 
loud claps. We also had it on Saturday, the sabbath, and on Monday morning 
about ten, tho' much abated in the noise and terror. Upon the Tuesday follow- 
ing, November seventh, about eleven o'clock a very loud clap upon every day 
or night more or less three, four, six times each day or night and upon the 
twelfth being the Lord's day twice from betwixt three to half past four, in all 
which space of time some claps were loud, others seemingly at a distance and 
much abated. Upon Monday two hours before day a loud burst and at half 
past two in the afternoon another burst was heard somewhat loud. On the nine- 
teenth about ten at night a very loud shock and another about break of day, 
somewhat here abated, but at Haverhill a very loud burst, making their houses 
rock, as that over night did with us. It was Lord's day in the evening. It hath 
been heard twice since much abated. The very first shock opened a new spring 
by my father Samuel Bartlet's house in the meadow and threw up in the lower 
grounds in Newbury several loads of white sand. After that some loud claps, 
shocking our houses. On December seventeenth, about half an hour after ten 
being Lord's day at evening a very loud burst, shocking our houses. Another 

about four the next morning abated.' 

The next account, is one written by Stephen Jaques, and is as 
follows, namely : 

t On the twenty-ninth day of October between ten and eleven it being sabath 
day night there was a terabel earthquake. The like was never known in this 
land. It came with a dreadful roreing, as if it was thunder, and then a pounce 
like grate guns two or three times close one after another. It lasted about two 
minits. It shook down briks from ye tops of abundance of chimnies, some 
allmost all the heads. Knight's and Toppan's fell. All that was about ye 
houses trembled, beds shook, some cellar walls fell partly down. Benjamin 
Plumer's stone without his dore fell into his cellar. Stone wals fell in a hundred 
plasis. Most peopel gat up in a moment. It came very often all ye night aftar, 
and it was heard two or three times some days and nights, and on the sabath 
day night on ye twenty-fourth of December following between ten and eleven 
it was very loud, as any time except ye first, and twice that night aftar but not 
so loud. The first night it broke out in more than ten places in ye town in ye 
clay low land, blowing up ye sand, sum more, sum less. In one place near 
Spring island it blew out, as it was judged twenty loads, and when it was cast 
on coals in ye night, it burnt like brimstone.' 

The following is a copy of a letter, written by Henry Sewall, of 
Newbury, to his kinsman, judge Samuel Sewall, of Boston. It is 
printed in the Boston News Letter. 

'Newbury, November 21st, 1727. 
1 Honored sir : 

' Thro' God's goodness to us we are all well and have been preserved at 
the time of the late great and terrible earthquake. We were' sitting by the fire 
and about half after ten at night our house shook and trembled as if it would 
have fallen to pieces. Being affrighted we ran out of doors, when we found 
the ground did tremble and we were in great fear of being swallowed up alive, 
but God preserved us and did not suffer it to break out, till it got* forty or fifty 
rods from the house, where it broke the ground in the common near a place 


. ///// ////'/// gfflvbetejer fa CMS//// ?/' ^'/ 

.'' \ 

i^, mi MI-', (>''uhr-, IU.'.IQII-, MS, pe~; runnere fi 
ilnrii Pi-iviint, l'r,-H>lt;it tli^.-.-re veil*- inori. 


called Spring island, and there is from sixteen to twenty loads of fine sand 
thrown out where the ground broke, and several days after the water boiled out 
like a spring, but is now dry and the ground closed up again. I have sent some 
of the sand that you may see it. Our house kept shaking about three minutes.' 

December 7th. The church connected with the third parish, in 
Newbury, met, and chose a select number of the members, ' to 
meet once a month and consider what may be for the good of the 
town in general, especially the churches in it and more particularly 
their own church. The other churches proceeded in the same 
method and upon the same design.' % 


The reverend.Mathias Plant thus continues his account of the 
earthquakes this year. 

f January third, about nine at night an easy clap. Saturday night and day 
five claps. From about six at night to four Sunday morning some people said 
it continued for half an hour without ceasing burst upon burst. Upon Wednes- 
day January twenty-fourth about half an hour after nine at night one loud burst 
followed in half a minute by another much abated. Upon Lord's day January 
twenty-eighth another easy burst about half after six in the morning, another 
about ten same morning easy. At the same night about one o'clock a loud 
burst. Monday January twenty-ninth it was heard twice. Tuesday the thirti- 
eth about two in the afternoon there was a very loud clap equal to any but the 
first for terror, shaking our houses so that many people were afraid of their fal- 
ling down, pewter and so forth was shaken off dressers at considerable distance. 
Another shock much abated about half an hour afterwards. February twenty- 
first about half after twelve at midnight a considerable loud burst. February 
twenty-ninth about half after one P. M. another.' Mr. P. also mentions shocks 
as having occurred i March seventeenth about three A. M. March nineteenth 
about forty minutes past one P. M. and at nine the same night. April twenty- 
eighth about five P. M. May twelfth Sunday morning about forty minutes past 
nine a loud and long clap. 'May seventeenth Friday about eight P. M. a loud 
and long clap. May twenty-second several claps in the morning, and about 
ten the same morning a very loud and long clap. May t\venty-fourth about 
eleven at night June sixth about three in the morning. June eleventh at nine 
A. M. July third A. M. and July twenty-third about break of day a very loud 

January 30th. ' About two o'clock a shock of an earthquake.' 

1 March 18th. The third parish voted to add thirty pounds to 
the thirty pounds granted by the town,' f for the schools. 

April 16th. ' The town received of the State one thousand three 
hundred and twenty-eight pounds, and fifteen shillings, being their 
proportion of the sixty thousand pounds, raised by the state to 
be loaned to raise a revenue.' J 

May 13th. The town i voted not to build a town house or an 
alms house in a short time.' J 

4 In July there was a great drought in Maine.' 

* Third parish church records. t Third parish records. 

t Town records. Reverend T. Smith's diary. ' 


November 26th. The third parish chose a committee ' to select a 
place for a school house and also for a burying place.' This was 
the commencement of the burying place near Frog pond. 


January 2Sth, 1729, died Daniel Emery, aged thirty-six. In his 
will, he gave sixty pounds for the use of the ministry, of which, 
ten pounds was for communion plate, twenty pounds more for the 
first church, which should be gathered at Chester, and a minister 
ordained, twenty pounds for Nottingham, twenty-five pounds to the 
parish in which he belonged, twenty-five pounds to Mr. Tufts, fifty 
pounds to his kinsman at college, and one thousand pounds to his 
brothers and sisters, besides providing liberally for his widow. 

April 15th. The inhabitants of the upper part of the west parish, 
on this day made an agreement * to build a meeting house fifty feet 
by thirty-eight and twenty foot stud.' 

August 2Slh. The people in the upper part of the west parish, 
petitioned the general court, to divide the west parish into two pre- 
cincts. They state, among other things, that they ' have near eight 
score dwelling houses, besides churchmen and quakers.' 

From an accurate map of the west parish of Newbury, taken by 
John Brown, esquire, and dated September fifteenth^ 1729, on which 
is drawn, a representation of every house in the parish, and the 
name of each occupant, it appears that the number of houses was 
at that time one hundred and eighty-four, and number of families 
one hundred and eighty- three. 

' March nineteenth betwixt two and three P. M. earthquake very 
loud. September eighth at half past three P. M. another shock. Sep- 
tember twenty-ninth about half past four P. M. another. October 
twenty-ninth the earthquake was heard twice that night, one of the 
times being about the time of night it was the first time we heard 
it two years past. 

' November fourteenth about eight A. M. it was loud being at- 
tended with two cracks like unto two sudden claps of thunder and 
shook the house. November twenty-seventh, about eight P. M. a 
very loud noise and a large shock of the earthquake. It was heard 
at Ipswich.' # 


February 19th. ' The earthquake was pretty loud before day.' 
March Wth. Town voted not to approbate more than six per- 
sons to keep houses of public entertainment. 

March 17th. ' The third parish voted to set their school house 

* Reverend Matthias Plant's journal. 


by Frog pond about two thirds of the way between Fish street 
[now State street] and Green street.' #= 

This year the ' burying place,' now burying hill, near Frog pond, 
was inclosed with a board fence.' ^ 

In this year, shocks of an earthquake were noticed and recorded, 
on ' February eighth about eight P. M. and at midnight. February 
twenty-sixth two shocks a quarter before two A. M. April twelfth 
about eight P. M. July twenty-eighth about nine A. M. August 
fifteenth two shocks about eight A. M. November sixth about 
eleven A. M. a loud shock. November fourteenth about nine A. 
M. another. November twenty-fifth another about twenty minutes 
past eight P. M. December eleventh at a quarter before seven P. 
M. December nineteenth about half past ten P. M." a very heavy 
shock. It was perceived at Boston and Portsmouth about equal to 
ours here.' 


February 22d. The town voted this day ' to build a town house 
in Chandler's lane,' now Federal street. From this vote fifty-seven 
persons dissented.f 

' March 9th. Mr. John Woodbridge was chosen a grammer 
school master for the year ensuing and shall have forty-five pounds 
for his service and shall have none but Latin scholars? f 

March 9th. l The town granted liberty to William Johnson and 
nine others to build a wharf at the foot of Chandler's lane [now 
Federal street] on condition it be built within four years and that 
the inhabitants of Newbury may fasten their hay boats or gondolas 
to said wharf without paying for it.' 

Liberty was also given to Abiel Somerby and others, to build a 
wharf at the foot of Queen street, now Market street, on similar 

1 March 22d. William Hsley and Joseph Morse junior were 
chosen and appointed to tune the psalm in ye meeting house in 
time of publick worship and take their turn in that work that it 
may be done with ye more ease and cheerfulness. And the said 
Morse is appointed to sit in the fore seat of ye south body with ye 
said Ilsley for ye managing said work.' f 

March 29th. The second parish voted to desire the general court, 
to confirm the setting off the fourth parish, from the second, which 
was done by a committee, on February twenty-second, according 
to a vote passed by the second parish, January sixth, consenting to 
the division. 

May 10th. ' Town voted to give to the first parish in Kittery 
fifty pounds towards building a meeting house.' f 

Shocks of the earthquake were this year noticed by Mr. Plant, 
as happening c January seventh, about seven P. M. January elev- 

* Third parish records. t Town records, J First parish records. 



enth about midnight. March seventh five P. M. May twenty- 
eighth nine A. M. July fifth about sunrise. August twenty -first, 
evening. October twenty-first about eleven P. M, loud and long.' 

On February first, a subscription paper was circulated, for the 
purpose of raising money to build a town house, ' to be set where 
will be best entertaining for horses, for strangers and so forth/ pro- 
vided ' any person will give the land to set said house upon between 
the meeting house and Archelaus Adams' tavern house.' 

It was finished, and conditionally deeded to the county, February 
eighteenth, 1735, reverting to the town and parish, should no court 
be held in it for nine months. The original cost of the building 
was five hundred and thirty pounds, and ten shillings, of which the 
county paid two hundred pounds, and individuals contributed the 
remainder. It was occupied as a court house, town house, school 
house, and so forth, and stood on land, given by Benjamin Morse, 
opposite the head of Marl borough street, where captain Amos 
Knight's house now stands. It remained there till March fifth, 1780, 
when it was bought at auction by John Mycall, esquire. 


'January 5th. This day died in Dedham that noted Indian, 
Samuel Hyde in the one hundred and sixth year of his age. He 
was a faithful soldier to the English. It was said by himself, and 
of him by others that he killed nineteen of the enemy Indians (he 
kept the account on his gun) and would fain have made up the 
number twenty.' ^ 

This ' noted Indian ' was for some time a resident in Newbury, 
of whom, many anecdotes are still told, indicative not only of his 
wit and shrewdness, but of his incorrigible mendacity. The phrase, 
' you lie like Sam Hyde,' or, ' you lie like old Hyde,' expresses to a 
native of Newbury, the ne plus ultra of lying. Among the testi- 
monies on file, among the county papers, is one concerning him, in 
a complaint against a citizen of Newbury, which is quite character- 
istic, but not suitable for publication. In a petition to the general 
court, August twenty-fifth, 1676, Daniel Gookin, senior, testifies, 
' that Sam and Jeremy Hyde have acquitted themselves well both 
for courage and fidelity, especially Sam Hyde, whom they have 
witnessed to be one of the best and most active of them all,' and 
that ' he took at Bridgewater one young man, and five young wo- 
men and children at other places, and he slew one lusty young man 
and brought his hand to captain Hunting at mount Hope.' 

May 12th. The town voted, that 'the school be kept at the 
town's house by the meeting house in the first parish this year.' 
This was probably the watch house. 

' September 5th, at eleven P. M. there was a small shock of an 
earthquake.' f 

* News Letter. t Parish records. 



1 The winter of 1732-3,' says Stephen Jaques, l was very severe. 
The snow fell about ye fourteenth of November and lay until April. 
Hay was three pounds a load. Peach trees began to blossom ye 
eleventh of May,' [old style.] 

March 13th. A committee was appointed < to procure a frame 
and other materials for a town house,' 1 which, on May eleventh, the 
town granted ' liberty to the first parish to build within two years 
on their own cost and charge near lieutenant John March's house,' ^ 
and which, on December fourth, the first parish i voted should be 
for the use of the county.' f 

1 October 19th, Friday about midnight,' says Mr. Plant, 'there 
was a long and loud noise of the earthquake.' 

4 .November th. Moses Brad street killed on Plum island in a 
violent storm sixty wild geese with a club.' J 

November 25th. A moose, seven feet high, was killed in 


^January 16th, about twenty minutes past ten A. M. there was 
an earthquake long and loud.' 

' January. Mr. John Stickney, aged forty-one, a noted coaster, fell 
overboard from his sloop and was drowned' 

4 The winter of 1733-4 was very moderate.' 

May' 7th. The town granted, on certain conditions, * liberty to 
have a bridge built over the river Parker provided it may be built 
and maintained without being a charge to this town of Newbury 
and within ten years from ye date hereof.' 

\June 29th, at a quarter past three P. M. there was another 

< August. A great storm. Much hay carried off and Indian 
corn damaged.' 

September 13th. Town ' voted that the town house shall be fin- 
ished with the remainder of the interest money of ye first bank, and 
that said house shall be made sure to the town and county.' 

September 23d. A committee was chosen to comply with * the 
order of court July thirtieth to build a prison.' 

' October 9th, about twenty minutes past ten A. M. an earthquake.' 

'November 12th, about one A. M. we had the loudest noise and 
greatest shock (except the first of all) very awful and terrible and 
long. November sixteenth at six A. M. a severe shock.' 

* Town records. t Parish records. J Boston paper. M. Plant. 



i February 2d, about six P. M. there was a shock of the earth- 
quake pretty loud.' ^ 

' March llth. The town voted thirty pounds to make Rolf's lane 
a town way.' 

' March 21st, about half past ten A. M. there was a loud noise of 
the earthquake.' * 

In May this year, a disorder, called the throat distemper, appeared 
in Kingston, NeW Hampshire. The first person who took the dis- 
ease, was a Mr. Clough, who, having examined the swelled throat 
of a dead hog, died suddenly with a swelling in his throat. In 
about three weeks, three children, about a mile from Mr. Clough's, 
were attacked, and died in thirty-six hours. In fourteen towns in 
New Hampshire, nine hundred and eighty-four died between June, 
1735, and July sixteenth, 1736. In Massachusetts, the mortality 
was nearly as great as in New Hampshire. A particular account 
of the number in each town in the two states, was published, by 
the reverend Mr. Fitch, in Portsmouth, and the reverend John 
Brown, of Haverhill. Of the mortality in Newbury, Stephen 
Jaques thus writes : 

' A sickness began by the water side about September at Thomas Smith's, 
which carried off two of his children and prevailed among the children, so that 
by the middle of February there died from Chandler's lane [Federal street] 
with the falls eighty-one persons. John Boynton lost eight children. Benjamin 
Knight had three buried in one grave.' Mr. John Boyton had four children 
buried in one grave, two on Saturday, and two on Sunday, December twentieth 
and twenty-first. In another place, Stephen Jaques 'writes as follows. 

' Thursday, October 29th. My wife went into a chamber, that was locked, to 
fetch candels, that was in a bushel under a bed, and as she kneeled down and 
took her candels and laid them on the bed and thrust back the half bushel, 
there came out a child's hand. She saw the fingers, the hand, a streked boy's 
cote or sleeve, and upon sarch. there was no child in the chamber. On Thurs- 
day a fortnite aftar, my Steven's son Henry died. The next Thursday Ebene- 
zer died. The next Monday morning his eldest son Stephen died.' 

July 2Ath. Town ' chose Joseph Gerrish and Henry Rolfe es- 
quires to use proper means to have ye county of Essex divided into 
two counties.' 

' In September a Newbury sloop, Ofnn Boardman, master, with 
a cargo of rafts at her stern was overset on her passage from Casco 
bay to Boston and thirteen persons drowned.' 


February 2d. There was an earthquake. 

March. The third parish ' voted to enlarge their meeting house 
thirty-five feet back.' It was, when erected, in 1725, forty-five by 

* M. Plant 


sixty feet. It was now eighty by sixty feet They also ' voted to 
petition the general court to have liberty to raise money in order to 
keep a grammar school for themselves, as the first parish has peti- 
tioned, and be freed from paying to any other school.' On the twenty- 
fifth of March, the first parish had petitioned for the same liberty/* 

'July 13th. About three quarters past nine in the forenoon, there 
was a loud shock of the earthquake.' f 

September. The ways for landing of ferry boats was settled by 

September 21st. A committee of three ' was appointed to treat 
with his majestie's justices about moving the gaol now standing in 
Newbury.' J 

September 21st. ' The town leased March's, now Newbury port, 
ferry to Benjamin Woodbridge and Moses Gerrish for seven years 
at thirty-six pounds a year.' $ 

' October 1st. About half past one A. M. there was a great and 
very loud shock of the earthquake.' f 

'November 12th. About two A. M. another shock, and about six 
the same morning another.' f 

'December 29th. There was a surprising bloody appearance in 
the heavens.' 

In this year thirteen families in Byfield buried all their children 
with the ' throat distemper.' 

1 In the year 1734 a few caterpillars of a peculiar kind appeared on the oak 
trees as soon as the leaves began to grow. In 1735, a much larger number, one 
hundred to one, were seen, but in this year the number of caterpillars was 
astonishing. Almost all the woods in Haverhill and Bradford, some part of the 
east end excepted, the easterly part of Chester and Andover, many thousand 
acres of fhick woods had their leaves and twigs of this year's growth entirely 
eaten up. They cleared off every green thing so that the trees were as naked 
as in the depth of winter. They were larger than our common caterpillar and 
made no nests. No river or pond could slop them. They would swim like 
dogs, and travel in unaccountable armies and completely cover whole houses 
and trees. Cart and carriage wheels would be dyed green from the numbers 
they crushed in their progress.' || 

Richard Kelly, of Amesbury, in his diary, says, * they are larger 
than the orchard caterpillar, but smooth on the back with a black 
streak with white spots. They are thought by many to be the 
palmer worm.' 


'February 6th. About a quarter past four P. M. there was a 
considerable shock of an earthquake.' f 

* In ye spring of this year,' says Richard Kelly, ' was an extraor- 
dinary scarce time for hay. Many cattle in the country were lost 
and many others brought very low, and the summer after was the 
scarcest time for corn that ever I knew.' 

* Parish records. t M. Plant. J Town records. 

Reverend Mr. Parkman's manuscripts. || Honorable Bailey Bartlet's almanacs. 


March 15th. Humphrey Richards was chosen sexton of the first 
parish in Newbury, a post which he occupied without interruption 
till his death in March, 1785, a period of forty-eight years. His 
successor was Moses Short, who was annually chosen to the same 
office, from 1789, till a short time before his death, July sixth, 1841, 
a period of nearly fifty-two years. 

June 15th. The general court impowered the inhabitants of the 
first parish to support a grammar school, and exempted them from 
paying elsewhere. 

August Wth. On this day the assembly of New Hampshire met 
at Hampton falls, and that of Massachusetts, at Salisbury. A large 
cavalcade was formed at Boston, which with a troop of horse es- 
corted the governor. At Newbury ferry he was met by another 
troop, and at the supposed divisional line between the states by 
three more, who escorted him with great pomp to the George tav- 
ern in Hampton falls, where he held a council and made a speech 
to the New Hampshire assembly. The object, which both assem- 
blies had in view in thus meeting within five miles of each other, 
was to settle the line, a subject, which had created great interest in 
both provinces. The governor's cavalcade occasioned the following 

1 Dear paddy you never did behold such a sight, 

As yesterday morning was seen before night. 

You, in all your born days saw, nor I neither, 

So many fine horses and men ride together. 

At the head, the lower house trotted two in a row, 

Then all the higher house pranced after the low. 

Then the governor's coach galloped on like the wind, 

And the last that came foremost were the troopers behind. 

But I fears it means no good to your neck, nor mine, 

For they say tis to fix a right place for the line.' * 

From November seventeenth, 1735, to October sixth, 1737, one 
hundred and ninety-nine persons died with the throat distemper in 
Haverhill, Massachusetts. 

'December 7th. A little before eleven at night the earth quaked 
very much.' f 


The regular increase of the mercantile interest among c the water 
side people,' especially in ship building, and the consequent addition 
to the population, not only from other parts of the country, but from 
Europe, made it extremely inconvenient for the congregationalists 
to worship either in the first or second parish, or for the episcopa- 
lians to worship in Queen Anne's chapel, ' on the plains.' The 
former, as has been noticed, had erected their house of worship in 
the centre of business, as early as 1725, and had been obliged to 
make what had been a breadth of forty-five feet, a length of 
eighty feet in 1736, and though a portion of the latter had, according 

* Belknap. t M. Plant. 


to a statement made by Mr. Plant in his diary, begun to agitate the 
subject of building a new church on a more convenient spot, as 
early as 1725, nothing effectual was done till this year, when saint 
Paul's church was erected on the spot, which its successor now 
occupies. The same cause, which induced many of the builders 
of the congregational meeting-house on the plains, to become epis- 
copalians, and to name their house of worship, Queen Anne's 
chapel, namely, the distance they had to travel, soon produced a 
division among themselves. The original founders of the society, 
who had been unwilling to go ''to meeting] up river as far as Pipe- 
stave hill, were equally unwilling to go ' to church] down river as 
far as Market street, while the ' water-side people ' had objections 
equally valid against worshiping at i the plains.' 

They, therefore, as soon as practicable, took the necessary steps 
to obviate the difficulty. ' Joseph Atkins, esquire, offered to give 
fifty pounds towards building a new church by the water side 
and I,' says Mr. Plant, 'proposed to give the same sum. Here 
was laid the foundation of a new church,' and so forth, which, 
though raised in 1738, was not sufficiently finished for public 
worship till 1740. In February, 1742, eleven persons gave Mr. 
Plant a written invitation to preach at saint Paul's church. This, 
with the consent of the people at ' the plains,' he agreed to do, every 
other Sunday, but in December, regret having been expressed, that 
such an invitation had been given to Mr. P., a vote was passed, 
that he should deliver up the instrument, inviting him down from 
queen Ann's chapel. This was accordingly done, April twenty- 
first. 1743, and virtually excluded him from saint Paul's church. 
The contest now, was between INfr. Plant and the water side 
people, they desiring to manage the affairs of saint Paul's church 
in their own way, independent of him, and he, on the other hand, 
demanding, that they should give him induction into saint Paul's 
church. This they refused to give, and the difficulty thus com- 
menced, was not settled till June twenty-fourth, 1751, when, in the 
language of the reverend doctor Morss, ' the independence of the 
gentlemen at the water side was relinquished and Mr. P. was legally 
inducted into saint Paul's church.' In his private diary, of which 
I have a copy, he details with great minuteness, all the difficulties 
between himself and the water side people, in letters to doctor Bear- 
croft, which are very interesting, but of which we have no room, 
even for an abstract. He appears to have been a man of strict 
integrity, and 'great benevolence, and encountered the difficulties 
which beset him, with firmness and discretion. On December 
twenty-third, 1751, he made choice of Mr. Edward Bass, to assist 
him in the work of the ministry, and died April second, 1753, aged 
sixty-one, having officiated from April, 1722, a period of thirty- 
one years. 

February 26th. On this day a council was called, in the second 
parish, to take into consideration * the distressed state and condition 
of ye second church of Christ in Newbury by reason of their rev- 


erend pastor Mr. John Tufts being charged by a woman or women 
of his indecent carriage and also of his abusive and unchristian 
behavior towards them at several times and so forth.' ^ 

The council, consisting of ten ministers and twenty delegates, 
met, but Mr. Tufts refused to unite with the council, vehemently 
opposed the swearing of the witnesses against him, and in this un- 
settled state of affairs, he asked and obtained a dismission from the 
church and people, March second, the church refusing to recommend 
him as a Christian minister, and stating, among other things, that, as 
Mr. T. had never been admitted a member of the second church, a 
recommendation and dismission from the church would not be 

May 18th. The town granted permission to Joseph Atkins, and 
sixty-four others, to build a wharf at the foot of Queen street, now 
Market street. 

This year there was published in Boston, a pamphlet of seven- 
teen pages of rhyme, concerning the ravages of the throat distem- 
per. The two following verses are a sufficient specimen. 

To Newbury go and see 
To Hampton and Kingston 
To York likewise and Kittery 
Behold what God hath done. 

The bow of God is bent abroad 

Its arrows swiftly fly 

Young men and maids and sucking babes 

Are smitten down thereby. 


January 10th, was the first snow this winter that lay. 

January 31st. Reverend Thomas Barnard ordained pastor of the 
second church and parish in Newbury. At this time, the church 
contained two hundred and twenty members. 

April llth. Mr. William Coker, of Newbury, and Mr. Samuel 
Green, of Boston, were drowned in Merrimac river. 

August 2d, about half past two, a great shock of the earthquake.! 

December 9th. No ice on Merrimac river, no frost in the ground. 

December 29th. The town chose two persons ' to prosecute any 
person, who should kill any buck, doe or fawn contrary to law.' 

December 29th. General court passed a law, restraining cattle 
and horses from going on Plum island, under a penalty, forbidding 
the cutting of bushes, and so forth. 


In May, Mr. Samuel Long, of Newbury, buried his wife and 
four children, (all his family,) with the ' throat distemper.' 

* Letter missive. t M. Plant. 


September Wth. The reverend George Whitefield preached on 
this day, for the first time in Newbury. At one of his subsequent 
addresses, in front of the meeting-house, which then stood on the 
east side of High street, a few rods south of Federal street, a stone 
was thrown at him, which nearly struck the bible from his hand. 
His answer to this unprovoked assault, was the following. ' I have 
a warrant from God to preach. His seal, (holding up the bible,) is 
in my hand and I stand in the King's high way.' * 

The summer and fall of this year, were as remarkable for the 
rain, which fell and flooded the country, as the subsequent winter 
was, for the severity of the cold. It was probably the most severe 
winter ever known, since the settlement of the country. Reverend 
Mr. Plant, Stephen Jaques, honorable Nathaniel Coffin, and many 
others, recorded some of the most remarkable events that occurred, 
from which I shall make a few extracts. 

4 The summer of 1740 was a wet summer. In October gathered 
our corn, one third very green. We could not let it stand by reason 
of rain. * On November fourth, the winter set in very cold. On 
the fifteenth a foot of snow fell, about the twenty-second of the 
month it began to rain and it rained three weeks together. The 
stars in the evening seemed as bright as ever, but the next morning 
rain again, which occasioned a freshet in Merrimack river, the like 
was not known by no man for seventy years. It rose fifteen feet 
at Haverhill and floated off many houses. It was said that a sloop 
might pass between Emery's mill and his house, and that the water 
was twelve feet deep on Rawson's meadow at Turkey hill.' f 

' It washed away all the wood and timber for building of ships 
so that .for fourteen days every inhabitant was fishing for wood in 
the river. It was commonly supposed that upwards of two thou- 
sand cords were taken up on Plum island.' J 

' Our corn,' says Stephen Jaques, l moulded as fast as six hogs 
could eat it.' 

4 December 12th. The river was shut up again by the severity of 
the weather. Before the first of January loaded teams passed from 
Haverhill, Newbury, Newtown, Amesbury, sometimes twenty, thir- 
ty, forty in a day having four, six, eight oxen in a team and landed 
below the upper long wharf nigh to the ferry. People ran upon 
the ice for several days to half tide rock. Shipping was all froze in 
and this severity extended to New York government. On Decem- 
ber fourteenth about thirty-five minutes past six there was a loud 
noise of the earthquake.' J 


4 January tenth there was a thaw, which held three days. Janu- 
ary eighteenth about four A. M. and on January twenty-fifth about 

* Reverend S. P. William's historical discourse. t Stephen Jaques. 

J Reverend M. Plant. 



ten minutes before four P. M. there was an earthquake. February 
third about a foot more of snow fell, February ninth another great 
snow, and on February another. In February the streets were 
full of snow to the top of the fences and in some places eight or 
ten feet deep. The river all the time was frozen over to colonel 
Pierce's farm. March twenty-eighth the sleighing was good on 
the river to colonel Peirce's farm and Plum island. April seventh 
there fell about a foot of snow so there now lay about four feet 
deep in the woods. From December fifth 1740 till March twenty- 
seventh 1741 Plum island river was frozen over. On the nineteenth 
and twentieth of March the river was frozen to the lower end of 
Seal island. In Plum island river the ice broke about thirtieth of 
March. There were twenty-seven snows this winter, the hardest 
winter that ever was known.' ' The people of Newbury had the 
principal part of their corn ground at Salisbury mills. From Feb- 
ruary third till March thirty-first Pearson's mill was stopped by the 
ice. February twenty-eighth the ice at Deer island the strongest 
place of the tide was thirty inches thick.' 

Some time this year, commenced in this county and town, the 
remarkable revival of religion, which, commenced under the preach- 
ing of the reverend Jonathan Edwards, in 1735, and continued by 
Whitefield, Tennent, and many others, agitated not only New Eng- 
land, but the whole country. An accurate account of the ' great 
awakening' in this vicinity, the effects of which are to this day 
everywhere visible, would require a volume. To other sources, 
therefore, must the inquisitive reader look, on this interesting sub- 
ject. The following hitherto unpublished letter, will doubtless 
gratify some of my readers. 

' To Nathaniel Coffin, esquire, at Newbury. 

Kittery, October 14th, 1741. 

1 Honored Sir, 

1 This may inform you that we had a comfortable time home and found all 
in health. 

i But the chief design is to give you a short representation of the mighty 
work of God at York. The reverend Mr. Willard of Biddeford took a journey 
the last wee'k up as far as our town to visit the brethren and see how they did, 
preached at every town as he came ; on Tuesday twice at York, on Wednesday 
at our parish from these words : l Lo they that are far from thee shall perish, 7 
showed very plainly in what respects we were far from God and the certainty 
of our perishing, if taken away in that state : some few only much affected. 
Upon his return to York on Thursday he preached from Hebrews third, seventh 
and eighth verses : ' wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saithj to-day, if ye will hear 
his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation 
in the wilderness.' Where God was pleased in a most wonderful manner to 
set home his word by his spirit on the hearts of the hearers. Being much 
desired to preach to them on Friday and Saturday, he did with the same power 
and the same influence of the spirit of God accompanying his sermons. Mr. 
Moody seeing that God had so blest his preaching at York desired him to tarry 
the sabbath which he did and preached three sermons on said day, the blessing 
still following. Mr. Moody supplied Mr. Willard's pulpit. The news reached 
us on Saturday night. On Monday Mr. Rogers with thirty or forty of his hear- 
ers went to York to see this marvellous work, father Bartlett and myself in 
company (to my great amaze and surprize) for the one half was not told us, 


neither indeed is it possible for my pen to express it to you. A universal concern 
about their souls and what they shall do to be saved. More than forty that no 
doubt are truly converted, about thirty of whom have received comfort and are full 
of the love of God and Christ, perfectly in a rapture of joy being in full assurance 
of faith, whose mouths are rilled with praises to God and the riches of his free 
grace in Christ manifested so clearly to them. Most of them young persons 
under twenty-five and down to the age of five and six years. Some middle 
aged and a few old persons. To hear these little children of six, seven and 
eight years old talk so powerfully, wonderfully and experimentally of the things 
of" God and Christ and particularly of the doctrine of free grace is unaccount- 
able were it not truly by the spirit and power of the Almighty. The finger of 
the Lord is most certainly in this matter. 

1 It would be almost endless to give you a particular account of those I talked 
with, both of those new converts and also of them under strong and hopeful 
conviction. The like was never seen in New England. The conversion of 
those at Northampton [1734, 5 and 6,1 according to Mr. Edwards' account is not 
comparable to this. The Lord is pleased to make quick work of it. Some 
convinced, humbled to the dust and converted in a minute, others in an hour 
others in a night and others longer to see them under convictions and in such 
an extraordinary concern, so that the most acute or most sharp pain of body 
that ever I saw is any way comparable to it and how should it be, since Sol- 
omon tells us that the spirit of a man sustaineth his infirmity, but a wounded 
spirit, who can bear they are indeed pricked in their heart and cry out what 
shall we do. They admit of no meat, drink or sleep till they find rest for their 
souls in Christ. 

1 Mr. Rogers preached to a very numerous congregation on the same day at 
York and the spirit accompanied his sermon as well as Mr. Willard's. Three 
persons in particular that were mocking and scoffing on sabbath evening were 
wonderfully convinced at this sermon altho' there was not the least terror in 
it, but altogether on comfort and joy. Mr. Rogers, as he expressed, had a far 
more clear manifestation of the love of God upon his own soul than ever he had 
before. He was moved to preach upon this text in the eleventh chapter of Acts 
and twenty-third verse, who when he came and had seen the grace of God 
was glad ; ' and exhorted them all, that with purpose of heart they would cleave 
unto the Lord. 

' May God of his infinite mercy and free grace visit our town and yours with 
the like influence of his holy spirit and the whole land and world of mankind, 
which is the prayer and heart's desire of your dutiful son, 


1 Love and duty and respects to all as due. 

1 P. S. Young Mr. Moody, ; t is thought, will come speedily out of his dark 
and despairing condition in this day of God's mighty power and visitation. 
He is become very rational in his discourse, and mightily composed in his mind 
to what he hath been for these four years past, and J t is to be hoped will shortly 
appear strong in the cause of Christ.' 


1 March 27th, a quarter before 7 A. M. the noise of the earthquake 
was very loud, but it did not make any shaking, as I could perceive, 
although I was alone and seated in my little house. One thing I 
took notice of namely, at all times before, when we heard the noise, 
which way our faces were, that way the noise always seemed to be, 
but now the noise seemed to be behind me, and my family took 
notice of it that the noise seemed lo be* behind them.' * 

* Reverend M. Plant. 



This was indeed a phenomenon, which the observer could not 
explain, and on which the compiler does not feel competent to make 
any comments. 

1 September 13/i, about half past five an earthquake.' # 

This year, the excitement on the subject of religion, which had 
for some time prevailed over a large part of New England, was 
evidently, in this region, on the increase. Every church, and every 
parish, was more or less affected, and in some places to a degree, 
of which the present generation can have but a faint idea. In a 
letter to doctor Bearcroft, of March second, 1742, reverend Mr. 
Plant thus writes. 1 1 do not know but before these six months to 
come most of my hearers will leave me for all the country near me 
is taken with this new scheme (as they call it.) Within one month 
fifty-three have been taken into communion in one dissenting meet- 
ing house. Some of them belonged to another meeting house, and 
the dissenting teacher not approving of said scheme they forsook 
him to [attend] at the other meeting house.' In another letter, of 
July twenty-third, he says, ' in my last to you I hinted to you some- 
thing of the commotion that the new scheme of methodism made 
amongst us. I was under a great surprize at the time, for I thought 
that all my people would be withdrawn from church, for they began 
to flock after the itinerants and told me in a full body that if they 
did not get good by them it was because they had bad hearts, but 
how strangely is the scene changed.' 

In the Boston Evening Post, of May third, is an anonymous 
article, charging i the reverend N. Rogers of Ipswich, Mr. Daniel 
Rogers and Mr. Buel, candidates for the ministry with having come 
into Newbury formed a party and taken possession of Mr. Lowell's 
meeting house without his knowledge, or asking leave of the pro- 
prietors of the house, or the consent of the church or congregation 
and so forth and that an attempt of the like factious nature was 
made upon the reverend Mr. Toppan's meeting house, but Mr. 
Toppan being present the party was repulsed,' and so forth. 

This article caused a reply from Mr. John Brown, dated May 
seventh, denying the truth of part of the charges, and then another 
article, of May twenty-second, signed J. Lowell, affirming the truth 
of the first statements. This caused another reply from Mr. Brown, 
in the Boston Gazette, dated June twenty-ninth, and two other 
articles, signed Henry Rolfe, Abraham Titcomb, and Humphrey 
Richards. To these papers I refer the curious reader for further 
information, merely observing, that I have not the space to give 
even the title pages of the sermons, dialogues, tracts, and so forth, 
on religious subjects, with which the neighborhood was filled. 

' Since my last of July 1742,' says ftlr. Plant, February fifteenth, 
1743, ' a new meeting house was built by the new schemers.' This 
must have been the meeting-house in High street, just below Fede- 
ral street, where the presbyterian society first worshiped. 

* Reverend M. Plant. 



3Iay 16th. l Town chose a committee to consult about building 
a work house, and to build a powder house.' 

1 August 10th , about five P. M. a pretty loud shock of the earth- 
quake.' =fc 

* About the twenty-sixth of June the worms came upon the corn 
and eat the grass in ye low ground, and did much damage. Many 
people saved their corn by ditching. They lasted about eight or 
ten days and went away as strangely as they came.' f 

' October 15th. An exceeding high tide, which did much damage.'f 

December 13th. Town voted to sell all the old law books be- 
longing to the town, to the highest bidder. Also to build a gaol 
and a work house. 

In this year, a large number of the members of the churches, 
under the pastoral care of the reverend Mr. Lowell and the reverend 
Mr. Toppan, separated from them, and, soon after, formed another 
church, after having had a long controversy, both oral and written, 
with their respective pastors, without coming on either side to any 
satisfactory result. Having a transcript of all the letters to and from 
the reverend Mr. Toppan, I copy the following as a specimen. 

1 The reverend Mr. Toppan's conduct in this remarkable day of divine visita- 
tion having occasioned great uneasiness in his church and parish, divers, who 
were aggrieved thereat from time to time went to discourse him on divers mat- 
ters, till at length he declared he would talk no more with them and that if any 
were uneasy they should write to him and he would answer them by writing, 
whereupon "divers who were aggrieved met together and wrote a letter to him, 
containing the matters of their grievances, which Mr. Toppan hearing of sent 
the following letter. 

1 Newbury , June 10th, 1743. 
' To Charles Pierce esquire in Newbury. 


1 1 have been informed that some yt are called schemers, by others new 
light men (for Satan being now especially transformed into an angel of light 
hath transformed his followers into his likeness in regard of the new light they 
pretend unto) have drawn up some articles against me, some respecting my 
doctrine, taught in publick, some respecting my belief in several articles of 
religion, and some respecting my practices and I have been told you have the 
original by you. I have long desired to see it, but could never yet obtain 
it. This is therefore to desire of you to send me the original, or a copy of it 
attested, for I am obliged to go to York superior court ye next week and would 
carry it with me to shew to the superior judges for their judgment upon the 
whole as to my doctrines whether they be right or no, for which I purpose to 
carry my sermons reflected upon, as to my principles whether they be right or 
no, (though in the paper before mentioned I believe there are many things false, 
for I never yet knew a schemer that would not lie.) As to my practices whether 
right or no, I shall leave them to judge and determine. I purpose to carry with 
me a copy of what I now send to you to shew it to them j if you answer not my 
request in sanding me the original or an attested copy. 

Sir. I am yours to serve in what I may, 


* M. Plant. t Stephen Jaques. 



February 7th. The town voted to give the county a piece of 
land, on which to build a prison and prison keeper's house, which 
were this year built in Federal street. 

' May 13M, in the morning, and on May sixteenth at a quarter 
past eleven A. M. there was an earthquake.' 

June 2d. War was proclaimed at Boston, by England against 

' June 3d. Sabbath a quarter past ten we had a terrible shock of 
the earthquake. It made the earth so shake that it made myself 
and many others run out of the church.' ^ 

June 28th. Public fast, and in the evening an earthquake. "% 

This summer, the society of friends in Newbury, erected a meet- 
ing-house in what is now called Belleville. It is thirty-five feet in 
length, and twenty-five in breadth, and is now used as a vestry for 
the congregational society there, the friends having erected a new 
meeting-house, near Turkey hill. 

July 24cth. The aggrieved brethren of the first church, having 
been unable to come to any satisfactory result, in their controversy 
with Mr. Toppan, an ex parte council of eight churches was this 
day held in Newbury, to examine the charges against him, which 
were nine in number, and which, having been written June seventh, 
had been presented to Mr. T. June tenth, 1743. The council, in 
their report, justify the aggrieved brethren, and condemn Mr. Top- 
pan, and advise the aggrieved brethren i to hearken to any reason- 
able method, whereby your final separation from the church and 
parish may be prevented,' and conclude by saying, that ' however 
we utterly disapprove of unnecessary separations as partaking of 
great guilt and accompanied with great scandal, yet looking upon 
your circumstances as extraordinary and deplorable we cannot think 
you blameworthy, if with good advice you seek more wholesome 
food for your souls and put yourselves under the watch of a shep- 
herd, in whom you can confide.' , 

August 31st. This day, another ex parte council met in New- 
bury, called by the friends of Mr. Toppan, the charges against 
whom they examined, and in their result, acquit him of nearly all 
the allegations contained in them, and censure the aggrieved breth- 
ren for their ' disorderly walking and advise them to return to the 
bosom of the church and to the pastoral care of him, who has been 
so faithful and useful a pastor over you for near fifty years,' and so 

November 7th. Captain Donahew sailed from Newbury, in a 
small privateer, belonging to Boston, with sixty men, took a sloop 
with live stock eight days after he sailed, and in three days after, at 
Newfoundland, took a French ship with three thousand quintals of 
fish, and so forth. 

* M. Plant. 



In the reverend Thomas Smith's journal, I find the following. 

( February 2d. Great talk about Whitefield's preaching, and the 
fleet to cape Breton.' These two subjects, war and religion, were 
at this time in every body's mouth. The enthusiasm in favor of 
the expedition against Louisburg was extraordinary, and almost 
unanimous, whilst on the subject of the religious tenets and prac- 
tices of Whitefield and his adherents, the community was divided, 
and almost every man was either an ardent advocate, or a decided 
opponent. The consequence of this state of things, was divisions 
and contentions in all the churches, and many years elapsed before 
the storm became a calm. In the midst of this excitement, news 
came that Louisburg had been taken by the New England troops, 
June sixteenth. In the reduction of this place, which was one of 
the most remarkable events in the history of North America, a large 
number of Newbury soldiers were engaged. Among the most 
noted of these, was major Moses Titcomb. Of him Hutchinson 
thus speaks. ' Major Titcomb's readiness to engage in the most 
hazardous part of the service, was acknowledged and applauded. 
He survived the siege, was colonel of a regiment when general 
Johnson was attacked by Dieskau, and there lost his life in the 
service of his country. Of the five fascine batteries that were 
erected in the reduction of Louisburg, the last, which was erected 
the twentieth of May and called Titcomb's battery, having five 
forty- two pounders, did as great execution as any.' Among the 
natives of Newbury, who were engaged in that memorable siege, 
was the reverend Samuel Moody, of York, who went as chaplain, 
and so confident was he of success, that he took with him a hatchet, 
to cut the images in the catholic churches. Moses Coffin, afterward 
of Epping, was also there, and officiated in the double capacity of 
drummer and chaplain, a * drum-ecclesiastic.' On returning to the 
camp after one engagement, he found a bullet had passed nearly 
through a small pocket bible, which he always carried with him, 
and which in this case was the means of saving his life. This 
incident I give on the authority of the honorable William Plumer, 
senior, of Epping, New Hampshire. 

November 10th. Reverend John Tucker was settled as colleague 
with the reverend doctor Toppan. Of the difficulties which 
preceded, attended, and followed his settlement, something will be 
said hereafter. 

The difficulties still continuing, and rather increasing, in the first 
church and parish, between the reverend Mr. Toppan and his 
people, notwithstanding all the attempts that had been made to 
satisfy both parties, the parish voted, May eleventh, to concur with 
the church in setting ' apart a day to be kept by solemn prayer and 
fasting to seek to heaven for a blessing on our endeavours in calling 
a pious and orthodox man to assist in the ministry.' 


1 July 16th. Mr. John Tucker was called to the work of the 
ministry by the first church and parish in Newbury,' which, after 
long and anxious deliberation, he accepted, and was ordained No- 
vember twentieth. This, however, was not effected without great 
opposition, the majority in the parish in his favor being twelve, and 
that in the church being two. The minority sent in to the ordaining 
council, a long but unavailing protest against his ordination. On 
December twentieth, they sent a letter to the first church, which 
concludes in these words. 

1 Wherefore brethren on these considerations, for the peace of our consciences, 
our spiritual edification and the honor and interest of religion as we think, we 
do now withdraw communion from you and shall look upon ourselves no longer 
subjected to your watch and discipline, but shall, agreeable to ye advice given 
us, speedily as we may, seek us a pastor, who is likely to feed us with knowl- 
edge and understanding and in whom we can with more reason confide. 

1 And now brethren that the God of a full light and truth would lead both you 
and us into the knowledge of all truth as it is in Jesus, is and shall be the desire 
and prayer of your brethren, and so forth. 

CHARLES PIERCE, and twenty-two others. 

Difficulties somewhat similar also occurred in the church and 
parish under the pastoral care of the reverend John Lowell, which 
resulted in the withdrawal of ' a considerable number of persons ' 
from the society. This induced the church, on May first, 1743, to 
vote ' to keep the eleventh of May as a day of fasting and prayer 
upon this sad occasion.' ^ From their church records I extract the 

4 May eleventh, 1743, was observed as a day of fasting and prayer 
in pursuance of the vote above. The same day the separatists held 
a public assembly in Mr. John Brown's bam in Mr. Toppan's parish 
at which deacon Beck was present.' 

The barn here mentioned, stood in the field nearly opposite to 
Mr. Silas Noyes's house. Long and able letters to and from the 
reverend John Lowell, of the following dates, October thirty-first, 
November first, November fourth, December sixteenth, 1743, and 
January third, 1744, are now on file among the state records, Boston. 


January 3d. This day, nineteen of the persons, who, on the 
twentieth of the last month, had formally withdrawn from the first 
church, formed the presbyterian church. In their petition to the 
general court, are these words : 

' After this on the third of January 1746 we embodyed into a 
church and entered into a covenant, whereof we gave the church 
notice by letter under our hands of the twenty-second of the same 
month and then proceeded to give the reverend Mr. Jonathan Par- 
sons a call to the ministerial office,' and so forth. 

* Third church records. 


March 28th. The separate brethren, thirty-eight in number, who 
had for nearly three years withdrawn from the communion of the 
third church, "petitioned for a dismission and recommendation to the 
presbyterian church. This the church refused to grant. On April 
sixth, a committee of the * separatists ' sent a petition to the church, 
commencing thus, ' reverend and beloved in those points of Chris- 
tianity wherein we can agree,' desiring the church to favor them with 
* the reasons for not granting their request.' * This was of no 
avail, and they were finally admitted to the new church without a 

The following is the covenant of the presbyterian church. 

1 We the subscribing brethren, who were members of the first church in 
Newbury, and have thought it our duty to withdraw therefrom, do also look 
upon it our duty to enter into a church estate ; specially as we apprehend this 
may be for the glory of God, and the interest of the Redeemer's kingdom > as 
well as for our own mutual edification and comfort. 

' We do therefore, as we trust, in the fear of God, mutually covenant and agree 
to walk together as a church of Christ according to the rules and order of the 

' In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals this third 
day of January. 1746. 











January l^th. The parish of Byfield voted to build a new 
meeting-house, fifty-six feet long and forty-five feet wide, which 
was completed the next summer. 

March 6th. First parish voted five hundred pounds, old tenor, to 
reverend John Tucker, to build a house. 

1 August 2d, just before sunrise, there was a considerable loud 
and long earthquake.' f 

4 August 21st and 22d, there was a heavy frost.' f 

September Wth. A fleet of nearly forty ships of war, besides 
transports, bringing between three and four thousand troops, with 
veteran officers, and all kinds of military stores, under the command 
of the duke d'Anville, arrived from France, in order to retake 
Louisburg. This attempt, however, in consequence of a violent 
storm, on September first, and a variety of remarkable incidents, 
was rendered entirely abortive, to the great joy of the people of 
New England. 

' October 17th. Friday about nine A. M. it began to snow and 
continued snowing until three P. M. the next day. I and my wife 
went to church in the sleigh and it was very good sleighing, the 
snow being two feet upon the level and lasted four days.' f 

* Third church records. f M. Plant. 




'January 6th, about midnight there was an earthquake.' =& 

' February 6th. Three deer went through Stephen Morse's land 

in the west parish of Newbury and disappeared in Amesbury.' f 
' December 3d, at half past four P. M. and on December sixth at 

four P. M. there was an earthquake. ^ 


March 8th. The town granted to John Crocker, on his petition, 
liberty to erect a rope walk ' along by the windmill and to improve 
said place for ten years for making of ropes and for no other use.' J 

NOTE. The wind mill stood near where the south brick school house now stands 
by Frog pond, and was erected in 1703. This rope walk was probably the first which 
was established in Newbury, and stood on the margin of the pond. 

< March 11th, about a quarter before seven A. M. there was an 
earthquake.' ^ 

This year no rain fell from the last of May till August first. 

October 7th. Peace was established between England and 
France, at Aix la Chapelle. By this treaty, Louisburg was restored 
to the French. 

November 5th. Charles Pierce and one hundred and twenty-five 
others, petitioned the general court to be freed from paying taxes to 
the first and third parishes. 

November Wth. Governor Shirley, having received the petition, 
says, among other things, ' I am always averse to any thing grievous 
upon any people on account of their religious sentiments. I desire 
you would once take this repeated application of the petitioners into 
your serious consideration.' The petition was not granted. 


March ^th. Mr. Joseph Coffin was chosen town clerk. 

June 1st. One hundred and seventy-nine persons belonging to 
Mr. Parsons's society, petitioned the general court to be freed from 
paying taxes to the first and third parishes. August eleventh, hav- 
ing heard the answers of the first and third parishes, they dismissed 
the petition nem. con. 

This summer there was a very severe drought. This, attended 
as it was with swarms of caterpillars, and other devouring insects, 
caused great distress in New England. ' Many brooks and springs 
were dried up.' Not more than a tenth of the usual crop of hay 
was cut, and much was imported from Pennsylvania and England. 
4 1 mowed,' says Richard Kelly, ' several days and could not cut 

* M. Plant. t S. Morse's manuscripts. J Town records. 


more than two hundred pounds a day, and people were fain to kill 
abundance of cattle because they could not get hay to winter them.' 

October 29th. Reverend Thomas Barnard resigned his pastoral 
office, in the second church and parish. 

The winter of 1749-50 was a very severe one. Cattle had to be 
browsed in the woods. 



January 13th. Town authorized Daniel Farnham, esquire, to 
prefer a petition to the general court, for a lottery, to build a bridge 
over the river Parker.' 3k 

April 1st. Province bills, first issued in 1702, ceased to pass. 
This currency was called ' old tenor.' In 1748, there were three 
kinds of bills : old tenor, which passed at seven and a hah for one ; 
that, is, seven shillings and sixpence in bills, was equal to one 
shilling lawful ; middle, or three fold tenor, and new tenor. The 
redemption of the old tenor bills, occasioned the celebrated Joseph 
Greene to write a poem, entitled, < a mournful lamentation for the 
sad and deplorable death of Mr. Old Tenor, a native of New Eng- 
land, who after a long confinement by a deep and mortal wound, 
which he received about twelve months before, expired on the thir- 
ty-first of March 1750.' 

i The winter of 1750-51 was remarkably mild.' 

May 20th. ' The third church voted nemine contradicente that 
the scriptures be read in publick the Lord's day.' f 


February 2Qth. Reverend Moses Hale ordained pastor of the 
second church and parish. 

March 12th. Several citizens of the town petitioned, that ' several 
ways and landing places might be confirmed to the town.' This 
the proprietors' committee opposed, declaring that the town had no 
power to act in the affair. Here commenced a contest between the 
town and the proprietors, which was finally settled in favor of the 
latter, in 1826. 

March 22d, 1751. Third parish t voted to choose one or more 
parsons to take care of the boyes that plays at meeting.' J 

' 1745, October 28th. Epliraim Lunt was chosen,' in the first 
parish, ' to set in the gallery to and take special care that ye boys do 
not play in service time and correct those boys that do not give due 
attention,' and so forth. 


' March 27th. Town voted to build for the use of the town a 
house near the upper end of Plum island.' * 

* Town records. f Church records. J Third parish records. 


Tliis winter was a very cold one. 

This year the British parliament made an alteration in the style. 
From ' Job Shepherd's almanack,' published in Newport, by James 
Franklin, I make the following extract. 

' Kind reader, 

1 You have now such a year as you never saw before, nor ever will see here- 
after. The king and parliament have thought proper to enact that the month of 
September 1752 shall contain but nineteen days so that we are not to have two 
beginnings to our years, but the first of January is to be the first day and first 
month of the year 1752. Eleven days are taken from September and begin one 
Tuesday, two Wednesday and fourteen Thursday. Be not much astonished, 
nor look 'with concern, dear reader, at such a deduction of days, nor regret as 
for the loss of so much time, but take this for your consolation that your 
expences will appear lighter and your mind be more at ease. And what an 
indulgence is here for those, who love their pillows, to lie down in peace on the 
second of this month and not perhaps a\vake, or be disturbed till the fourteenth 
in the morning. Now, reader, since 't is likely you may never have such another 
year, nor such another almanack, I would advise you to improve the one for 
your own sake, and recommend the other for the sake of your friend, 


c May 26th. Proprietors lease to Jonathan Pearson for twelve 
years all the stream of water from Rowley line to Peter Cheney's 
grant, (which was made fifteenth February 1687) on condition he 
would grind for Newbury before he would for other towns.' 

1 May 7th, 1752. The members of the second church in 
Newbury met to deal with our brother Richard Bartlet for the 
following reasons. 

'First, our said brother refuses communion with the church for 
no other reason but because the pastor wears a wigg, and because 
the church justifies him in it, setting up his own opinion in oppo- 
sition to the church, contrary to that humility, which becomes a 

4 Second, and farther in an unchristian manner he censures and 
condemns both pastor and church as anti-christian on the aforesaid 
account and he sticks not from time to time to assert with the great- 
est assurance that all who wear wiggs, unless they repent of that 
particular sin before they die will certainly be damned, which we 
judge to be a piece of uncharitable and sinful rashness.' 

This opposition to wigs was not peculiar to Mr. Bartlet, though 
he was probably one of the last, who took so decided a stand 
against that article of dress. From their first introduction in New 
England, till the tyranny of fashion had sanctioned their almost uni- 
versal use, the wearing of wigs had been violently opposed by our 
fathers, who considered the manner of wearing the hair, as a subject 
of grave and serious consequerice. In many places in judge Sewall's 
diary, he alludes to this subject. I make a few extracts. 

1 1685, September 15th. Three admitted to the church, two wore 

1 '1696. k Mr. Sims told me of the assaults he had made on peri- 
wigs, seemed to be in good sober sadness.' 


' 1697. Mr. Noyes of Salem wrote a treatise on periwigs,' and 
so forth. 

i 1704. January. Walley appears in his wig having cut off his 
own hair.' 

4 1708, August 20th. Mr. Cheever died. The welfare of the 
province was much upon his heart. He abominated periwigs? 

The venerable John Elliot, the apostle to the Indians, believed 
lhat the sufferings endured by the people of Massachusetts in Phil- 
ip's war, were inflicted on them as a judgment from heaven for 
wearing wigs ! 

Even the members of the society of friends, were troubled with 
the wig question. From the minutes of the monthly meeting, I 
make the following extracts. 

'1721, November 16A. At this meeting we received an account 
from ye quarterly meeting, in which we are desired to consider the 
wearing of wiarges and give in our judgment at the next quarterly 
meeting to be held at Salem.' 

'1721, December 2lst. Hampton. The matter above mentioned 
consarning ye wearing of wigges was discoursed and it was con- 
cluded by this meeting yt ye wearing of extravegent super/lues 
wigges is altogether contrary to truth? 


' March 13/A. Town granted the petition of Nathan Hale and 
others about a fire engine.' 

1 May 23d. Town granted liberty to Samuel Titcomb and John 
Harris t6 build a substantial engine to weigh hay to stand where 
the old engine stood, near the head of Fish street.' 


' March 12th. Town voted to build a powder house.' 
' September 19^. The town taking into consideration the bill 
entitled an act for granting to his majesty an excise upon wines 
and spirits distilled and sold by retail or consumed in this province, 
voted that they are of opinion that that part of said bill, which 
relates to the consumption of distilled spirits in private families 
(which was referred to the consideration of the towns) is an infringe- 
ment on the natural rights of Englishmen and ought not to pass 
into a law,' and so forth. 


1 January 21 st. Town voted, first, that the town will act on an 
act lately made relating to an excise on the private consumption of 
distilled spirits, wines, lemons, limes and oranges. 


' Second, voted that the petitioners namely captain Michael Dai- 
ton and others and any other gentlemen, who are willing to join 
them should on their own cost and charge apply home in order to 
prevent said acts obtaining the royal assent.' 

'May 22d. Reverend John Lowell preached a sermon from 
Deuteronomy 20 : 4 at Newbury at the desire and in the audience 
of colonel Moses Titcomb and many others enlisted with him in 
an expedition against the French,' at Crown point, where he was 
slain, September eighth. ' In the battle of lake George he com- 
manded his regiment on the extreme right wing of general John- 
son's line. He got behind a large pine tree about one rod distant 
from the end of the breast work, where he could stand up and 
command his men, who were lying flat on the ground, and where 
he could have a better opportunity to use his own piece. Here he 
was insensibly flanked by a party of Indians, who crept around a 
large pine log, across a swamp about eighty yards distant, and shot 
him. Colonel Titcomb and lieutenant Baron stood behind the 
same tree and both fell at the same fire. This was about four 
o'clock in the afternoon of Monday the eighth of September 1755.' 

The preceding particulars I give on the authority of Mr. Henry 
Stevens, junior. In the preface to a funeral sermon preached on 
the occasion, by the reverend John Lowell, from Joshua 1:2, he 
says, ' being more especially called to take notice of colonel Tit- 
comb's death, and in a religious way publicldy to improve it, as he 
was one of the church under my pastoral care, and his family and 
relations are with us : and as many had their friends gone from my 
parish under him, the following sermon in the height of our pas- 
sionate resentment of the affecting providence, I hastily composed 
and preached immediately after the news of it; as what I then 
thought seasonable.' 

By a census taken this year, Newbury had fifty slaves, negroes, 
and Indians ; thirty-four males, and sixteen females. 

November 1st. A great and destructive earthquake destroyed 

i November ISth, about four o'clock A. M. was the most violent 
earthquake ever known in North America. It continued about 
four and a half minutes. In Boston, about one hundred chimneys 
were leveled with the roofs of the houses and about fifteen hundred, 
shattered and thrown down in part. There was a shock every day 
till the twenty-second.' 

4 December 19th. There were two or three shocks about ten P. M.' % 


1 March llth. About three P. M. a small shock of earthquake.' 
April 16th. A great gale of wind commenced, which lasted 
three and a half days. Sixteen vessels were lost. | 

# Richard Kelly. t Caleb Greenleaf s almanacs. 



From May eighteenth till June nineteenth there was no rain. 

The meeting-house now standing in Federal street was this year 
erected. From almanacs\ kept by Mr. Caleb Greenleaf, I make 
the following extracts. 

' July 5th. We began to raise our meeting house and finished it 
the seventh, and not one oath heard and nobody hurt.' The house 
is one hundred feet long, by sixty broad. 

1 On the seventh the reverend John Morehead of Boston preached 
the first sermon in it from 2 Chronicles 7 : 12. The first sermon 
preached in our new meeting house was on August fifteenth. The 
text was the whole of the one hundred and twenty-second psalm.' 

' August 19th and 2Qth, we pulled down our old meeting house.' 

This house, as has been observed, stood on the easterly side of 
High, formerly Norfolk street, a few rods south of Federal street. 
From a letter to doctor Bearcroft, written February fifteenth, 1743, 
by the reverend M. Plant, it appears that it was erected in 1742. 
He says, ' since my last of July twenty-third 1742 a new house was 
built by the people called the new schemers and their dissenting 
teacher received fifty-three into their communion in one day of 
those, who are of their way of thinking.' The 'dissenting teacher' 
above mentioned, was the reverend Joseph Adams, who was after- 
ward settled in Newington, New Hampshire. 

October 2d. The number of quakers in Newbury, was, at this 
time, twenty-five men.^ 

' November 16tfA, at ten minutes before four A. M. there was an 
earthquake.' A remarkably open winter, f 


January 13^/i. The town granted the petition of four persons, to 
build a grist and saw mill at Pine island. 

' July 8th, at twenty minutes past two P. M. there was a small 


This year, another difficulty occurred in the second parish. As 
the meeting-house, in consequence of the setting off of the fourth 
parish, in 1729, was no longer in a central place, and was very 
much dilapidated, the parish had voted, November thirtieth, 1756, 
to rebuild it at the l southerly end ' of Hanover street. In February 
and June, nineteen persons petitioned the general court to be set off 
from the second to the fourth parish, ' on account of distance, bad- 
ness of the road, badness of the meeting house, and on account of 
a vote to remove the meeting house half a mile farther east.' They 
conclude a long petition in the following figurative strain. 

' Thus your excellency and honors may justly see that we are afloat in an 
ocean of difficulty, and must unavoidably without your excellency and honor's 

* Robert Adams's manuscripts. f Reverend Peter .Coffin's almanacs. 


interposition be wafted from our much, desired church and congregation into 
the bosom of our mother church, into which nothing but a long and tedious 
quarrel, a shattered, doleful and uncomfortable house to worship our divine 
master in, together with a total despair of being extricated out of our misery, 
would bring us.' 

May 23d. A committee was chosen by the town, Mo sell the 
town's part of the prison house and land in Newbury, and to buy 
or build a convenient house for the poor.' 

The successes of the French, down to nearly the close of 1757, 
had very much depressed and dispirited the colonies; but they 
soon began to feel the effect of the energetic measures of the im- 
mortal Pitt, who, in the autumn of 1757, became prime minister of 
Great Britain, the success or defeat of whose arms, especially in 
North America, excited the deepest interest. July twenty-sixth, 
Louisburg was taken. August twenty-seventh, fort Frontenac 
surrendered, and, on November twenty-fifth, fort Du Quesne, after- 
ward called fort Pitt, now Pittsburg, was wrested from the French. 
In all these engagements, the New England people contributed their 
full proportion ; New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Massachusetts 
furnishing fifteen thousand troops, of whom a large proportion went 
from Newbury. 

September 14th. There was a public thanksgiving, on account 
of the reduction of cape Breton. 

The bridge over the river Parker was erected this year. 


This year, the British arms were triumphant in all their engage- 
ments in North America. July twenty-fourth, Niagara was taken, 
and on the twenty-seventh, Ticonderoga, and when the news arrived 
in Massachusetts, that, on September thirteenth, the army under 
general Wolfe was victorious, on the plains of Abraham, and that, 
on the eighteenth of the same month, Quebec had surrendered, the 
joy and enthusiasm of the people seemed to know no bounds. 

The citizens of Newbury had a day of rejoicing. An ox was 
split and broiled on a huge gridiron, at the west end of the reverend 
Mr. Lowell's meeting-house. Songs, commemorative of the victo- 
ries of this year, were everywhere sung. Every stanza of one 
of the songs, ended with the words, 'the year fifty-nine. So, dea- 
con Benjamin Colman, aged ninety-two, now living, [December 
twenty-third, 1844,] informs me, who saw the ox broiled, and re- 
members the following lines of the song, which was then sung. 

' De la C had a squadron so nimble and light, 
On meeting Boscawen like a Frenchman took fright ; 
But running too fast on some mighty design, 
He lost both his legs in the year fifty-nine. 

' With true British valour we broke every line, 
And conquered Quebec in the year fifty-nine.' 


March 13th. The town granted the petition of James Knight 
and nine others, 'to erect another engine to weigh hay near the head 
of Muzzey's lane/ now Marlborough street. 

May 25th. The second parish commenced tearing down their 
old meeting-house, and this year raised their new meeting-house, 
which was fifty-four feet long and forty-four broad. 

June 28th. i A public fast on account of the expedition to 

July 8th. ' At a quarter past two there was an earthquake.' 

August. The houses of Anthony Gwynn and Mr. Somerby, of 
Newbury, and Mr. Greenleaf, of Newbury new town, were struck 
with lightning. 

September 10th. i Mr. Samuel Pettingell fell from the steeple of 
the reverend Mr. Parson's meeting house, (which was this year 
erected) and was killed instantly.' ^ 

October 25th. ' Public thanksgiving on account of the surrender 
of Quebec.' 

In November of this year, the small-pox made its appearance on 
< the plains,' so called, and was for some time called the eruptive 

Some time this year, Mr. Enoch Noyes, a self-taught mechanic, 
commenced, without instruction, making horn buttons and coarse 
combs, of various kinds, and continued the business till 1778, when 
he employed William Cleland, a deserter from Burgoyne's army, 
a comb-maker by profession, and a skillful workman. This was 
the commencement of the comb-making business in Newbury, and 
various other places. 


' February 3d, at three o'clock A. M. there was an earthquake at 

May 20th. The town acted on the petition of doctor Nathan 
Hale, and others, and voted that they would not repair or remove 
the town house, and, on May twenty-sixth, i voted not to build a 
new town house.' 

Pine island grist and saw mill erected this year. 

May 2lst. Twenty-two members of the ' old church,' namely, 
queen Ann's chapel, in consequence of the discontinuance of pub- 
lic worship in that building three sabbaths in every month, united 
with several others, in an agreement to build a new meeting-house, 
and again become congregationalists, for the same reason that some 
of their ancestors became episcopalians, namely, distance from the 
meeting-house, and petitioned the general court to form a new parish. 

In July, the small-pox ceased in Newbury. During its continu- 
ance, the selectmen fenced in the infected district, from the school- 
house to Emery's hill, and sent to Boston for physicians and nurses, 

* Mr. Caleb Greenleaf 's almanacs. 



who, as the custom then was, greatly aggravated the disease, by 
shutting up the sick in small and heated rooms. About eighty per- 
sons had the disorder, of whom thirty-six, all adults but two, died. 

September 8th. Montreal was taken by the English, as also 
Detroit and Mackinaw. 

October 29th. There was a ' public thanksgiving on account of 
the entire reduction of Canada.' 

176 1. 

February 6th. Second and third parishes opposed the formation 
of a new parish at ' the plains.' 

March 10th. ' Town chose a committee to use their best endeav- 
ours to remove the inferior court held in Salem to Ipswich, and one 
of the other courts from Ipswich to Newbury inasmuch as they pay 
a greater tax to the province charges than any other town in ye 
province save Boston.' # 

March IQth. A ferry was granted from Newbury to Salisbury, 
1 about the middle of Bartlet's cove.' 

March \2th, at twenty minutes past two, A. M., there was an 
earthquake. * It was divided,' says one writer, ' into two shakes 
with a pause between.' 

April 5th. The fifth parish was incorporated. The parishioners 
having held a meeting in queen Ann's chapel, bishop Bass wrote 
their committee the following letter. 

'June 9^,1761. 
1 Gentlemen, 

' I am informed that you with a number of people whose committee I hear 
you are, broke into the old church the other day. I shall be very glad to find 
that I am misinformed, for if it be really so I think you have used me in a very 
uncivil and ungentlemanlike manner, and without any provocation and not a 
little exposed yourselves. If you had business to transact, or any grave matters 
to talk over near the church and it was necessary or convenient that you should 
go into the church for that purpose I do n't know of any body that would have 
been against it, but certainly you ought to have done it in an orderly manner 
by asking leave of me, who am the proper guardian of that church. 


September 8th. The committee addressed the members of the 
old church, ' and after stating the incorporation of the parish, and 
that they had no convenient house for the worship of God at pres- 
ent,' conclude thus : ' we therefore as neighbours and friends desire 
your consent to improve the said church in the vacancy of Mr. 
Bass not attending there until we are accommodated with a new 
house. We are,' and so forth. 

September 9th. The preceding request was granted by the pro- 
prietors of the ' old church.' 

May. A fire engine, the second in Newbury, was imported from 

* Town records. 






London this month, by Michael Dalton, esquire, and others,^ and 
a fire company of twenty-four men formed. 

November 1st, between eight and nine P. M. there was an earth- 

This summer there was a great drought. 


March 2d. A committee was appointed in By field parish, to 
appoint a grammar-school master, according to the will of governor 
Dummer, and the academy was erected. 

March. The county appropriated two hundred pounds, toward 
defraying the expense of building a court house, ' for the use of 
the county and town,' but in consequence of the refusal of the 
town, March twenty-ninth, to unite with the county, in the erection 
of such a building, ' the water side people ' generously gave the 
money to build the court house, purchased, July seventh, eleven 
and a quarter rods of land, at the corner of Essex street, where the 
museum now stands, of Joseph Clement, shipwright, for sixty- 
nine pounds. Said building, when erected, was to be used as a 
court and town house, ' and to no other use, intent or purpose 
whatsoever.' It was built this year. 

' July 2Sth. There was a day of fasting and prayer on account 
of the grievous drought,' and on August twelfth, a day of thanks- 
giving, on account of the capture of Havana by the English. 

This summer, the church in connection with the fifth parish was 
constituted, and the reverend Oliver Noble ordained their pastor, 
September first. 


February 27th, Monday. Dummer academy opened. Mr. Sam- 
uel Moody, preceptor. The number of pupils on this day was 
twenty-eight, of whom, one only, deacon Benjamin Colman, born 
in 1752, is still living. Reverend Moses Parsons preached a sermon 
on the occasion, from Isaiah, 32 : 8. ' The liberal soul deviseth 
liberal things.' 

May 12th. Town l voted to build a pest house in the great pas- 
ture thirty-eight feet long by twenty -eight wide and one story high/ # 

At the June session of the general court, two hundred and six of 
the * water side people,' so called, sent in a petition, praying, that, 
for certain reasons, they might be set off from Newbury, and 
incorporated into a town by themselves. In this petition, signed, 
in behalf of themselves and the memorialists, by William Atkins, 
Daniel Farnham, Michael Dalton, Thomas Woodbridge, and Pa- 
trick Tracy, they enumerate a long list of grievances, as reasons 

* Town records. 


why their request should be granted. The substance of it is, that 
between them, 'the merchants, traders, and mechanics,' and the 
husbandmen, ' there is a certain jealousy as to their public affairs 
and a high spirit of opposition,' and so forth. They complain of 
* the want of schools by the water side,' a want of fire engines, that 
'they are unreasonably taxed,' that 'there is no town treasurer,' 
that ' they do not have their due proportion of the selectmen,' and, 
finally, as an instance of the prevailing spirit of jealousy and oppo- 
sition, they say, that ' the town has not met, and we suppose will 
not meet, in the new court house lately built at the water side by 
the county and the people there and that it is a sufficient objection 
with them to any measure proposed, or thing done, tho' ever so just 
and reasonable in its nature, that ye water side people proposed, or 
did it. Wherefore,' and so forth. 

This summer there was a severe drought. 

October 20th. ' The town voted unanimously three only ex- 
cepted, that they were opposed to the division of the town. Also 
voted to build a house for the grammar school at or near the head 
of Fish street, and to build a small house behind the work house 
to keep crazed and distracted persons in.' 

December 2d. The first parish, on account of the supposed 
weakness of the turret of the old meeting-house, took down the 
bell, and hung it in a bell-house opposite the meeting-house.' 


January 27th. The town authorized the selectmen ' to provide a 
suitable gate at. old town bridge and at Thorla's bridge and employ 
one man to keep each gate and also to fence across any road to 
prevent any person infected with the small pox coming into town/ 
and ' that no vessel shall come up above Hook's point till an exam- 
ination is made.' 


January 28th* That part of Newbury now called Newburyport, 
was incorporated as a separate town. The act of incorporation 
^commences thus. 

' An act for erecting part of the town of Newtmry into a new town by the 
name of Newburyport. 

' Whereas the town of Newbury is very large, and the inhabitants of that 
part of it, who dwell by the water side there, as it is commonly called, are 
mostly merchants, traders and artificers, and the inhabitants of the other part 
of the town are chiefly husbandmen, by means whereof many difficulties and 
disputes have arisen in managing their public affairs, 

Be it enacted, 7 and so forth. 

Here follows a description of the boundary lines of the town, 
which can be more easily understood by reference to the map. In 


regard to size, it is the smallest town in the commonwealth, 
containing about six hundred and thirty acres, less than a mile 
square. Of its population, business, trade, advantages, and so 
forth, I shall speak more fully hereafter. I shall here only make 
one quotation from that inimitable book, written by the late Timo- 
thy Dexter, entitled ' a pickle for the knowing ones.' With the 
exception of the punctuation, I give it verbatim and literatim. 

< fourder, frinds. I will tell the a tipe of mankind, what is that ? 35 or 36 
years agone A toun called Noubry, all won the Younited states, Noubry peopel 
kept together quiet till the Lamed groued strong, the farmers was 12 out of 
20. thay wanted to have the offesers in the Contry, the Larned in the see port 
wanted to have them there, geering ARose, groued warme, fite thay wood, in 
Law thay went trie Jinrel Cort to be sot of. finely thay got there Eands Ans- 
wered, the see port caled Newburyport, 600 Eakers of Land out of 30000 Ea- 
kers of good land, so much for mad, people of Laming makes them mad. if 
thay had kept together thay wood have been the sekent toun in this state about 
half of Boston.' 

Among the conditions of the act of incorporation, were these : 
that Newbury should hereafter send but one representative to the 
general court, and Newburyport one, and that ' the inhabitants of 
Newburyport shall from time to time amend and repair a certain 
bridge over the river Artichoke which they will have occasion to 
pass and repass, although the same bridge is not included within 
the limits of Newburyport.' 

March 15th. The c committee chosen by the town of Newbury- 
port report that at least three large schools should be provided and 
maintained in said town,' and conclude by saying : ; as the inhabi- 
tants have now the long desired privilege of being well served with 
schools, and, as they have heretofore been liberal in supporting pri- 
vate schools, we think it proper that the public schools should be 
honorably supported.' 

To the suggestion of the committee, the town gave a hearty re- 
sponse, and from that time to the present, the public schools have 
been ' honorably supported,' and it is believed by competent judges, 
that no town in the commonwealth has done more for the cause of 
education, in proportion to its means, than the town of Newbury- 
port. In the language of Timothy Dexter, 'the larned groued 

May 25th. i Newburyport voted to petition the general court to 
have their limits and bounds enlarged,' and also voted, two hundred 
and sixty-two against fifty-four, l not to petition to be reunited to the 
town of Newbury.' 


On March twenty-second, an act, passed by the British parliament, 
for raising a revenue by a general stamp duty through all the 
American colonies, received the royal assent, and was to take effect 
November first. It was called the stamp act, was everywhere 


disapproved, and in many places met with great opposition. On 
August twenty-sixth, a mob entered the house of William Story, 
deputy register, and destroyed the records and files of the admiralty 
court, ransacked the house of Benjamin Hallowell, comptroller of 
the customs, and destroyed the house of lieutenant governor Hutch- 
inson,^ much property, and many valuable books and papers. 

September 30th. The town of Newburyport voted that ' the late 
act of parliament is very grievous, and that this town as much as 
in them lies endeavour the repeal of the same in all lawful ways, 
and that it is the desire of the town that no man in it will accept of 
the office of distributing the stampt papers, as he regards the dis- 
pleasure of the town and that they will deem the person accepting 
of such office an enemy to his country.' 

October 2lst. Each of the towns, 'Newbury and Newburyport, 
on this day held a town meeting, and each voted to give instructions 
to their representative, ' relating to his acting in the general court.' 
The instructions given to Joseph Gerrish, representative of New- 
bury, were passed unanimously, and ordered to be kept on file, but 
are now lost. From the instructions given by Newburyport to 
their representative, Dudley Atkins, the following extracts are taken. 

1 After adverting to the right of the people to instruct their representatives, 
and remarking upon the liberality of the English constitution, the instructions 
proceed : 

1 We have the most loyal sentiments of our gracious king, and his illustrious 
family ; we have the highest reverence and esteem for that most angust body, 
the parliament of Great Britain ; and we have an ardent affection for our breth- 
ren at home j we have always regarded their interests as our own, and esteemed 
our own prosperity as necessarily united with theirs. Hence it is that we have 
the greatest concern at some measures adopted by the late ministry, and some 
late acts of parliament, which we apprehend in their tendency will deprive us 
of some of our essential and high-prized liberties. The stamp-act, in a pecu- 
liar manner, we esteem a grievance, as by it we are subjected to a heavy tax, 
to which are annexed very severe penalties ; and the recovery of forfeitures, 
incurred by the breach of it, is in a manner, which the English constitution 
abhors, that is, without a trial by jury, and in a court of admiralty. That a 
people should be taxed at the will of another, whether of one man or many, 
without their own consent, in person or by representative, is rank slavery. 

* # # # * * * 

'That these measures are contrary to the constitutional rights of Britons 
cannot be denied ; and that the British inhabitants of America are not in every 
respect entitled to the privileges of Britons, even the patrons of the most arbi- 
trary measures have never yet advanced. 

f We have been full and explicit on this head, as it seems to be the funda- 
mental -point in debate j but was the tax in itself ever so constitutional, we 
cannot think but at this time it would be very grievous and burdensome. 

1 The embarrassments on our trade are great, and the scarcity of cash arising 
therefrom is such, that by the execution of the stamp-act, we should be drained 
in a very little time of that medium : the consequence of which is, that our 
commerce must stagnate, and our laborers starve. 

' These, sir, are our sentiments on this occasion ; nor can we think that the 
distresses we have painted are the creatures of our own imagination. 

* In Boston. 


' We therefore the freeholders and other inhabitants of this town, being legally 
assembled, take this opportunity to declare our just expectations from you, 
which are, 

1 That you will, to the utmost of your ability, use your influence in the gene- 
ral assembly that the rights and privileges of this province may be preserved 
inviolate ; and that the sacred deposit, we have received from our ancestors, 
may be handed down, without infringement, to our posterity of the latest 
generations : 

* That you endeavor that all measures, consistent with our loyalty to the best 
of kings, may be taken to prevent the execution of the above grievous innova- 
tions ; and that the repeal of the stamp-act may be obtained by a most dutiful, 
and at the same time most spirited, remonstrance against it. 

' That you do not consent to any new or unprecedented grants, but endeavor 
that the greatest frugality and economy may take place in the distribution of 
the public monies, remembering the great expense the war has involved us in, 
and the debt incurred thereby, which remains undischarged. 

( That you will consult and promote such measures, as may be necessary, in 
this difficult time, to prevent the course of justice from being stayed, and the 
commerce of the province standing still : 

1 That if occasion shall offer, you bear testimony in behalf of this town against 
all seditions and mobbish insurrections, and express our abhorrence of all 
breaches of the peace ; and that you will readily concur in any constitutional 
measures^ that may be necessary to secure the public tranquillity.' 

The stamp distributors were everywhere compelled to resign, 
and in many places they were hung in effigy. In Newburyport, 

the effigy of a Mr. I B , who had accepted the office of 

stamp distributor, was suspended, September twenty-fifth and 
twenty-sixth, from a large elm tree which stood in Mr. Jonathan 
Greenleaf 's yard, at the foot of King street, [now Federal street,] a 
collection of tar barrels set on fire, the rope cut, and the image 
dropped into the flames. At ten o'clock, P. M., all the beDs in 
town were rung. * I am sorry to see that substitute,' said a distin- 
guished citizen of Newburyport, 1 1 wish it had been the original/ 
Companies of men, armed with clubs, were accustomed to parade 
the streets of Newbury and Newburyport, at night, and, to every 
man they met, put the laconic question, ' stamp or no stamp.' The 
consequences of an affirmative reply, were any thing but pleasant. 
In one instance, a stranger, having arrived in town, was seized by 
the mob, at the foot of Green street, and, not knowing what answer 
to make to the question, stood mute. As the mob allow no neu- 
trals, and as silence with them is a crime, he was severely beaten. 
The same question was put to another stranger, who rephed, with 
a sagacity worthy of a vicar of Bray, or a Talleyrand, 4 1 am as 
you are.' He was immediately cheered and applauded, as a true 
son of liberty, and permitted to depart in peace, wondering, no 
doubt, at his own sudden popularity. 

' The uneasiness,' says the reverend N. Appleton, < in all the col- 
onies was universal. All as one man rising up in opposition to it, 
such a union, as was never before witnessed in all the colonies,' so 
that, in the language of doctor Holmes, ' by the first of November, 
when the act was to take effect, not a sheet of stamped paper was 
to be had throughout New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
the two Carolinas.' 


June 5th. There were several shocks of an earthquake. 
December ^th. i Great numbers of wild geese were caught alive, 
many were shot, or killed with clubs, and many were found dead. 7 


On March eighteenth, the stamp act was repealed. The joy of 
the people, on hearing the intelligence, was as great, as their indig- 
nation had been at its passage. The twenty-fourth of July was 
kept as a day of public thanksgiving, on account of its repeal. ' Our 
people,' says the reverend Thomas Smith, of Portland, ' were almost 
mad with drink and joy. A deluge of drunkenness.' 

May 20th. A town meeting, in Newburyport, was called, ' by 
beat of drum and word of mouth.' The upper part of the town 
house was ordered to be illuminated, at the town's expense, and that 
' the selectmen deliver out of the town's stock of gunpowder six 
half barrels thereof to be used in the public rejoicings of this day.' 
One half of this was used at the upper long wharf, the other half 
at the lower long wharf, under the supervision of Mr. John Harbert, 
and captain Gideon WoodwelL* 

The ecclesiastical difficulties which had arisen in the first parish, 
under the ministry of the reverend Christopher Toppan, were, it 
appears, far from being settled under his successor, the reverend 
John Tucker, notwithstanding so large a secession had taken place, 
from the church and parish, at the time of his settlement. On 
February eleventh, the parishioners held a meeting, to decide the 
question, whether to build a new meeting-house, on land owned by 
John Brown, esquire, or repair the old one. They voted to repair 
the old meeting-house. This called forth, at a meeting, held March 
twenty- seventh, a protest from John Brown, and seventeen others, 
' forbidding them to lay out one farthing of their interest towards the 
repairs of the meeting house, and demanding their proportion of the 
parish funds.' At the same time, Joseph Coffin, esquire, and forty- 
three others, some of whom attended, and some did not attend, the 
reverend Mr. Tucker's preaching, sent a petition to the parish, sta- 
ting, among other things, that ' as we cannot adhere to his principles 
manifest in his preaching, especially of late, we cannot think it our 
duty to ask the favour to be freed from paying any further taxes 
towards his support, or any other parish charges. We therefore 
your petitioners, subscribers hereto humbly pray that you would take 
our case jointly into your serious and most impartial consideration and 
grant us the relief we might rationally expect in a nation where liberty 
of conscience is indulged to every sect and denomination of Christians 
whatever, and in a land where a love of, and an ardent desire after, 
liberty is born with us, and prevails against all opposition even in 
civil, much more in religious, affairs. We think that every rational 

* Town records. 


person must be convinced after about twenty years' trial, that we 
cannot enjoy any lasting peace in the parish while we thus continue. 
We therefore,' and so forth. Of this protest and petition, no satis- 
factory notice was taken. Accordingly, those who felt aggrieved, 
formed a new society, which they called the union society, and 
commenced preparations to erect a meeting-house, \vhich, it is said, 
they first intended to build at the northwest corner of Marlborough 
street, but finally determined to place it opposite to the old meeting- 
house, on land which they purchased of John Brown, esquire, 
February twenty-eighth. This occasioned another parish meeting, 
April twenty-eighth, at which l a committee of three was chosen to 
send to the general court to forbid their building a house so near 
the present house.' In July, however, the house was raised, and 
boarded, but was, for some cause, never finished. Tradition asserts, 
that Mr. Nathan Pierce was once overheard to pray, that * Dagon, 
[the old house,] might fall before the ark of the Lord.' This in- 
duced the wags of the parish, to call the old meeting-house, ' old 
Dagon,' and the new meeting-house, i young Dagon,' and when, 
on the ninth of February, 1771, in a violent storm of thunder, light- 
ning, wind, and rain, the new house was blown down, one of them 
exclaimed, as he saw it lifted by the wind, 'I snare, you, young 
Dagon is agoing ! ' 

We at the present day, can have but faint conceptions, of the 
feelings which at that time actuated the l legalists,' and the ' new 
lights,' as they were then called. This intensity of feeling, was 
principally owing to the virtual union of church and state, which 
then deemed conscience a geographical matter, and made it the 
duty of -every man within certain limits, whether he believed the 
doctrines of the preacher, or not, to*assist in his support. A large 
portion of the people had been, for many years, in the habit of sup- 
porting two ministers ; one by compulsion, whom they would not 
hear ; the other, whose doctrines accorded with their own, and whom, 
of course, they heard, and voluntarily maintained. This grievance 
was, after many years' endurance, finally removed, thus proving the 
truth of the assertion, < that liberty is born with us, and prevails 
against all opposition even in civil, much more in religious affairs? 

May 2Sth. Captain Joshua Coffin and Nathan Pierce, were 
chosen by the union society ' a committee to petition the general 
court for liberty for the inhabitants of the first parish to attend upon 
and support ye publick worship where they please in said parish 
and not be taxed elsewhere.' 

June 2d. The union society chose a committee, to treat with the 
court's committee, June tenth, with respect to the points of difference 
in the first parish. The founders of the union society, held their 
first meeting January second, and on January thirtieth, chose a 
committee of seven to build a meeting-house. 

The division of the Newbury regiment, this year, by governoi 
Bernard, caused great excitement and opposition among the militia, 
as, in their language, ' it deprived the second regiment of its dignity 


and station and degraded it to the rank of the seventh and last 
regiment in the county without any regard to justice or the honor 
of a soldier.' The soldiers would not train, the officers resigned, 
those who accepted commissions were mobbed, and all attempts to 
reconcile them to the new arrangement, proved utterly abortive. 


January. It should be mentioned, as a . gratifying circumstance, 
that the separation of the third from the first society, was made 
in the most amicable manner. Messrs. Gary and Marsh had both 
been candidates for settlement in the first parish. About one third 
of the church preferred Mr. Marsh. The majority then observed to 
the minority, i you prefer Mr. Marsh, we, Mr. Gary. If you wish 
to settle Mr. Marsh and build a meeting house we will assist you 
and give you your part of the church plate,' and so forth. This was 
accordingly done ; the house was built, fronting on Brown's square, 
and Mr. Marsh and Mr. Gary both settled ; one over the first church 
and parish, the other over the third. 

This year Benjamin Lunt built a wharf, at the foot of Muzzey's 
lane, [now Marlborough street,] ' as there was no wharf convenient 
to land lumber, and so forth, upon in the town of Newbury.' % 

March 10th. Permission given to Stephen Cross, to set up a 
distillery in Newburyport.^ 

June 21th. Parliament laid a tax on paper, glass, painters' 
colors, teas, and so forth. 

December 17th. Newburyport granted the petition of Gutting 
Moody, Edmund Bartlet, and others, for the use of the town house, 
for Mr. Christopher Bridge Marsh to preach in, whose hearers, soon 
after, formed the third church and society in Newburyport 


January 15th. A slight shock of an earthquake.! 

January 18th. The third church formed, by a separation from 
the first church. 

April 20th. Young ladies met at the house of reverend Mr. 
Parsons, who preached to them a sermon from Proverbs, 31 : 19. 
They spun, and presented to Mrs. Parsons two hundred and seventy 
skeins of good yarn. They drank liberty tea. This was made 
from an herb callepl rib wort. 

i Mai; 10th. An exceeding full market, [in Newburyport,] on 
account of the ordination tomorrow.' f 

' May llth. Reverend Thomas Gary ordained.' f 

( May 23d. Commenced framing Mr. Marsh's meeting house, 
which was dedicated September fifteenth and Mr. Marsh ordained 
October nineteenth.' f 

* Newburyport records. t Mr. Samuel Horton's diary. 


A quantity of bohea tea, so called, which grew in Pearson town, 
Maine, i was received in Newburyport the day that he was ordained. 
In the afternoon a dish was made and handed round to a circle of 
gentlemen and ladies, who pronounced it to have all the character- 
istics of genuine bohea tea.' ^ 

* June 20th. A shock of an earthquake.' f 

September Wth. On this day, as we learn from the Salem Ga- 
zette, one ' Joshua Vickery ship carpenter was seized by a mob in 
Newburyport, carried by force to the public stocks, and there com- 
pelled to sit from three to five o'clock on a sharp stone till he fainted. 
He was then carried round town in a cart with a rope round his 
neck, with his hands tied behind him, pelted with eggs, gravel and 
stones and was much wounded. At night he was carried into a 
dark ware house, hand-cuffed with irons, and there compelled to 
remain without bed or clothing through the Lord's day till Monday 
morning, and no person but his wife allowed to visit him. On 
Monday morning the rioters seized a Frenchman, named Francis 
Magro, stripped him naked, tarred and feathered him, placed him 
in a cart and compelled Vickery to lead the horse about town.' 
The cause of these outrages, was, Magro's giving information to 
the officers of the customs at Portsmouth, against a vessel, the 
owners of which, he supposed were engaged in smuggling. Vick- 
ery was suspected, but was afterward proved to be entirely innocent. 
This was the second mob in Newburyport, the first occurring in 
September, 1765. 

October 6th. A fast was kept by the churches of Newbury and 
Rowley, according to a vote of the towns, ' on account of the crit- 
ical situation of the province.' J 

c December 5th. Mr. Richard Noyes fell from his cart and was 
killed by the wheel's passing over him.' f 

In the autumn of this year, the merchants of the province mutu- 
ally bound themselves, not to import, nor to purchase if imported, 
any British goods, before January, 1770, or until parliament repealed 
the revenue laws. 


March 14A. Town of Newbury voted, to lend James Hudson 
twenty pounds, to assist him in completing his salt works. 

April 19th. First church in Newbury voted, that < it is agreeable 
that the scriptures be read in publick.' 

' April ~L6th. Two boats were overset at Newbury bar and eight 
persons drowned, namely, Enoch Stickney, Diamond Currier, 
Nathaniel Moulton, and Simeon Woodman of Newburyport, and 
Samuel Blaisdell, Philip Gould, John Gould, and Moses Currier 
of Amesbury.'f 

April 23d. Byfield church voted to make trial of Watts's psalms 
and hymns. 

* Salem Gazette. t Mr. Samuel Horton's diary. } Town records. 


' My 13/i, about six minutes before seven o'clock there was an 

i July 19th. This evening the northern lights made an unusually 
splendid appearance.' 

September kill. Town of Newburyport approved of the non- 
importation agreement, and, on September twentieth, voted to return 
the 'thanks of the town to the merchants and others of Boston for 
their patriotic resolution of nonimportation of goods from Great 
Britain,' and so forth. 


From the Massachusetts Spy, January seventeenth, I extract the 
following reprint from an English paper. 

' The Newbury, captain Rose, from Newbury, in New England, 
lies at the Orchard house, Black wall. The above is a raft of tim- 
ber in the form of a ship, which came from Newbury to soundings 
in twenty-six days and is worthy the attention of the curious.' 

This was one of the three or four ships, built in the same manner, 
for Mr. Levi, a Jew, one of which was launched December eleventh, 
1769, and another October ninth, 1771. 

' February %Ath. An earthquake in a smart snow storm.' 

March 13th. Fifty citizens of Newbury petitioned the town, re- 
questing them to choose a committee, and order them to offer the 
inhabitants 'a subscription to sign against purchasing any goods,' 
of certain importers, and also against 'purchasing or using any 
foreign tea in our families upon any account,' and so forth. They 
also petition, ' that the names of such persons as shall refuse to sign 
said subscription may by a vote of the town be recorded in the town 
book that posterity may know, who in this day of public calamity 
are enemies to the liberties of their country and their memorial be 
had in everlasting detestation,' ^ and much more to the same pur- 
nose. ' The petition was read and accepted and the measures 
herein requested were adopted by an unanimous vote of the town,' 
and a committee ' of sixteen persons chosen to offer a subscription 
to ye inhabitants of the town to sign.' "% The following is an exact 
copy of this patriotic pledge, which I find in the handwriting of 
Joshua Coffin, esquire, one of the sixteen. 

1 Whereas it evidently appears to be absolutely Necessary for ye Political 
welfare of this Province to Discourage and by all Lawful Means Endeavour to 
prevent ye Transportation of Goods from Great Britain, and Encourage Industry, 
Oeconomy and Manufactures amongst our Selves 

( We. therefore, ye Subscribers being Willing to Contribute our Mite for the 
Publick Good, do hereby promise and Engage to and with each other, That we 
will as much as in us lies promote and Encourage ye use and Consumption of 
all useful Articles Manufactured in this Province, and that we will not (Know- 
ingly) on any pretence whatever, purchase any Goods of, or have any Concerns 
by way of Trade with John Bernard, James McMasters, Patrick McMasters, 

* Newbury records. 


John Mein, Nathaniel Rogers, William Jackson Theophilus Lillie, John Taylor 
And Ame and Elizabeth Cummin, all of Boston, or Israel Williams Esquire 
and Son of Hatfield, or Henry Bams of Marlborough, or any Person acting by 
or under them or any of them, or any other person or persons whomsoever that 
shall or may import Goods from Great Britain contrary to ye Agreement of ye 
United Body of Merchants, or of any Persons that purchases of or Trades with 
them, or any of them ye sd Importers before a General Importation takes place 
(Debts before Contracted only excepted.) 

1 And if it doth or may hereafter appear, that there is any Ship Builder in 
Newbury Port, or any other Town wheresoever in New England, that has so 
little Regard for ye Publick welfare, as to undertake to Build any Ship Schoon- 
er, or Sea-faring Vessel for any Foreigner, or any other Person And take ye pay 
for ye Same, or any part thereof, in Goods Imported Contrary to ye Agreement 
of sd Merchants, We promise and Engage not to have any Connection by way 
of Trade and Commerce (Debts before Contracted only excepted) with any Such 
Ship Builder, nor sell them any Materials for Building any Sucn Vessels. But 
we will look upon all such Ship Builders (as well as Importers and Traders 
with Importers) as persons Destitute of ye principles of Common Humanity 
(Sway'd only by their own Private Interest) Enemies to their Country and wor- 
thy of Contempt. And whereas a great part of ye Revenue arising by virtue of 
ye Acts of Parliament, is produced from the duty paid on Tea. We do therefore 
Solemnly Promise not to purchase any Foreign Tea, or Suffer it to be us'd in 
our Families upon any Account until! ye sd Revenue Acts are Repeal'd or a 
General Importation takes place, And we will each one of us, as we have proper 
Opportunitys Recommend to all persons to do ye same. And we do hereby of 
our Own free will and Accord Solemnly promise to and with Each Other, That 
we will without Evasion or Equivocation Faithfully and truly Keep and Observe 
all that is above written, And whosoever shall or may Sign these Articles, And 
afterwards ( Knowingly J break ye same shall by us be esteemed as a Covenant 
Breaker, an Enemy to his Country, a Friend to slavery, Deserving Contempt. 

1 All and Singular of these Articles to Continue and Remain in Force untill 
ye sd Acts be RepeaFd, or a General Importation takes place. 

As Witness our Hands.' 

March 23d. Town of Newburyport voted * that this town will 
not use or buy any foreign tea and do what they can to discourage 
it in others,' and, on April third, voted ' to refrain from all foreign or 
India tea,' and also ' voted to choose a committee of ten men as a 
committee of inspection to inspect the transactions of this town 
respecting the importation of goods into the town contrary to ye 
agreement of the merchants of Boston and elsewhere.' This com- 
mittee prepared a subscription paper, ' for all those to sign, who are 
determined not to buy or sell or use any tea in their families,' and 
were desired 'to lay before the town the names of those, who refuse 
to sign,' and ' if there should be any others, who sign the agreement 
and do n't duly regard it.' 

The honorable Caleb Gushing, in his history of Newburyport, 
says, that the meeting of April third, was called on suspicion l that 
a wagon load of tea had been brought into town.' 

April 12th. The duties on all articles, were repealed by parlia- 
ment, except that on tea. 

May 24th. The town of Newbury petitioned the general court, 
to pass an act to prevent the destruction of bass in the river Parker. 

This is the first petition of the kind that I have seen from 


May 24:th. The town of Newbury voted to grant the petition of 
Benjamin Pettingell, and ninety-nine others, who desired, in sub- 
stance, that they might attend public worship in any part of New- 
bury or Newburyport, ' where they choose,' ' and pay where they 
attend and no where else.' The town also, at the same meeting, 
1 chose Nathan Pierce, Joshua Coffin and Samuel Greenleaf esquires 
a committee to petition the general court to confirm the above 
vote by a law of the province.' The town also voted ' that Stephen 
Brown be added to the tea committee, and the time for subscribing 
be lengthened until the autumn.' ^ 

My. This summer, the country was visited with immense 
armies of worms, supposed to be the same species with those that 
came in 1736. ' This worm,' says doctor Dwight, ' was a caterpillar 
nearly two inches in length, striped longitudinally with a very deep 
brown, and white ; its eyes very large, bright and piercing, its move- 
ments very rapid, and its numbers infinite. Its march was from 
west to east. Walls and fences were no obstruction to its course, 
nor indeed was any thing else, except the sides of trenches, which 
were plowed, or dug before it, and in which immense multitudes of 
these animals died.' Multitudes of these trenches were dug in 
Newbury, and many fields were in this way preserved. There was 
also a drought this summer, and, on July nineteenth, ' Benjamin 
Poor's barn in Newbury new town was consumed by lightning.' 

September 30th. Sunday morning, about six o'clock, died the 
reverend George Whitefield, in Newburyport, at the house of the 
reverend Jonathan Parsons. From the seventeenth to the twentieth, 
he had preached every day in Boston. On the twenty-first, he went 
to Portsmouth, where he preached daily, from the twenty-third to the 
twenty-ninth ; once at Kittery, and once at York. On Saturday, the 
twenty-ninth, he preached nearly two hours, at Exeter, in the open 
air. In the afternoon, he rode to Newburyport, as he had engaged 
to preach in Newburyport the next morning. He had preached in 
Newburyport, September tenth and eleventh, and perhaps at other 
times, as Mr. Samuel Horton says, in his diary, 1 1 subscribed five 
pounds old tenor to be remitted to Mr. Whitefield in consideration 
of his abundant labours in Newburyport.' It was owing to the 
labors of Mr. Whitefield, that the first presbyterian church in 
Newburyport was formed, and, in the language of Mr. Gushing, 
i whatever may be thought of the peculiar opinions of Mr. Whitefield 
certain it is that his eloquence as a preacher was unrivalled ; and 
his zeal for the cause he taught, of the highest character. The fruits 
of his ministration here were great and striking ; and the establish- 
ment of the society under consideration afforded proof of the per- 
manency of its effects.' f He was buried beneath the pulpit, in 
the church in Federal street, in which a cenotaph was erected to his 
memory, in 1829, by the munificence of the late William Bartlet, 

* Newbury records. t History of Newburyport. 

\ i , 









March VZth. A great freshet, and great destruction of bridges, 
and so forth. 

March 29th. Abraham Larkin, an Irishman, was crushed to 
death, while examining the machinery in the top of the windmill, 
at the south end of Frog pond. 

May 28th. The town again voted, that Joshua Coffin, esquire, 
and others, who were chosen May twenty-fourth, 1770, to prefer a 
petition to the general court, l be now instructed to use their utmost 
influence to get the said vote passed into a law of the province at 
the next sessions of the general court.' % 

* Newbury records. 



January 3Qth. Sloop Three Friends, captain Mark Foran, from 
Greenock, in Scotland, was cast away on Plum island. 

February 1.0th. Captain Thomas Parsons sailed from Newbury- 
port, in a schooner, for the West Indies ; was wrecked at St. Mary's, 
Nova Scotia. It was supposed, that he, with all his crew, eight in 
number, were massacred by the inhabitants there, after plundering 
the vessel, and setting it on fire. 

March 26lh. First parish voted to erect a steeple on the meeting- 
house, to hang the bell in. 

June 18th. Snow fell in Newbury. 

July 6th. The first parish ' voted to put up a copper weather 
cock on the top of the pyramid ' of the meeting-house. This was 
substituted for the iron one, which was made at the time the meeting- 
house was erected, from colonel Thomas Noyes's old iron dripping 
pan. So Mr. Robert Adams was informed, by Mr. Joseph Noyes, 
then ninety years of age. 

Newburyport held a meeting, December twenty-third, and New- 
bury, December twenty-ninth, and chose committees, the former of 
twelve persons, the latter of sixteen, ' to take under consideration our 
publick grievances,' and ' the infringement of our rights and liber- 
ties,' and to report, and so forth. In both meetings, allusion was 
made to the able pamphlet ' received from Boston,' and of their 
proceedings at a meeting, November twentieth. 

4 December. The whole of this month very warm, rain every 
three or four days. On the thirtieth there was no more ice in the 
river than in June.' * 


January 1st. Newburyport held an adjourned meeting, to hear 
the report of their committee, whose ( letter was read and accepted, 7 
a copy ordered ' to be sent to the committee of correspondence of 
the town of Boston.' The town also ' voted that captain Jonathan 
Greenleaf, our representative, be acquainted that it is the desire and 
expectation of this town that he will persevere with steadiness and 
resolution in conjunction with his brethren in the honorable house of 
representatives to use his utmost endeavours to procure a full and 
complete redress of all our publick grievances, and to do every thing 
in his power in order that the present and succeeding generations 
may have the full enjoyment of all those privileges and advantages, 
which naturally and necessarily result from our glorious constitution.' 

January 4th. Town of Newbury held a meeting, and voted, 
unanimously, * to accept the report of their committee and that it 
be entered among the records of the town, there to stand as a last- 

* Reverend Moses Hale's diary. 


ing memorial of the sense they have of their invaluable rights and 
of their steady determination to defend them in every lawful way 
as occasion may require/ ' 

The report of the committee, which may be found on the town 
records, is an able and spirited document, but is too long for publi- 
cation. Both Newbury and Newburyport most cordially thank the 
inhabitants of Boston, 'for their vigilance and patriotic zeal,' and 
chose a committee of correspondence, ' to correspond with the town 
of Boston and such others as they shall think proper,' and so forth. 

February 4th. The first parish ' voted not to release any of the 
pretended churchmen,' [from paying taxes.] 

1 August 14/z. About eight o'clock there was in Salisbury and 
part of Amesbury the most violent tornado, or short hurricane, per- 
haps ever known in the country. It continued about three minutes, 
in which time it damaged, or entirely prostrated, nearly two hundred 
buildings. It removed two vessels one of them of ninety tons, 
twenty-two feet from the stocks. The vein of the tempest was 
about a quarter of a mile in width on the river and about a mile 
and a half in length.' 

September 23d. Dudley Colman chosen town clerk of Newbury. 

September 28th. Inferior court held in Newburyport From the 
Salem Gazette, I make the following extract 

October, 1773. Extract of a letter from Newburyport. October 
tenth. ' We have lately had our court week when the novel case 
of Caesar against his master in an action of fifty pounds lawful 
money damages for detaining him in slavery was litigated before a 
jury of the county, who found for the plaintiff eighteen pounds 
damages, and costs.' The defendant was Mr. Richard Greenleaf. 
For a more full account of this case in particular, and of the trans- 
actions concerning slavery in Newbury, see appendix, H. 

' November 26th. Town of Newbury chose a committee of five 
persons to prevent the inoculation of the small pox at the house of 
Moses Little esquire, and also voted not to suffer inoculation in the 

December 4tth. On this day, the first number of a paper, called 
the Essex Journal and New Hampshire Packet, was published, in 
Newburyport, by Isaiah Thomas and Henry Walter Tinges. This 
was distributed gratis. The next number was published December 

December 22d. Town of Newbury met and voted, unanimously, 
1 not to receive the tea sent by the East India company to America 
upon the terms, we are informed it is now sent upon. 

' Voted unanimously that this town will use their utmost endeav- 
ours to hinder the importation of tea in America so long as the 
duty shall remain thereon either by the East India company, or in 
any other way whatever. 

1 Voted to choose a committee to draw up what shall appear to 
them the sense of this town and make report at an adjourned 



< December 9th. At a numerous [informal] meeting of the people 
of Newburyport and others, a committee of five was chosen, who 
reported the following, which was accepted. ' We have taken into 
consideration the late proceedings of the town of Boston relating 
to the importation of tea by the East India company into America, 
and do acquiesce in their proceedings and are determined to give 
them all the assistance in our power even at the risque of our lives 
and fortunes. 1 ' 

December 'Loth. On this day, the people of Boston, having pre- 
viously tried, without success, to send back the three tea ships that 
had arrived, and, determined that it should not be used, a party of 
armed men, disguised as Indians, boarded the ships, and threw their 
whole cargoes into the docks. 

' As the Mohawks kind of thought, 
The Yankees had n't ought, 
To drink that are tea.' 

December 16th. At a legal meeting of the freeholders, and other 
inhabitants of Newburyport, the committee chosen for that purpose, 
1 reported the following draft of a letter to be sent to the committee 
of correspondence of the town of Boston,' which was adopted at 
an adjourned meeting, December twentieth. 

' Gentlemen, it is with astonishment that we reflect on the unremitted efforts 
of the British ministry and parliament to fasten ruin and infamy upon these 
colonies. They not only claim a right to control and tax us at their pleasure, 
but are practising every species of fraud as well as violence their deluded 
minds can suppose feasible to support and establish this absurd and injurious 
claim. A fresh instance we have in the plan lately adopted for supplying the 
colonies with tea. If the money thus unconstitutionally taken from us was to 
be expended for our real benefit and advantage it would still be grievous, as the 
method of obtaining it is of a dangerous nature and most fatal tendency. But 
we lose all patience when we consider that the industrious Americans are to be 
stript of their honest earnings to gratify the humours of lawless and ambitious 
men and to support in idleness and luxury a parcel of worthless parasites their 
creatures and tools, who are swarming thick upon us and are already become a 
notorious burden to the community. We are sorry that any, who call them- 
selves Americans are hardy enough to justify these unrighteous proceedings. 
They surely deserve the utmost contempt and indignation of all honest men 
throughout the world, for our part we shall endeavour to treat them according 
to their deserts. By the public prints we are favoured with the sentiments of 
several respectable towns in the province, expressed in a number of manly, 
sensible and spirited resolves with respect to the evils immediately before us. 
We are under great obligations to our worthy friends and brethren, who have 
nobly stood forth in this important cause. We assure them that should they 
need our assistance in any emergency we determine most readily to exert our 
utmost abilities in every manly and laudable way, our wisdom may dictate for 
the salvation of our country, even at the hazard of our lives and trusting through 
the favour of a kind providence we shall be able to frustrate all the designs of 
our enemies.' * 

December 28th. Great freshet in Merrimac river. 

* Newburyport town records. 



January kth. The town of Newbury met, according to adjourn- 
ment, and unanimously adopted a long and able report, embracing 
fourteen resolutions, of the most spirited and determined tone, con- 
cluding as follows. 

' And whereas our brethren address us with religious solemnity, and conde- 
scend to ask our advice, the committee take leave to offer to the consideration 
of the town, the following short address, as appearing to them proper upon the 
present important occasion. 

' Beloved brethren, let us stand fast in the liberty, wherewith God and the 
British constitution in conjunction with our own, have made us free, that neither 
we, nor our posterity after us (through any fault of ours) be entangled with the 
yoke of bondage.' * 

During this period of apprehension and excitement, which were 
preparing the people for .the arduous conflict before them, they 
found opportunities for amusement, peculiar to their situation. 
Many cases like the following might be given, which I relate on 
the testimony of an eye witness, the late Mr. Caleb Greenleaf, of 
Haverhill, and the public papers. 

February 15th. One Holland Shaw, having been detected in 
stealing a shirt, was immediately taken before a sort of ex tempore 
court, convened for the occasion, was sentenced as follows, namely, 
' that he parade through the principal streets of the town, accompa- 
nied by the town crier with his drum.' The sentence was forthwith 
put into execution. The town crier, William Douglass, with his 
brass barreled drum, and the thief with the shirt, headed the proces- 
sion, which took up its line of march. The paper of that day 
informs us, c that he was compelled to proclaim his crime and pro- 
duce the evidence, which was the shirt with the sleeves tied round 
his neck, the other part on his back.' The proclamation, which he 
was compelled to utter with a loud voice, was, ' I stole this shirt, 
which is tied round my neck from Mr. Joseph Coffin's house in 
Salisbury, and I am very sorry for it.' Having been thus marched 
through the principal streets, and satisfied the demands of this new 
court of justice, he was dismissed, and never, after that night, was 
he seen in Newburyport. Another person, who had stolen a quan- 
tity of salt fish, was compelled to make atonement for his offence, 
by parading through the streets, holding a s'alt fish in his hand, 
above his head, and proclaiming his crime in a similar manner : 
< I stole this fish and five quintals more.' An English sailor was 
also marched round the town, with a pair of stolen breeches tied 
round his neck, informing the people what he had, and how he 
obtained them. 

April 19th. Battle at Lexington. 

Intelligence having been received in England, on March seventh, 

* Newbury records. 


of the manner in which the Bostonians had disposed of the East 
India company's tea, passed an act, which went into operation June 
first, by which the harbor of Boston was closed against the entrance, 
or departure, of any vessels. It was called the ' Boston port bill.' 

June 17th. Battle of Bunker hill. 

June 23d. ' The town of Newbury met to take into consideration 
certain letters sent from the committee of correspondence in Boston 
to the committee of correspondence in Newbury, the following 
answer was taken by yeas and nays without one dissenting voice.' 

1 As there is a general congress of the colonies proposed to consider and ad- 
vise on the present distressed state of our civil and commercial affairs, we can- 
not think it safe, decent or suitable to go into any decisive binding engagements 
previous to that, but to assure our brethren through the continent of our hearty 
good wishes to the common cause of liberty and our country, do now testify 
that we can with the utmost freedom and cheerfulness agree to discontinue all 
commerce with Great Britain and with all importers of goods from thence, or 
those who shall refuse to comply with these, or any other measures, that shall 
be determined by the said congress so long as shall by them be judged expedi- 
ent and necessary for the opening Boston harbor and recovering and perpetua- 
ting all our just rights and liberties.'^ 

August 3d. The town of Newburyport held a meeting, and, 
among other things, ' voted unanimously that this town will stand 
by the result of the congress even if it be to the stopping of all 
trade.' ' Voted also to send two hundred pounds for the relief of 
indigent persons in the town of Boston.' 

August 9th. ' Town of Newbury voted to send two hundred 
pounds to purchase provisions to be sent and given to the suffering 
inhabitants of the town of Boston.' 

September 22d. l The town of Newbury chose the honorable 
Joseph Gerrish esquire as their representative and voted that he be 
directed and instructed not to be qualified for his seat in the house 
by any oi the councilors, who have received their commission by 
mandamus from his majesty but by the council chosen by the house 
of representatives agreeable to the charter of this province.' % 

October 3d. The town of Newburyport met, and gave instruc- 
tions to captain Jonathan Greenleaf, their representative, of the most 
derermined and decided character. I have only room for the fol- 
lowing extract. ' Armed ships and armed men are the arguments 
to compel our obedience and the more than implicit language that 
these utter is that we must submit or die. But God grant that 
neither of these may be our unhappy fate. We design not madly 
to brave our own destruction, and we do not thirst for the blood of 
others, but reason and religion demand of us that we guard our 
invaluable rights at the risque of both,' and so forth. 

October 2Ath. The town of Newburyport held a meeting, and 
' voted that all the inhabitants be desired to furnish themselves with 
arms and ammunition and have bayonets fixed to their guns as soon 
as may be. 

* Newbury records. 


* Voted also that no effigies be carried about or exhibited on the 
fifth of November or other time only in the day time.' 

December 2Sth. Town of Newburyport chose Tristram Dalton, 
esquire, captain Jonathan Greenleaf, and Mr. Stephen Cross, 'to 
represent this town in the provincial congress to be held at Cam- 
bridge in February next.' 


The people of Newbury and Newburyport, having made all 
necessary preparations, and taken all needful precautions, for their 
protection, and the preservation of their invaluable rights and priv- 
ileges, and given utterance to their feelings, in the most determined 
and decided tone, prior to the commencement of this year, soon 
discovered that nothing short of a severe and bloody contest, or 
unconditional submission, was before them. With them, submission 
was out of the question, and events soon transpired, which made it 
manifest, that they must buckle on their armor, and sumrnon all 
their energies, for the coming conflict For this, they were with 
great unanimity prepared, come when it might On the twenty- 
sixth of February, general Gage sent colonel Leslie from castle 
William to Salem, to seize some military stores. This, the people 
would not permit him to do, and, had it not been for the prudent 
interposition of the reverend Thomas Barnard, of Salem, (formerly 
of Newbury,) and others, the war of the revolution would have 
begun at Salem, instead of Lexington. The fight at Lexington, 
the skirmish at Concord, April nineteenth, and the battle at Bunker 
hill, June seventeenth, precluded all hope of an amicable settlement 
of the controversy. The spirits of the people rose with the occasion. 
In the midst, however, of their excitement, an event occurred, which, 
whether arising from accident, or a regular preconcerted plan, it is 
impossible to say, occasioned, for a time, great anxiety and distress 
among the people, and in which, on a review of all the circum- 
stances connected with it, there appeared such a curious commin- 
gling of the comic, the ludicrous, and the distressing, as would 
afford ample materials for a volume of amusement Those who 
witnessed the scene, can never forget it, and those who did not, can 
have but a faint idea of it from any description. I allude now, to 
what has been usually called 'the Ipswich fright,' which happened 
on this wise. On Friday afternoon, April twenty-first, the second 
day after the Lexington fight, the people of Newburyport held an 
informal meeting, at the town house, and, just as the reverend 
Thomas Gary was about opening the meeting with prayer, a mes- 
senger rushed up stairs, in breathless haste, crying out, ' for God's 
sake, turn out ! turn out ! or you will all be killed ! The regulars 
are marching this way, and will soon be here. They are now at 
Ipswich, cutting and slashing all before them ! ' The messenger 
proved to be Mr. Ebenezer Todd, who stated that he had been sent 
from Rowley, to warn the people of their impending destruction. 


The news spread like wildfire, and being generally credited, the 
consternation became almost universal, and as a large part of the 
militia had marched to the scene of action, early the next morning 
after the fight at Lexington, the terror and alarm among the women 
and children, was proportionably increased, especially, as, from all 
quarters, was heard the cry, ' the regulars are coming ! They are 
down to Old town bridge, cutting, and slashing, and killing all 
before them ! They '11 soon be here ! ' It is remarkable, that the 
same story, in substance, was simultaneously told, from Ipswich to 
Coos. In every place, the report was, that the regulars were but a 
few miles behind them. In Newbury New town, it was said, they had 
advanced as far as Artichoke river, at Newburyport they were at Old 
town bridge ; there, they were said to be at Ipswich, while, at the latter 
place, the alarm was the same. Mr. Eliphalet Hale, of Exeter, was at 
the latter place, and waited to ascertain the correctness of the report. 
Learning that it was without foundation, he made haste to unde- 
ceive the people, by riding from Ipswich to Newbury in fifty min- 
utes. In the mean time, all sorts of ludicrous things were done, by 
men and women, to escape impending destruction. All sorts of 
vehicles, filled with all sorts of people, together with hundreds on 
foot, were to be seen, moving with all possible speed, farther north, 
somewhere, to escape the terrible * regulars.' Their speed was accele- 
rated, by persons who rode at full speed through the streets, crying, 
' flee for your lives ! flee for your lives ! the regulars are coming ! ' 
Some crossed the river for safety. Some in Salisbury, went to Hamp- 
ton, and spent the night in houses vacated by their owners, who 
had gone on the same errand farther north. The houses at Turkey 
hill, were filled with women and children, who spent the night in 
great trepidation. One man yoked up his oxen, and, taking his own 
family, and some of his neighbor's children, in his cart, drove off to 
escape the regulars. Another, having concealed all his valuable 
papers, under a great stone, in his field, fastened his doors and win- 
dows, and, having loaded his musket, resolved to sell his life as 
dearly as possible. One woman, having concealed all her pewter 
and silver ware, in the well, filled a bag with pies and other edibles, 
and set off with it and her family for a safer place, but having trav- 
eled some distance, and deposited her bag, to make some inquiry, 
she found, on her return, that there had been ' cutting and slashing,' 
not, indeed, by the regulars among the people, but by the irregulars 
among her provisions. Another woman, as I am informed, having 
run four or five miles, in great trepidation, stopped on the steps of 
the reverend Mr. Noble's meeting-house, to nurse her child, and found, 
to her great horror, that she brought off the cat, and left her child at 

home. In another instance, a Mr. , having placed his family 

on board of a boat, to go to Ram island, for safety, was so annoyed 
-with the crying of one of his children, that he exclaimed, in a great 
fright, ' do throw that squalling brat overboard, or we shall all be 

discovered ! ' A Mr. J L , seeing Mr. C H , a 

-very corpulent man, standing at his door, with his musket loaded, 


inquired of him if he was not going. ' Going ? no/ said he, 1 1 
am going to stop and shoot the devils ! ' Propositions were made 
by some persons, to destroy Thorla's, and the river Parker, bridges, 
while many acted a more rational part, and resolutely refused to 
move a step, or credit the whole of the flying stories, without more 
evidence. How, or by whom, or with what motives, the report wa& 
first started, no one can tell. It lasted in Newbury and Newbury- 
port, but one night, and in the morning,, all who had been informed 
that the rumor was without foundation, 

1 Returned safe home, right glad to save 
Their property from pillage ; 
And all agreed to blame the man, 
Who first alarmed the village.' 

As was previously remarked, the fight at Lexington was on 
Wednesday, April nineteenth, and, as soon as the news reached New- 
buryport and Newbury, which was about midnight, a large number 
of soldiers were on their march to the field of action. Two compa- 
nies from Newbury, and two from Newburyport, were soon on the 
ground, ready for any emergency which might occur. In another 
place, something more will be found, concerning the part which 
Newbury and Newburyport took, during the trying scenes of the 
revolution, and the names of some of the actors ; also a brief sum- 
mary, of some of the events connected with the privateering business, 
in which the people of Newburyport were very extensively engaged. 

From a journal of every day's proceedings, kept by lieutenant 
Paul Lunt, I make a few extracts. 

1 May tenth, 1775, marched from Newburyport with sixty men, captain Ezra 
Lunt, commander, and May twelfth at eleven o'clock arrived at Cambridge. 
June fourteenth, some ships and transports arrived at Boston with two hundred 
horse and three thousand troops. June sixteenth, our men went to Charlestown 
and intrenched on a hill beyond Bunker's hill. They fired from the ships and 
Copps' hill all the time. June seventeenth, the regulars landed a number of 
troops and we engaged them. They drove us off the hill and burned Charles- 
town. July second, at night general Washington came into the camp. July 
third, turned out early in the morning, got in readiness to be reviewed by the 
general. July eighteenth. This morning a manifesto was read by the reverend 
Mr. Leonard, chaplain to the Connecticut forces upon Prospect hill in Charles- 
town. Our standard was presented in the midst of the regiments with this in- 
scription upon it : APPEAL TO HEAVEN, after which Mr. Leonard made a 
short prayer and there we were dismissed by the discharge of a cannon, three 
cheers, and a war-whoop by the Indians.' l July thirty-first. At four P. M. they 
[the British,] sent out a flag of trace, desiring a cessation of arms for three 
hours, but it was not granted. One of the riflemen shot at the flag staff of the 
truce and cut it off above his hand/ 

General Washington, having projected an expedition against 
Quebec, determined to send out a detachment, from his camp, at 
Boston, to march by the way of the Kennebec river, through the 
wilderness. As that detachment passed through Newbury and 
Newburyport, and encamped here on its way to Canada, a short 
account of it will not be unacceptable. In lieutenant Paul Lunt's 
journal, I find the following. 


'September Wth. Twenty of our company enlisted to go to Canada under the 
command of captain Ward. September thirteenth. In the afternoon the regi- 
ment marched from Cambridge to Newburyport, there to embark for Canada 
under the command of colonel [Benedict] Arnold, lieutenant colonel [Christo- 
pher] Greene [of Rhode Island,] and Major [Timothy] Bigelow [of Massachu- 
setts.] Captain Ward commanded the company that the Newbury men 
enlisted in.' 

One of the men from Newburyport, who was a soldier in this 
disastrous expedition, was Mr. Caleb Haskell, who kept a journal 
of the march, and of the hardships and privations endured by the 
troops. This journal, I have never been able to obtain, though it 
has been read by many with thrilling interest. I shall therefore 
make a few extracts from major Return J. Meigs's journal. 

' 1775, September 16th. In the morning continued our march and at ten o'clock 
A. M. arrived at Newburyport and encamped. * 

* Seventeenth, Sunday. Attended divine service at the reverend Mr. Parsons's 
meeting. Dined at Mr. Nathaniel Tracy's. 

'Eighteenth. Dined at Mr. Tristram Dalton's. 

' Nineteenth. Embarked our whole detachment consisting of ten companies 
of musketmen, and three companies of riflemen, amounting to eleven hundred 
men on board ten transports.! I embarked myself on board the sloop Britannia. 
The fleet came to sail at ten o'clock A. M. and sailed out of the harbour, and 
lay to till one o'clock P. M. when we received orders to sail for Kennebeck fifty 
leagues from Newburyport,' and so forth. 

In addition to the names already given, of persons who accom- 
panied the army, may be mentioned the late reverend Samuel 
Spring, of Newburyport, who officiated as chaplain, Matthew 
Ogden and Aaron Burr, of New Jersey, John I. Henry, afterward 
judge Henry, of Pennsylvania, captain, afterward general Henry 
Dearborn, of New Hampshire, captain Daniel Morgan, commander 
of the riflemen, with captains William Kendricks and Matthew 
Smith, of Pennsylvania, and many others less known. From the 
following letters,^ from general Arnold, it appears that he arrived 
at Fort Western, as early as September twenty-seventh. The 
transports landed the men at Pittstqn, Maine, where the batteaux 
were built. The result of this expedition, which arrived at Quebec,. 
November ninth, is well known. 

'Fort Western, 21th September, 1775. 
1 To captain Moses Nowell, 

Newburyport : 

* You are hereby ordered to receive from captain James Clarkson, one James 
McCormick, a criminal condemned for the murder of Reuben Bishop, and him 
safely convey under a proper guard, to his excellency general Washington at 
head quarters. 

I am your humble servant, 


* The riflemen under captain Morgan, encamped in the field at the corner of Rolfe's 
lane. The other troops occupied two of the rope walks in town. 

t The following are the names of some of these vessels : schooner Broad Bay, captain 
Clarkson; sloop Britannia; sloop Admiral. 
\ Maine Historical Society's Collection, volume first, page 358. 


'Fort Western, 28th September, 1775. 
Mr. Nathaniel Tracy : 

'Dear Sir: 

' This will be handed you by captain Clarkson who will acquaint you with 
the particulars of our voyage, which has been very troublesome indeed. 

I To captain Clarkson I am under many obligations for his activity, vigilance 
and care of the whole fleet, both on our passage and since our arrival here ; for 
which he may very possibly be blamed by some of the other captains ; but he 
has really merited much, and it will always give me a sensible pleasure to hear 
of his welfare and success, as I think him very deserving. 

I 1 must embrace this opportunity to acknowledge the many favours received 
from you at Newbury ; and am with my best respects to Mrs. Tracy, your 
brother and Mr. Jackson, and so forth, 

Dear sir, yours, and so forth, 


NOTE. Some writers, among whom are judge Marshall and reverend doctor 
Holmes, mistake in stating that a company of artillery under captain John 
Lamb, accompanied Arnold's expedition. Setting aside the impossibility of 
transporting heavy cannon and balls, and so forth, and so forth, through the 
wilderness, between the Kennebec and the Chaudiere, we have the positive 
assertion of contemporary journals,^ that captain Lamb, with a company of ar- 
tillery, was, August twenty-eighth, 1775, posted on the battery, in New York 
city, and that, on the eighteenth of September, captain L., (having gone by the 
way of the Hudson river, to join general Montgomery,!) arrived at Cumberland 
"bay, fifty miles from Montgomery's camp at isle aux Noix, 

For the above note, copies of the preceding letters, and other 
information, which I have been under the necessity of abridging, I 
am indebted to the politeness of reverend William S. Bartlet, now 
of Chelsea. I regret that I have not room for the whole communi- 
cation. Other facts and incidents demand a passing notice. Among 
them, maybe mentioned, the annual celebration .of an event, which, 
from the first settlement of New England, till this year, was deemed 
worthy of public commemoration. I allude to the discovery of the 
4 gunpowder plot,' which took place November fifth, 1605. The 
last public celebration of ; pope day,' so called, in Newbury and 
Newburyport, occurred this year. ' To prevent any tumult or dis- 
order taking place during the evening or night,' the town of New- 
buryport voted, October twenty-fourth, 1774, ' that no effigies be 
carried about or exhibited on the fifth of November only in the day 
time.' Motives of policy afterward induced the discontinuance of 
this custom, which has now become obsolete. This year, the cele- 
bration went off with a great flourish. (In the day time, companies 
of little boys might be seen, in various parts of the town, with their 
little popes, dressed up in the most grotesque and fantastic manner, 
which they carrried about, some on boards, and some on little car- 
riages, for their own and others' amusement. But the great exhibi- 
tion was reserved for the night, in which young men, as well as 
boys, participated. They first constructed a huge vehicle, varying, 
at times, from twenty to forty feet long, eight or ten wide, and five 

* New York Gazette and Weefclv Messenger, September eleventh, 1775, and t Octo- 
ber fifth, 1775. 



or six high, from the lower to the upper platform, on the front of 
which, they erected a paper lantern, capacious enough to hold, in 
addition to the lights, five or six persons. Behind that, as large as 
life, sat the mimic pope, and several other personages, monks, friars, 
and so forth. Last, but not least, stood an image of what was de- 
signed to be a representation of old Nick himself, famished with 
a pair of huge horns, holding in his hand a pitchfork, and otherwise 
accoutred, with all the frightful ugliness that their ingenuity could 
devise. Their next step, after they had mounted their ponderous 
vehicle on four wheels, chosen their officers, captain, first and second 
lieutenant, purser, and so forth, placed a boy under the platform, to 
elevate and move round, at proper intervals, the movable head of 
the pope, and attached ropes to the front part of the machine, was, 
to take up their line of march through the principal streets of the 
lowjjj Sometimes, in addition to the images of the pope and his 
company, there might be found, on the same platform, half a dozen 
dancers, and a fiddler, whose 

c Hornpipes, jigs, strathspeys, and reels. 
Put life and mettle in their heels,' 

together with a large crowd, who made up a long procession. Their 
custom was, to call at the principal houses in various parts of the 
town, ring their bell, cause the pope to elevate his head, and look 
round upon the audience, and repeat the following lines. 

' The fifth of November, 

As you well remember, 

Was gunpowder treason and plot; 

I know of no reason 

Why the gunpowder treason, 

Should ever be forgot. 

When the first king James the sceptre swayed, 

This hellish powder plot was laid. 

Thirty-six barrels of powder placed down below, 

All for old England's overthrow : 

Happy the man, and happy the day, 

That caught Guy Fawkes in the middle of his play. 

You '11 hear our bell go jink, jink, jink ; 

Pray madam, sirs, if you'll something give, 

We '11 burn the dog, and never let him live. 

We '11 burn the dog without his head, 

And then you 'W say the dog is dead. 

From Rome, from Rome, the pope is come, 

All in ten thousand fears ; 

The fiery serpent's to be seen, . 

All head, mouth, nose, and ears. 

The treacherous knave had so contrived, 

To blow king parliament all up all alive. 

God by his grace he did prevent 

To save both king and parliament. 

Happy the man, and happy the day, 

That catched Guy Fawkes in the middle of his play. 

Match touch, catch prime, 

In the good nick of time. 

Here is the pope that we have got, 

The whole promoter of the plot, 

We '11 stick a pitchfork in his back, 

And throw him in the fire.' 


After the verses were repeated, the purser stepped forward, and 
took up his collection. Nearly all on whom they called, gave 
something. Esquire Atkins and esquire Dalton, always gave a 
dollar apiece. After perambulating the town, and finishing their 
collections, they concluded their evening's entertainment with a 
splendid supper ; after making, with the exception of the wheels, 
and the heads of the effigies, a bonfire of the whole concern, to 
which were added, all the wash tubs, tar barrels, and stray lumber, 
that they could lay their hands on. With them, the common cus- 
tom was, to steal all the stuff. But those days have long since 
passed away. The last exhibition of the kind, took place this year. 
The principal cause of its discontinuance, was, an unwillingness to 
displease the French, whose assistance was deemed so advantageous 
during the revolution. 


February 3cL Newburyport gave to the town of Boston, two 
hundred and two pounds, ten shillings, and two pence, Mr. Parsons' s 
parish gave ten pounds, sixteen shillings, and four pence, Mr. Tuck- 
er's parish, in Newbury, gave forty-six pounds, four shillings, and 
two pence, and Mr. Noble's gave nine pounds and six pence. 
These were in addition to the four hundred pounds given by the 
two towns. 

January 15th, Monday. The brig Sukey, captain Engs, ninety 
tons, from Ireland, was taken by the Washington, privateer, and 
brought into Newburyport, laden with provisions, destined for Bos- 
ton. Qn the morning of the same day, a British ship appeared off 
Newbury bar. As she lay off and on, several miles from the land, 
shewing English colors, and tacking often, the wind being easterly, 
with appearance of a storm, it was conjectured by some persons 
who observed her from town, that the captain had mistaken Ipswich 
bay, for that of Boston, which was then in possession of the British. 
On this supposition, several individuals determined to proceed to 
sea, and make a closer examination. Accordingly, seventeen per- 
sons embarked, in three whale boats, and, as they approached the 
ship, being satisfied, by the movements on board, that they were 
right in their conjectures, they determined to offer their services as 
pilots. For this purpose, they rowed within speaking distance, 
when captain Offin Boardman, whom they had previously selected 
to act as commodore of their little fleet, hailed the ship, inquiring 
whence she came and where bound. The answer was, from Lon- 
don, bound to Boston, with the inquiry, where are you from, and 
what land is this ? The reply was, from Boston, do you want a 
pilot ? Being answered in the affirmative, he told them to heave 
the ship to, and he would come on board. This being immediately 
done, his boat was rowed to the ship's gangway, and he, passing 
up, unarmed, proceeded to. the quarter deck, shook hands with the 
captain, inquiring his passage, the news from London, and so forth, 

252 HISTORY OF NEWiil.'ilY. 

by which time, those in the boats had reached the deck, with their 
arms, and were paraded across the gangway, most of the crew 
being forward. Captain Boardman then left the quarter deck, and, 
to the great surprise of the English captain, and his crew, ordered 
the ship's colors struck. This order, the English captain told his 
mate, he supposed he must obey. He then observed to. his captors, 
that the ship and cargo were their own, but, at the same time, hoped 
that neither he nor his crew would receive any injury. 

Thus, by a correct conjecture in regard to the ship's situation, 
and a well managed finesse in making their approach, they found 
themselves in quiet possession of a ship, mounting four carriage 
guns, a crew of nearly their own number, and containing fifty-two 
chaldrons of coals, eighty-six butts and thirty hogsheads of porter y 
twenty hogsheads of vinegar, sixteen hogsheads of sour crout, and 
twenty-three live hogs, intended for the use of the troops quartered 
in Boston. Having placed the officers and crew under safe keep- 
ing, and having a fair wind and tide, they arrived at the wharf, in 
Newburyport, in less than six hours from the commencement of 
their expedition. The ship was called the Friends, was owned in 
London, and commanded by captain Archibald Bowie. 

The only names of those who composed the party in the whale 
boats, which can be ascertained with certainty, are, Offm Boardman, 
Joseph Stanwood, John Coombs, Gideon Woodwell, Enoch Hale, 
Johnson Lunt, and Cutting Lunt. It ought to be mentioned, that 
another company manned the town barge, and proceeded down 
river on the same design, but, starting at a later hour, met the ship 
within the bar, on her way up to the wharf. These two vessels, 
the brig Sukey, and the ship Friends, were the first prizes brought 
into Newburyporl. Captains Bowie and Engs, boarded for some 
time at Davenport's tavern. The former returned to England r 
while the latter concluded to stay in New England, and afterward 
commanded a privateer from Newburyport. 

The preceding information is derived from various sources, but 
principally from a communication from Benjamin Hale, esquire, 
postmaster of Newburyport, whose father was one of the party who 
captured the ship. 

February Wth. The Yankee Hero, captain , took, and 

brought into Newburyport, a bark of three hundred tons, loaded 
with coal, pork, and flour. 

March 1st. The Yankee Hero, captain Thomas, brought into 
Newburyport brig Nelly, captain Robinson, from White Haven, 
bound to Boston, having two hundred tons of coal, and ten tons 
of potatoes. 

March 13th. A committee, consisting of Daniel Spofford, Eli- 
phalet Spofford, Thomas Noyes, Joseph Brown, and Daniel Chute, 
petition the governor and council, to be restored to the second regi- 
ment, and conclude by saying, ' that your petitioners congratulate 
themselves that the military arrangement is now in the hands of a 
government, which will pay a sacred regard to justice and the honor 


of a soldier, which ought ever to remain inviolate, for insult and 
disgrace damp his spirits, blast his vigor and unnerve his arm,' and 
so forth. 

April 9th, Edmund Sawyer chosen town clerk. 

' April 22d. Council determined the regiment composed of the 
towns of Newburyport, Amesbury and Salisbury shall take rank as 
the second regiment. 7 So far, therefore, as it respected Newbury, 
the petition was not granted. 

May 8th. Newburyport voted to erect a fort on Plum island, and, 
May sixteenth, voted to hire a sum, not exceeding four thousand 
pounds, to defray the expense, and, on May twenty-third, Newbury 
appropriated two hundred pounds for the same purpose. 

May 27th. Newbury voted to instruct their representatives l that 
they after having seriously weighed the state and case of indepen- 
dence, act their best judgment and prudence respecting the same.' 

May 31st. Newburyport 'voted that if the honorable congress 
should for the safety of the united colonies, declare them indepen- 
dent of the kingdom of Great Britain, this town will with their lives 
and fortunes support them in the measure.' 

June 7th. The Yankee Hero, captain James Tracy, had an en- 
gagement with the Milford frigate, of twenty-eight guns. It lasted 
near two hours, but, as the frigate was vastly superior in force, the 
Hero struck. 

July 14th. Mr. Oliver Moody was drowned from a wharf. 

July 19th. The declaration of independence was published in 
Newburyport, and, on the same day, died the reverend Jonathan 
Parsons, in his seventy-first year. 

'August llth. Independency read in all the meeting houses.' ^ 

In August, there was a state fast. 

In the Newburyport town records, September second, I find the 
following, in the handwriting of Nicholas Pike, esquire, town clerk. 

' This meeting was illegal, because the venire for calling it was 
in the name of the British tyrant, whose name all America justly 


March 24th. Town of Newbury this day put it to vote, ' to see 
if the town would settle in the seventh regiment of militia and it 
passed in the negative,' notwithstanding it was stated in the warning 
that a speedy settlement of the militia is a matter of the greatest 
importance to our political salvation? This refusal to do ^military 
duty in the seventh regiment, to which they had been degraded by 
governor Bernard, in March, 1766, as has-been mentioned, the sol- 
diers of Newbury continued to manifest, throughout the whole of 
the revolutionary contest. The consequence of this refusal, was, 
an entire absence of all military subordination, so far as regimental 

* S. Horton's journal. 


musters, and so forth, were concerned. This arose, not from any 
unwillingness to serve their country, but from a resolute determina- 
tion, not to train under any officers, till they should be restored to 
their former rank, as soldiers of the second-, and not the seventh reg- 
iment. This restoration was effected about the year 1793. This 
caused the duty which would otherwise have devolved on the militia 
officers, to be performed by the selectmen, and is, perhaps, the only 
instance in the state, where the selectmen were obliged to perform 
such a service. 

May 21st. The town of Newburyport voted ' to impower Jona- 
than Boardman to procure and exhibit the evidence that may be 
had of the inimical disposition of any person or persons towards 
this, or any of the United States,' and, on Jane thirtieth, the town of 
Newbury chose Samuel Noyes, to do the same service. 

June. 29th. The Hessian prisoners came to town. 

June 30th. Town of Newburyport 'voted to allow the soldiers 
stationed at Plum island candles, and sweetening for their beer.' 

August. Some time this month, the old church, called queen 
Anne's chapel, having been unoccupied as a meeting-house after 
1766, fell down. It was on the sabbath, a calm and sultry day. 
The pews and galleries had been removed some time before, and 
other parts had disappeared, piece by piece, till there was not 
enough left to hold the frame together. 

''August 2lst. Captain William Friend in a sixteen gun ship, 
called the Neptune, built in Mr. Cross's yard, sailed, and, when 
about a league from the bar, overset and sunk in sixteen fathoms of 
water, having on board sixty hands, only one drowned.' ^ 

1 October 23d. Great numbers of cannon were fired on account 
of Burgoyne's defeat, which was October seventeenth, and on De- 
cember twenty-eighth a thanksgiving throughout the United States, 
on the same account.' ^ 


February 12th. Newbury voted, nem. con., * we the inhabitants 
of the town of Newbury do hereby give our representatives instruc- 
tions to acquiesce in and comply with the articles of confederation, 
as we have received them from the honorable continental congress.' 

March 26th. The town. of Newburyport 'voted that this town 
are of opinion that the mode of representation contained in the 
constitution lately proposed by the convention of this state, is une- 
qual and unjust, as thereby all the inhabitants of this state are not 
equally represented, and that some other parts of the same consti- 
tution are not founded on the true principles of government ; and 
that a convention of the several towns of this county by their dele- 
gates, will have a probable tendency to reform the same agreeably 
to the natural rights of mankind and the true principles of govern- 

* Mr. Samuel Horlon's diary. 


* Voted that the selectmen be desired, in behalf and in the name 
of the town, to write circular letters to the several towns within the 
county, proposing a convention of those towns, by their delegates 
to be holden at such time and place as the selectmen shall think 
proper: in said circular letters to propose to each of the towns 
aforesaid, to send the like number of delegates to said convention, 
as the same towns have by law right to send representatives to the 
general court.' 

' Accordingly the most eminent citizens of this ancient and lead- 
ing county assembled at Ipswich and instituted an elaborate exam- 
ination of the intended constitution, which was printed with the 
title of the Essex Result. The effect of this pamphlet, which is at- 
tributed to the mighty mind of Theophilus Parsons, [a native of 
Newbury,] then resident in Newburyport^ was perfectly decisive of 
the question. The town unanimously voted to reject the proposed 
form of government ; and suggested the expediency of calling a 
new convention for the sole purpose of framing a constitution more 
worthy of Massachusetts.' # 

March 3Qth. Town of Newbury voted to grant the petition of 
several of the inhabitants of the ' westerly part of the town, w T ho 
are desirous of being set off into a separate township.' 

From March tenth, 1777, to August twenty-second, 1778, the 
town of Newbury passed, considered, and reconsidered, many votes 
respecting inoculation for the small pox, and were much divided 
and excited on the subject. A hospital was for some time kept, on 
Kent's island, but, on August twenty-second, the town voted to pe- 
tition that ' the small pox may be discontinued in Newbury by inoc- 

December 30th. Thanksgiving through the United States. 


March 9th. The town voted that < the unanimous thanks of the 
town be given to Samuel Moody esquire for his generous donation 
of one hundred pounds at this time, and of twenty pounds some 
time past for the purpose of a growing fund for a grammar school 
being kept in the town for the instruction of youth.' 

July 25th. An armament, consisting of twenty sail, besides 
twenty-four transports, appeared off Penobscot, destined to dislodge 
the enemy, but proved exceedingly disastrous. The Pallas, Sky 
Rocket, and so forth, sailed from Newburyport. Colonel Moses 
Little, of Newbury, was at first appointed to command the expedi- 
tion, but declined', on account of ill health. ' August fifteenth, 
British recruits came to Penobscot. American forces ran up river 
and burned their own shipping.' f 

In this year, the business of chaise making was introduced into 
Newbury, by James Burgess. The first regular builders, were Na-. 

* Cushing's history of Newburyport. t S, Horton's journal. 


thaniel and Abner Greenleaf. In Belleville, the business was com- 
menced by Samuel Greenleaf, in 1792, by Joseph Ridgway, in 
1793, by Robert Dodge, in 1795, and by Samuel Rogers, in 1796. 

November ll/i. ' The town of Newbury voted unanimously 
that they approve of and accept the proceedings of the late conven- 
tion held at Concord in October regulating the prices of merchandise 
and country produce.' 

This alludes to an unavailing attempt, to fix a price on labor, 
provisions, and all kinds of commodities, by legislative enactments. 
In the preceding year, the general court had passed, from the best 
of motives, ' an act to prevent monopoly and oppression,' and the 
towns of Newbury and Newburyport, had, in pursuance of this act, 
adopted and published a scale of prices, affixed to" all the articles 
they had for sale, and also all kinds of labor. These prices were 
never to be exceeded. No imported goods, except hemp and war- 
like stores, should be sold at more than two hundred and fifty pounds 
sterling, on one hundred pounds prime cost, and no retailer should 
make an advance of more than twenty per centum on the wholesale 
price. All these regulations, were, of course, entirely futile, as they 
could not be enforced. They were therefore abandoned. The 
price of cotton, for instance, was established at ' three shillings per 
pound by the bag and three shillings and eightpence by the single 
pound. Barbers, once shaving threepence. Dinner boiled and 
roasted without wine one shilling and sixpence. Supper or break- 
fast one shilling. Lodging fourpence/ A pound of cotton, would, 
at this time, purchase two dinners, one night's lodging, once shaving, 
and leave one penny overplus. How. many pounds of cotton would 
it take now, 1845, to procure the same amount ? 

December 9th. Thanksgiving in all the states.^' 

December 15th. Earthquake very loud abou' half past eleven 

Some time this year, a wolf came into captain Israel and Liphe 
Adams's yard, and killed five sheep. He was killed by Moses Ad- 
ams. No wolf has since been seen in Newbury. 


The winter of 1780, was unusually severe. For forty days, thirty- 
one of which were the month of March, there was no perceptible 
thaw on the southerly side of any house, and so deep and hard was 
the snow, that loaded teams passed over walls and fences, in any 

March. The constitution of Massachusetts was framed. The 
first article in the declaration of rights, is, < all men are born free 
and equal.' This was inserted, with the intent, and for the purpose, 
of entirely abolishing slavery. Prior to the revolution, several slaves 

* S. Horton's journal. 


had sued their masters for detaining them in slavery, one in Cam- 
bridge, in 1770, and one in Newburyport, Caesar against his master, 
Richard Greenleaf, in September, 1773. In all these cases, the 
courts decided in favor of the slave. In 1781, a case occurred in 
Worcester, in which the supreme federal court decided, that slavery 
\v;is abolished by the constitution. 

May 29th. The committee of twenty-five 1 chosen on the fifteenth 
instant, made their report concerning 'the frame of government 
now offered to the people and the town after proposing a few amend- 
ments and adopting nearly every article, unanimously conclude by 
saying, ' they have such a sense of the excellency of the constitution 
in general, that if the amendments proposed cannot be obtained, 
they are of opinion that the constitution be accepted in its present 
form.' ' * 

Newburyport held a meeting on the same subject, and, after pro- 
posing amendments, conclude by saying, ' esteeming it in general 
a wise and good one ; the town do vote and declare their approba- 
tion of the same in its present form.' f 

1 May 1 9th. This day the most remarkable in the memory of man for dark- 
ness. For a week or ten days the air had been very thick and heavy, which 
made the sun look uncommonly red. On the morning of the nineteenth the 
sun was visible for a short time very early, but was soon overcast and very black 
clouds were seen to rise suddenly and very fast from the west, the wind what 
there was of it (tho 7 hardly enough to move the leaves on the trees) at south west. 
The forementioned clouds mixing with the vast quantities of smoke, occasioned 
by a general burning of the woods, caused, in the opinion of many this unusual 
alarming darkness, which began about twenty minutes before eleven o'clock A. 
M. and lasted the whole day. tho' not equally dark all the time. It was the 
darkest from about twelve to one o'clock. Afterwards there was a larger glin at 
the horizon, which made it somewhat lighter. It was however at the lightest, 
darker. I think than a moonlight night. The sky had a strange yellowisli and 
sometimes reddish appearance. The night following was the darkest I remem- 
ber to have seen, till about midnight, when a small breeze sprung up frt>m the 
north or north west, upon which it soon began to grow light. At Falmouth. 
Casco bay, it was not dark at all. Upon Piscataqua river, Berwick, Dover, and 
so forth, it was very rainy, (very little of which we had here, which fell a little 
before it began to grow dark) but not uncommonly dark, as I am told by a per- 
son, who travelled there that day. I hear of the darkness as far as Danbury in 
Connecticut. It did not extend to North river. The forementioned darkness 
was no doubt occasioned by an unusual concurrence of several natural causes, 
but to pretend fully and clearly to account for it, argues perhaps too great confi- 
dence. 7 Bishop Edward Bass : s manuscripts. 

In the memoirs of the American academy, I find the following. 
* Candles wefe lighted up in the houses ; the birds having sung their 
evening songs disappeared and became silent ; the fowls retired to 
roost ; the cocks were crowing all around, as at break of day ; ob- 
jects could not be distinguished but at very little distance and every 
thing bore the appearance and gloom of night.' On account of the 
remarkable darkness, it is still called ' the dark day.' 

November 18th, twelve o'clock ai night, there was an earthquake. 

* Newbury town records, t Town records. 



December 7th. Thanksgiving in all the states. 

September. This month, the most flagrant instance of treachery 
that occurred during the revolutionary war, was discovered, by the 
apprehension of Major Andre, a British officer, who was executed 
as a spy, October second. The treachery was, an attempt, by gen- 
eral Arnold, to deliver up West Point to the enemy. From a jour- 
nal kept by a Newbury soldier, I extract the following. ' September 
twenty-fourth. Pleasant weather, hard duty, poor beef. Our men 
are not allowed but six cartridges per man but good barracks. 
Twenty-fifth, pleasant weather. This day about one o'clock general 
Washington, general Knox, marquis La Fayette came to West 
Point to take a view of the fort. They stayed about two hours, 
and then left the point. We had thirteen pieces of cannon dis- 
charged. This night Arnold's plot was discovered. He had news 
of the British officer being taken. He told his wife he was a dead 
man. He took his horse and rode to the ferry as soon as he could 
to his barge, when he made the best of his way to a British ship. 
The ship made the best of her way to York, lie carried off John 
Brown and Samuel Pilsbury of our company. September twenty- 
sixth. This morning at one o'clock we manned our lines and got 
in readiness for action. Each man received twenty rounds. This 
morning at three o'clock colonel Meigs's regiment of continental 
troops arrived. Twenty-seventh. This day making ready to receive 
the enemy as soon as they come. This night lay on our arms. 
Large piquet out.' % 


In January, captain William Friend was cast away on Boon 
island, and drowned, with six men. 

March 12th. Newburyport ' voted that the selectmen be directed 
to cause one of the bells to be rung at one of the clock in the day 
and at nine of the clock at night during the ensuing year.' 


February. A Newburyport vessel, captain Calef, from the West 
Indies, was cast away on Plum island. Seven hands were lost, in 
consequence of leaving the vessel, and three saved by staying on 

'March 18th. Town of Newburyport voted to accept of Union 
street and Fair street as laid out and that the same be recorded.' 

March 2Sth. Green street ditto. 

'June 23d. Mr. Edward Burbeck, formerly of Salem, was this 
day, sabbath afternoon, instantly killed by lightning,' while standing 
near a clock in his chamber. The house in which he died, stood 
on the spot, now occupied by Messrs. Richard and Daniel S, 
Tenny's house. 

* Joshua Davis's journal. 


August 9th. Mr. Nathaniel Tracy's new house, old dwelling 
house, and barn, were consumed by fire. 


'February 20th. No snow on the ground, which is as dry as 

March 12th. Newburyport accepted of Orange street as laid out. 

September 3d. On this day, a treaty of peace was signed, at 
Paris, between Great Britain and the United States, by David 
Hartley and John Adams, esquires, and, on October thirteenth, 
congress issued a proclamation for disbanding the army. 

November 29th. There was a small earthquake, 

December 30th. Notice was given in the public journal, that two 
beacons had been erected on Plum island, for the benefit of vessels. 


'March IQth. Newburyport voted to build a new work house, 
where the present work house stands, unless they can procure a 
more suitable place.' 

April 1th. Reverend Oliver Noble was dismissed from his church 
and parish, at his own request 

'July 7th. Daniel Berry of Chester and Nathaniel Ober of 
Wenham, were drowned at Newbury bridge by the upsetting of a 

July 17th. General Jonathan Titcomb was chosen naval officer 
for this year. 

This summer, there was a severe drought. 

The bridge over the river Parker, which was built in 1758, under 
the direction of Mr. Ralph Cross, was this year repaired. It is eight 
hundred and seventy feet long, twenty-six feet wide, has nine solid 
piers, and eight wooden arches. 

''November 26th. A twelve hours' storm raised the highest tide 
within the memory of the oldest man.' 


May 13th. The town of Newburyport petitioned the general 
court as follows, namely : 

'That in the years 1775 and 1776 the said town in order to guard 
and defend themselves and the neighbouring towns from the appre- 
hended invasions and attacks of the enemy then infesting the sea 
coasts, and making depredations on the maritime towns of the state, 
prepared and sunk a number of piers in the channel of Merrimac 
river, near the mouth thereof ; they have also built a fort on the 
Salisbury side of said river and another fort on Plum island near 


the entrance of the harbor ; they constructed a floating battery, built 
a barge and made a number of gun carriages : the whole expense 
whereof amounted to the sum of two thousand, four hundred and 
thirty-three pounds, eight shillings and two pence.' 

The petition concludes as follows. 

4 And as your petitioners are still laboring under a very heavy 
debt, contracted for the genera] service and defence of the country 
during the late war, and in addition thereto have been paying inter- 
est for the whole sum above mentioned, and are still paying interest 
for the same, they pray that your honors will be pleased as soon as 
possible to take the premises into your wise consideration, and order 
the aforementioned sum to be paid them out of the public treasury, 
and thus far relieve them under their distresses.' 

Signed by the selectmen, ' by order and in behalf of the town of 

April 13th. Merrimac river passable on the ice. April sixteenth, 
snow two feet deep, and frozen so hard, as to bear cattle, and, on 
the nineteenth, a snow storm. 

October 21st. A Dutch ship, bound from Amsterdam to New 
York, was cast away on Plum island. Crew saved, vessel and 
cargo lost. 

November 16th. Robert Laird and James Ferguson, advertise 
that they have established a brewery opposite Somerby's landing. 


January 9th. In the morning an earthquake. 

July llth. Mr. Stephen Gerrish had his skull fractured, and Mr. 
Samuel Kezer, his limbs, by the falling of some rocks, while stoning 
Mr. Oliver Putnam's, now the Messrs. Ilsleys', well, which was im- 
mediately covered, and so remained till August twelfth, when Mr. 
Abraham Thurlow, on descending it, fell to the bottom, and expired 
before he could be rescued. His death was occasioned by the foul 
air in the well. 

December 6th. A slight shock of an earthquake, at a quarter 
past four, P. M. 

This year is rendered memorable, by an insurrection, in the west- 
ern part of Massachusetts, headed by Daniel Shays. One company, 
fifty-five in all, commanded by captain Edward Longfellow, went 
from Newbury. They enlisted for sixty days, and left home Decem- 
ber twelfth. Two of the company are still living deacon Moses 
Brown, and Silas Moulton, West Newbury. 

November \kth. The town of Newbury 'voted to settle the 
militia in said town, provided that they be Styled the independent 
regiment. 1 



4 The west wind blew steadily from November thirtieth 1786 to 
March twentieth of this year with only four slight interruptions.' * 

This year, the Hessian fly, so destructive to wheat, made its first 
appearance in New England, entering Connecticut from New York.* 

April 4th. This day, there was a ' spinning match ' at the house 
of the reverend Mr. Murray, to whom were given two hundred and 
thirty-six skeins of thread and yarn. The meeting was in the i par- 
sonage house, every apartment of which,' says the Essex Journal, 
\vas full. The music of the spinning wheel resounded from every 
room. It was truly a pleasing sight. Some spinning, some reeling, 
some carding the cotton, some combing the flax. The labors of the 
day were concluded about five o'clock. Public worship was attend- 
ed,' and a discourse delivered by the pastor, from Exodus 35 : 25. 
4 And all the women that were wise hearted did spin with their hands/ 

May loth. Town of Newburyport voted, that ' Fish street' shall 
hereafter be called c State street.' 

This year, congress made a grant for lights on Plum island, and, 
on September fifteenth, Newburyport granted permission to William 
Bartlet, and others, to appoint a man to live on Plum island, to take 
care of the fort. 

September Ylih. Federal constitution unanimously accepted. 

From the Essex Journal I transcribe the following, namely : 

1 Newburyport, February 13th, 1788. On Thursday last we had the pleasing 
account of the ratification of the new constitution by the convention of this com- 
monwealth. A general joy diffused itself through all ranks of people in this 
town on this glorious news. We heartily congratulate our readers on this aus- 
picious event, rendered peculiarly happy in the prospect it affords that our sister 
state of New Hampshire, whose interests and whose dispositions are so similar 
to our own ? will have an additional inducement to add a seventh pillar to the 
great federal edifice already so far advanced. 

On Friday afternoon the" principal gentlemen of the trade and officers of the 
militia of the town, being informed that the delegates from this town and New- 
bury were on their way home, and being disposed to show some mark of their 
satisfaction at the adoption of the constitution, and of their warm approbation 
of the conduct of those honorable and worthy gentlemen in convention, met 
them at Newbury green, and escorted them into town, where they were received 
amidst the acclamations of a numerous collection of their applauding fellow- 

This year, a deer was tracked from Ash street, in west Newbury, 
to cape Ann woods, by Messrs. Silas Moulton and Abraham Adams, 
who were unable to find him. In the same year, the same persons 
killed one hundred and eighty common foxes, and two silver gray 

* Dwight's travels. 


March 26th. i Kent street was allowed and approved as laid out,' 
by the town of Newburyport. 


October 2Sth. The town of Newburyport this day held a meet- 
ing, to make suitable arrangements for the reception of the president 
of the United States, general George Washington. They published 
a handbill, commencing thus : 

'Newburyport, October 28th, 1789. 

f As this town is on Friday next to be honored with a visit from ' the man who 
inhabitants thereof this day in town meeting assembled, have agreed to the 
following order of procession.' 

Here follow the names of thirty-five classes of persons, with di- 
rections as to the manner in which the procession should move. 
From the Essex Journal and New Hampshire Packet, of November 
fourth, I make the following extract. 

'Newburyport, November 4th. Friday last the beloved PRESIDENT of the 
UNITED STATES made his entry into this town; and never did a person appear 
here, who more largely shared the affection and esteem of its citizens. He 
was escorted here by two Companies of Cavalry, from Ipswich and Andover, 
Marshall Jackson, the High Sheriff of the County of Essex, the Honorable 
Tristram Dalton, Esquire, Major General Titcomb, and a number of other 
officers, as well as several gentlemen from this and some neighbouring towns. 
On his drawing near, lie was saluted with thirteen discharges from the Artillery, 
after which, a number of young gentlemen placed themselves before him, and 
sang as follows : 

' He comes ! He comes ! The HERO comes ! 

Sound, sound your Trumpets, beat, beat your Drums : 

From Port, to Port, let Cannons roar, 

He 's welcome to New-England's shore. 

Welcome, welcome, welcome, welcome, 

Welcome to New-England's shore ! 

' Prepare ! Prepare ! your Songs prepare, 
Loud, loudly rend the echoing air : 
From Pole to Pole, his praise resound, 
For Virtue is with glory crown'd. 

Virtue, virtue, virtue, virtue, 

Virtue is with Glory crown'd ! ' 

' The lines in the first verse, which call for the beating of drums and roaring 
(of cannon, were instantly obeyed after the pronunciation of each word : and to 
.the vocal was joined all the instrumental music in both choruses, which were 
repeated : "Mien the PRESIDENT, preceded by the several companies of Militia 
and Artillery of this town, the Musicians, Selectmen, High Sheriff, and Mar- 
shall Jackson, passed the Ministers. Physicians, Lawyers, Magistrates, Town- 
officers. Marine Society, Tradesmen and Manufacturers, Captains of Vessels, 
Sailors, School-masters, with their Scholars, and so forth, and so forth, who had 
paraded and opened to the right arid left for that purpose, each of whom, as the 
PRESIDENT passed, closed and joined in procession, which was terminated by 
about four hundred and twenty Scholars, all with Quills in their hands, headed 
by their Preceptors Their motto, l We are the free-born subjects of the United 


'After the PRESIDENT had arrived at the house prepared for his reception, a 
Feu-de-joy was fired by the several companies of Militia ; and in the evening 
some Fire-works and excellent Rockets were played off opposite thereto. Much 
praise is due to the citizens of Newbury-port, and others, assembled on the oc- 
casion, for their orderly behaviour through the day and evening. 

1 Saturday morning the PRESIDENT sat out for Portsmouth under the same 
escort which conducted him to this town, to which were added, a large number 
of military and other gentlemen of Newbury-port. who accompanied him to 
the line of New -Hampshire, where he was met by his Excellency General 
Sullivan, President of the State of New- Hampshire, with four companies of 
Light-horse, who conducted him to Portsmouth. 

' The PRESIDENT passed through the towns of Amesbury and Salisbury, 
where several companies of Militia were paraded, which saluted as he passed. 

' The Marine- Society of this town prepared and decorated a handsome Barge, 
for the purpose of carrying the PRESIDENT across Merrimack River, which was 
previously sent (commanded by one of the society) opposite to Amesbury Ferry, 
where it waited his arrival. The Barge-men were all dressed in white. 

1 On the PRESIDENT'S crossing the river at Amesbury. he was paid, by Captain 
Joseph A. de Murrietta, of Tenerlffe. the Salute of his Nation, (twenty-one guns) 
his ship being elegantly dressed. We cannot but admire, among the many ami- 
able traits in the PRESIDENT'S character, that of his politeness to Foreigners, 
which was repeated on this occasion. 

' Soon after the PRESIDENT'S arrival in this town, he was presented with the 
following Address. 

1 To the President of the United States. 

1 SIR : When, by the unanimous suffrages of your countrymen, you were 
called to preside over their public councils, the citizens of the town of Newbu- 
ry-port participated in the general joy, that arose from anticipating an adminis- 
tration conducted by the man, to whose wisdom and valor they owed their 

1 Pleasing were their reflections, that he, who, by the blessing of Heaven, had 
given them their independence, would again relinquish the felicities of domes- 
tic retirement, to teach them its just value. 

' They have seen you, victorious, leave the field, followed with the applauses 
of a grateful country ] and they now see you, entwining the Olive with the 
Laurel, and, in peace, giving security and happiness to a people, whom in war 7 
you covered with glory. 

1 At the present moment, they indulge themselves in sentiments of joy, result- 
ing from a principle, perhaps less elevated, but. exceedingly dear to their hearts, 
from a gratification of their affection, in beholding personally among them, the 
Friend, the Benefactor, and the Father of their country. 

* They cannot hope, Sir, to exhibit any peculiar marks of attachment to your 
person ; for, could they express their feelings of the most ardent and sincere 
gratitude, they would only repeat the sentiments, which are deeply impressed 
upon the hearts of all their fellow-citizens : but. in justice to themselves, they 
beg leave to assure you, that, in no part of the United States, are those senti- 
ments of gratitude and affection more cordial and animated, than in the town, 
which, at thia time, is honored with your presence. 

1 Long, Sir, may you continue the ornament and support of these States, and 
may the period be late, when you shall be called to receive a reward, adequate- 
to your virtues, which it is not in the power of your country to bestow.' 

' To the foregoing Address the PRESIDENT was pleased to reply as follows. 

1 To the Citizens of the town of Newbury-port. 

( GENTLEMEN : The demonstrations of respect and affection which you are 
pleased to pay to an individual, whose highest pretension is to rank as your 
fellow-citizen. are of a nature too distinguished not to claim the warmest return 
that gratitude can make. 


'My endeavours to be useful to my country have been no more than the result 
of conscious duty. Regards like yours, would reward services of the highest 
estimation and sacrifice : Yet. it is due to my feelings, that I should tell you 
those regards are received with esteem, and replied to with sincerity. 

' In visiting the town of Newbury-port, I have obeyed a favorite inclination, 
arid I am much gratified by the indulgence. In expressing a sincere wish for 
its prosperity, and the happiness of its inhabitants, I do justice to my own senti- 
ments and their merit. 


President Washington came into town, over the river Parker 
bridge. On reaching the upper green, he left his carriage, and 
mounted his horse. At South street, he was stopped, and the pre- 
ceding ode sung. He was then escorted to Newburyport, where 
he received the address, which was written by John Quincy Adams, 
then a student at law, in the office of Theophilus Parsons, esquire, 
who had been appointed by the town of Newburyport to prepare it. 

'November 16//i. This has been a day of much animation, for 
carriages and foot people have been constantly passing to see a 
whale, which some fishermen found at sea and towed up to Old 
town bridge.' ^ It was about sixty feet long. 

1 790. 

According to the census this year, Newbury had five hundred 
and thirty-eight houses, seven hundred and twenty-three families, 
and three thousand, nine hundred, and seventy-two inhabitants. 

Newburyport had six hundred and sixteen houses, nine hundred 
and thirty-nine families, and four thousand, eight hundred and thir- 
ty-seven inhabitants. At this time, the town owned six ships, forty- 
five brigantines, thirty-nine schooners, and twenty-eight sloops. 
Total, eleven thousand, eight hundred and seventy tons. 

In this year, only four chaises were owned in the first parish of 
Newbury, and were in the possession of the reverend John Tucker, 
Silas Little, esquire, Silas. Pearson, and deacon Daniel Hale. 

Ma/rch 9th. Newburyport voted to build a school-house about 
thirty feet by forty, ' near the hay scales.' 

April. John Wheelwright was drowned from a vessel at the 

Stephen Cross was this year appointed collector, Jonathan Tit- 
comb naval officer, and Michael Hodge surveyor of the port of 


March 22d. Newburyport voted to accept the following report. 

1 The committee have supposed it necessary, and therefore report that three 
or four women's schools shall be opened in some rooms hired for the purpose, 

* Miss Alice Tucker's diary. 


at convenient distances from each other, in different parts of the town ; and that 
some well instructed school dames shall be appointed for each to take charge 
of the younger classes of the female children, to learn them g >od manneis, and 
proper decency of behaviour, and to teach them their letters how to put them 
together in syllables, to learn them to spell, and finally to read with clearness 
and precision any chapter in the bible. To these instructions perhaps may be 
well added, where the parents shall desire it, the teaching plain or common 
needle work and knitting.' April, 1790. 

The scholars were to be between five and nine years of age. 

June 1st. Nathaniel Carter, of Newburyport, and eight others, 
petition for liberty to build a bridge over Merrimac river, at Deer 
island. Juno thirteenth, order of notice was given. 

June and July. A canal, one mile and a quarter long, to connect 
two rivers, was dug, to promote inland navigation between .New- 
buryport and Hampton, New Hampshire. 

In October of this year, a bear was seen in Bradford woods. 
On Saturday night, he visited the west parish in Newbury, crossed 
lisle y's hill, and was killed, on sabbath morning, by Amos Emery, 
on Emery's hill. 

November 4th. Town of Newbury opposed building of a bridge 
over the Merrimac river, at Deer island, and, on November thirtieth, 
reconsidered that vote, and, on December fifteenth, reconsidered 
their reconsideration, and instructed their representative 10 oppose it. 

From May twenty-fifth, 1790, to November nineteenth, 1791, the 
number of vessels cleared from Newburyport, was one hundred and 

In the Newburyport Herald, of January twelfth of this year, I 
find an account oHhe establishment of Sunday schools in Philadel- 
phia, by some benevolent persons in the city, with this comment. 
* Pity their benevolence did not extend so far as to afford them tuition 
on days when it is lawful to follow such pursuits, and not thereby 
lay a foundation for the profanation of the sabbath.' 


January 9th. Town of Newbury sent a long remonstrance to 
the general court, against the erection of a bridge over Merrimac 

May 10th. ' Newburyport voted not to have arithmetic in the 
two extremes of the town, but in the centre grammar school only.' 

May 16th. Newburyport again voted to send a petition to the 
general court, praying ; that the town may be reimbursed the expen- 
ces of sinking piers, building a fort,' and so forth. 

September 10th. Town of Newburyport 'voted not to grant the 
petition of Anthony Mors and others requesting leave to make use 
of the town house for the reverend Charles W. Milton to preach in.' 

November 26th. On this day, Essex Merrimac bridge was 
opened for the public. ' It consisted in fact of two bridges resting 
on Deer island in the midst of the river.' It was, when finished, 


one thousand and thirty feet long, thirty-four wide ; height of arch 
above high water mark, thirty-seven feet, and contained six thousand 
tons of timber. It was built in seven" months, under the direction 
of Mr. Timothy Palmer, of Newburyport, a native of Boxford. 


March. A cod fish was sold in Newburyport, weighing ninety- 
eight pounds, five feet and a half in length, and girth at the thickest 
place, three feet four inches. 

April 1st. Newburyport * voted to build a new work house.' 

May 7th. Newbury ' voted that no person be allowed to put a 
seine, hedge, weir, or drag net into the river Parker at any season 
for the purpose of fishing for, or catching of, any bass, shad or ale- 
wives in said river, and that no person catch any of said fish with 
a dip net or any other way from December first to April first.' 

March 13th. Reverend John Murray died. 

June llth, 1793. A meeting-house was this day raised, sixty- 
seven feet by sixty, in Temple street, for a society gathered by the 
labors of the reverend Charles W. Milton. 

July Mh. ' This day,' says the Essex Journal, ' Timothy Dexter 
delivered an oration at Essex Merrimac bridge, which for elegance 
of style, propriety of speech, and force of argument, was truly 
Ciceronian.' ! ! 

July 6th. The town of Ipswich was visited by a severe hail 
storm, which broke, in a few moments, four thousand, nine hundred 
and forty-six panes of glass. Many of the stones were as large as 
hens' eggs. 

October 18th. Captain Timothy Newman, of Boston, son of 
doctor John Newman, of Newburyport, was taken by an Algerine 
corsair, chained, handcuffed, and allowed nothing but bread and 

In December, doctor William B. Leonard offers his services, as 
a physician, to the good people of Newburyport. He states, that 
he has been a physician thirty-five years, and that ' a kind Providence 
has enabled him to spring out of the iron chains of tyranny, horror, 
devastation and murder to the only summit of liberty under the sun 
and where the diadem of a despot was hurled down to the bottom- 
less abyss.' ! ! 

This year, a hospital was built, in common pasture, by Newbury- 
port, in which the inhabitants were admitted, by classes, in order to 
be inoculated for the small pox, under the care of doctor Charles 
Coffin, junior. 

August 1th. Newburyport ' voted unanimously that in the opin- 
ion of this town the neutrality of the United States during the war 
now waged by the several belligerent powers in Europe is consistent 
with the honor and good faith of our government, and not repug- 
nant to any of the treaties now existing between the United States 
and any of those powers.' 



February 19 th. Town voted to set off the three north westerly 
parishes, into a separate town, by themselves, and to choose a com- 
mittee of nine persons, to see it equitably done, and, on April sev- 
enth, voted to choose a committee, to petition the general court to 
set them off, and, April twenty-third, reconsidered it, one hundred 
and eighty to five. 

In June of this year, the first incorporated woolen factory in 
Massachusetts, was erected, at the falls of the river Parker, in New- 
bury. The machinery was made in Newburyport, by Messrs. Stan- 
dring, -Armstrong, and Guppy. 

' Very dry summer. The brooks did not begin to fill up till Oc- 
tober twenty-seventh, nor the grist mills to grind corn.' Stephen 
Brown! s journal 

May 13th. New r buryport c unanimously past a resolution to this 
effect. That in their opinion the embargo ought to be continued, 
and it was their wish it might be, as long as the public exigencies 
require it.' 

July 19th. Eight persons, belonging to the third parish of New- 
bury, now second in West Newbury, weje drowned, while crossing 
the Merrimac in a boat. Their names were, Edmund Kendrick, 
who left a wife and three children, Sarah Brown, Mercy Pilsbury, 
Alehetabel Brown, Nabby Hale, Polly, Rebecca, and Joshua Chase. 
The last four were children of Joshua Chase. Six of them were 
carried to the grave in one procession. A sermon was preached on 
the occasion, by the reverend David Toppan. 

September ISth. Newburyport passed two by-laws, the one to 
prohibit any person from smoking any pipe or cigar in any street, 
lane, or alley, under a penalty of two shillings for every offence, the 
other inflicting a like penalty on the owner of l every duck or goose, 
gander or drake found in Frog pond.' 

This year, the fourth religious society in Newburyport, was incor- 
porated. It originated \vith a few individuals, who separated from 
the first presbyterian society, in order to attend the ministry of the 
reverend Charles W. Milton, who had been invited to visit Newbu- 
ryport by the reverend John Murray, pastor of the first presbyterian 
church, as the following letter and extract will show. 

1 Newburyport, April 12th, 1789. 

1 Reverend sir : the news of your mission by that truly venerable mother in 
Israel made my heart to leap for joy. The success that has attended your labors 
and those of your worthy colleague since your arrival in New Brunswick has 
drawn out the gratitude and praises of many to Him with whom the residue of 
the spirit is. Both these things have conspired to induce me to wish a visit 
from you to this town. In this I was encouraged by an overture in a letter from 
our pious and worthy mutual friend, doctor Calef, last winter, accompanied by 
a very agreeable present of books from yourself. In reply to the doctor I pressed 
him to prevail with you to come this way in the spring, that I might enjoy your 
good assistance at our sacrament in May, and have the comfort of having you 


with my people, while I pursue a journey intended (D. V.) at that time. My 
hopes were sanguine that captain Lovett would have brought you with him this 
last trip, but he is returned without you, arid without any news of you or my 
friend. I am the more afflicted with the disappointment because it has pleased 
God to awaken a number in my congregation and another in this town, besides 
sundry places in the vicinity. In this state of things who can tell what might 
be the consequence if you should be moved of the Holy Ghost to come over 
and help us ? I sincerely long for that privilege, and if your other engagements 
will permit it I should be very happy to receive you from captain Lovell's hands 
when he returns. 

1 Although I have dated my letter at Newburyport I am now writing at Ames- 
bury, snatching an opportunity of sending it on board by an unexpected chance, 
lest the vessel should be gone before I get home: this prevents my sending 
you three poor sermons of mine which I lately printed. 

' Please to make my kind salutations to doctor Calef and his lady. Tell him, 
had I been at home, my disappointment should not have prevented my writing 
to him. 

' May the presence of Him, who dwelt in the bush be ever with you. I am 
with genuine feelings of fraternal love and esteem, reverend sir, 
Your unworthy fellow servant in the dear Immanuel, 


In another letter, dated July twenty-eighth, 1791, Mr. Murray 
thus writes : 

t From your principles, connections, and character, many of my people, as 
early as they heard of your corm'ng to St. Johns began to long for a personal 
acquaintance with you. 

1 My own hearty concurrence with their desires, induced me once to trouble 
you with a letter, requesting a visit from you. Since that request was known, 
my people have cherished expectations of seeing you here. After these had 
been so long frustrated, it gave them and me very sensible pleasure to find the 
Centinel announce your arrival in Boston last week. Since that time we have 
not been without hopes of your giving us an earlier opportunity of bidding you 
welcome to Newburyport as well as to New England.' 

In consequence of these invitations, Mr. Milton came to Newbu- 
ryport, preached for Mr. Murray, and was invited to settle in Ames- 
bury, but his friends, unwilling to lose his ministrations, determined 
to settle and support him. 

October 6th. Newburyport voted to have four conduits, ' in case 
of fire and to have a town watch to consist of four men for the first 
six months, and two men for the remainder of the year.' 

Newbury and Newburyport were this year surveyed, and maps 
were taken, which were deposited in the office of the secretary of 

November 6th. An organ was put up in first congregational 
church in Newburyport. 

November 19th. Reverend Daniel Dana was ordained pastor of 
the first presbyterian church and congregation in Newburyport. 
This caused a secession of a considerable number of persons, who 
formed the second presbyterian church in Newburyport. 



March 10/A. Town voted, that the inhabitants of Newbury have 
liberty to attend public worship where they choose, and be exempt 
from "taxation elsewhere, and to petition the general court to confirm 
the above vote. 

In July of this year, the reverend John Boddily came to Newhu- 
ryport, and was installed pastor of the second presbyterian church, 
in 1797. He was born in Bristol, England, April twelfth, 1755, 
began to preach in London, 1778, ordained at Weslbury, November 
eighth, 1780; thence he went to Walsal, thence to Wallingford, 
where he preached till 1795. On September nineteenth, 1802, he 
preached his last sermon, and died November fourth, 1802, in his 
forty-eighth year. 

This summer was remarkably moist. ' Throughout ten weeks, 
commencing from the middle of June, it rained during a greater or 
less part of half the days. The peas in the pod germinated six 
inches, and several other seeds proportionally, and more rain fell 
during the season than had been known for the preceding eighty 
years. 1 * 

July 2d. Newburyport 'voted unanimously the thanks of the 
town be given to Mr." Timothy Dexter for the generous offer he has 
this day made to the town of building a market at his own expense.' 

In this year, the second presbyterian society was formed, by a 
number of persons, for the purpose of attending the ministry of the 
reverend John Boddily. 

November 26th. This day, trie bridge erected at ' Holt's rocks,' 
between Ne\vbury and Haverhill, and which is called the 4 Rock's 
bridge,' was opened for travelers. It was one thousand feet in 
length, and was the longest bridge over the Merrimac. It had four 
arches, a draw, and was supported by five piers and two abutments. 
It was swept away by the ice, in 1818. 


March I3th. l Newburyport voted to accept of * Harris street ' 
and ' Pleasant street' as laid out by the selectmen,' and, on April 
fourth, ' voted to accept of ' Broad street ' and ' Essex street,' and to 
build a brick school house at the southerly end of ihe mall.' 

May. In the Newburyport Herald of this month, appears the 
confession and acknowledgment of one Solomon Tole, who asks 
pardon for his imposition, having pretended, during a part of his 
fourteen years' absence from home, that he was John Pike, the son 
of John and Martha Pike, of Newburyport, and had called himself 
by that name. His intended imposition, and the discovery of the 
whole plot, by the late John My call, esquire, would furnish ample 

* Dwight's travels. 


materials for an interesting pamphlet. He was a native of Epping, 
New Hampshire. 

In June of this year, the yellow fever commenced its ravages in 
Newburyport, and between that time and the fifth of October, forty- 
four persons died. 

December 22d. Second presbyterian church dedicated. The 
corner stone was laid May sixteenth, and the frame of the building 
raised June second. 


May Sth. Beck street and Ship street accepted by Newburyport, 
as laid out, and, on September twenty-first, Spring street, land, on 
October twelfth, Lime street. 

May 9th. A large house on Carr's island was destroyed by fire. 

This year, captain Carter, of brig Katy, of Newburyport, was 
taken by a French privateer, who took out all the crew, except the 
captain and two men, and ordered her* to a French port. They re- 
took the vessel, and arrived safe in Boston, July eleventh. 

August 2Bth. Mr. William Noyes, aged twenty-three, was thrown 
from his horse, and so severely wounded, by a sythe which he was 
carrying, that he survived the accident but twenty-four hours. 

November Sth. The dwelling house of Mr. Moses Savery, who 
was out of town, was destroyed by fire, about one o'clock at night, 

and his two apprentices, Spencer Bailey and Carrier, were 

consumed in the flames. 

December 5th. The grist and saw mills at Pine island, were 
destroyed by fire. 


1 From November twenty-eighth 1797 till March twenty-ninth of 
this year, the river Merrimac was frozen over above Amesbury ferry.' 

In January, John Foss, who had been taken by the Algerines, in 
the Polly, commanded by captain Michael Smith, in 1793, pub- 
lished an interesting narrative of his captivity. 

April 30th. Newburyport, by their appointed committee, ad- 
dressed a complimentary letter to president Adams, ' pledging their 
lives and fortunes to support the measures judged necessary by the 
president and congress, to preserve and secure the happiness, the 
dignity, and the essential inrerests of the United States,' and so 
forth, to which the president made an appropriate reply, May eighth. 

On June first, a number of the inhabitants of Newburyport, ad- 
dressed a letter to the honorable Bailey Bartlet, member of congress, 
commencing thus : 

* Sir, a number of the inhabitants of this town have agreed to build 
and equip a ship of three hundred and fifty-five tons burthen to be 
mounted with twenty six pound cannon, and to offer to the govern- 
ment of the United States for their use,' and so forth, and so forth. 


The proposal was accepted, the keel laid July ninth, and, on Octo- 
ber twelfth, she was launched, having been completed in seventy- 
five working days, and sent to sea, under the command of captain 
Moses Brown. She was called the Merrimac, and having ' run 
about five years, was sold to the merchants, and was soon after 
wrecked on cape Cod.' % 

December \th. < This night Mr. Richard Jackman and his son 
about eleven years of age, who went to Plum island on the prece- 
ding day after wood and were not able to get home with their boat 
by reason of the wind and coldness of the night, made an attempt 
to come home by land, but being chilled with the cold, died with 
his son in his arms, after having got within half a mile of his own 
house.' [ 


December \\ih. George Washington died. 


January 2d. Agreeably to previous arrangements, a procession 
was formed in Market square, and moved thence, through State, 
Pleasant, Green, Water, Merrimac, and Federal streets, up to the 
reverend Daniel Dana's meeting-house,, where an eulogy was 
delivered by Thomas Paine, A. M., who afterward took the name 
of Robert Treat Paine, being desirous, as he expressed it, i of having 
a Christian name.' 

The stores in town were closed and all business suspended. The 
colors of the shipping were at half mast, and minute guns were 
fired, during the march of the procession to the meeting-house, 
which was crowded with an attentive audience. 

February 22d. This day was observed, according to a previous 
vote by the parish of Byfield, in commemoration of the death of 
Washington, by the tolling of the bell one hour in the morning, an 
oration, and so forth. 

April 9th. Washington street was laid out. 

May 22d. The corner stone of saint Paul's church was laid, with 
masonic ceremonies. Underneath it, were deposited a variety of 
medals and coins, with a plate, engraven in Hebrew and masonic 
characters, and another, with this inscription : ' this corner stone of 
saint Paul's church (founded A. D. 1738) was laid by the right 
reverend brother Edward Bass, D. D. bishop of Massachusetts and 
rector of this church assisted by the M. W. Samuel Dunn esquire, 
G. master, the D. G. master, the grand wardens and brethren of the 
G. lodge of Massachusetts, on the feast of the holy ascension in 
the year of grace MDCCC, and of the United States XXIV.' 

This year, Mr. Timothy Palmer was chosen surveyor of the high- 

* Cushing's history of Newburyport. t Davis's journal. 


ways, in Newburyport. Under his skillful supervision, the roads 
and lanes of the town assumed a new and greatly improved appear- 
ance. The first improvement of any nole, was in High street, near 
Frog pond. Time was, when at the lower end of the mall, as it 
now stands, there was an eminence, on which a windmill was erect- 
ed, in 1703, and remained till 1771. Afterward, on the margin 
of the pond, stood Crocker's rope walk, and, al the upper end, a pot- 
ash manufactory. At the head of Green street, there were the old 
gun house, and a ravine or gully, one hundred and eighty feet in 
length, and fifteen feet deep in the deepest place. The other incum- 
brances having been successively removed, captain Edmund Bartlet 
began, on June twenty-sixth, to fill up the gully, and in August, the 
mall as it now stands was completed, at an expense of about eigh- 
teen hundred dollars, of which fourteen hundred were generously 
given by captain Bartlet. For this munificence, he received the 
thanks of the town, and the mall is called ' Bartlet mall/ On July 
tenth, Newburyport voted to purchase the ground on which then 
stood the first parish meeting-house. This was effected at an expense 
of eight thousand dollars, of which the town paid four thousand and 
four hundred. The remaining three thousand and six hundred dol- 
lars was collected by voluntary contributions, and by an assessment 
on the owners of the land near the meeting-house. The land thus 
purchased, received the name of Market square. 


May. A bell was given to the second presbyterian church in 
Newburyport, by Timothy Dexter. 

September 27th. On this day, the reverend Thomas Gary 
preached for the last time in the meeting-house in Market square. 
The next day, the building was demolished, a well dug through 
the solid rock, and the town pump erected, near the spot where the 
pulpit formerly stood. 

October. The new meeting-house, erected in Pleasant street, 
for the use of the first church and society, was this day dedicated. 
Sermon by the reverend John Andrews. 


January 24M. < This day,' says the historian of Haverhill, 'the 
weather was so warm that the ice in the Merrimac moved with the 
tide, and there was but little snow till February twenty-second/ 
From this day, for nearly a week, an unusual quantity of snow and 
hail fell, so that, in the opinion of doctor Dwight, been as 
light as the snow in 1717, which was six feet deep, the snow would 
have been eight feet deep. So hard was the crust, that loaded 
sleighs passed any where over the fences. The honorable Bailey 


Bartlet, Ichabod Tucker, and some others, rode to Ipswich over the 
fences in a large double sleigh. 

May llth. Town of Newbury ' voted unanimously that the 
erection of a bridge across Merrimac river from Salisbury to any 
part of Newbury will not be beneficial to the public at large, but a 
public injury,' and so forth, and also voted to oppose the turnpike 
road going through Newbury. 

May 31st. Newburyport voted, that the proposed bridge and 
turnpike road to New Hampshire line, ' would be of great public 
utility and convenience,' and so forth. Each town voted to instruct 
their 'representatives accordingly. 

In March and October, Roberts street and Spring street were laid 
out and accepted. 

September 22d. There was a violent tornado, the wind blowing 
from south west to north east, in a vein of about eighty rods wide. 
It swept away entirely from its foundation, the house of Mr. David 
Bartlet in the west parish. 

December 13th. Newbury voted to lay out a four rod way, from 
Essex Merrimac bridge to Water street, at an expense of one thou- 
sand and eighty-two dollars. 

Merrimac Humane Society was instituted this year. 


March 1st. Active Fire Society formed in Newburyport. 

May. Mail stage commenced running from Haverhill to New- 

December 31st. The shipping of Newburyport consisted, at this 
time, of nine ships, thirty-two brigs, thirty-four schooners, and six- 
teen sloops. 

August 23d. On this day, the directors of the Newburyport 
turnpike commenced operations. The number of shares was nine 
hundred and ninety-five, which, at nearly four hundred and twenty 
dollars a share, amounted to more than four hundred and seven- 
teen thousand dollars. It was completed in 1806. 

Female Charitable Society was instituted June eighth. 


October 2d. Newburyport ' voted unanimously that the town 
will concur with the honorable court of sessions in placing a new 
court house on land between Frog pond and the mall directly 
fronting Green street.' 

October IQth. There was a severe storm. Nearly one hundred 
head of cattle were killed. Thirty were found dead in a small 




In this year, the new court house was erected. 

May. Newbury appropriated two hundred dollars, to build two 
engine houses. 

August. Charter street laid out and accepted. 

This summer there was a severe drought. 

Plum island turnpike, and the bridge over Plum island river, were 
made this year. 

In November, there belonged to Newburyport forty-one ships, 
sixty-two brigs, two snows, two barques, and sixty-six schooners, 
besides sloops. 


May \tli. On this day, the reverend John S. Popkin preached 
for the last time in the old meeting-house in the first parish, New- 
bury. It was torn down May sixth. 


une 16A, the day of the total eclipse of the sun, the sills of the 
new meeting-house were laid, and, on September seventeenth, the 
new house was dedicated. 

This summer there was a severe drought. 

The amount of tonnage in the shipping of Massachusetts,, this 
year, was four hundred and fifty thousand and sixty-one tons, of 
which, thirty-one thousand, nine hundred, and forty-one tons, was 
owned in Newburyport. 



September 2lst. Newburyport i voted that the generous donation 
made to the town by the late Mr. Timothy Dexter of two thousand 
dollars, the interest of which he directed the overseers of the poor 
annually to distribute to such of the poor of the town, as are the 
most necessitous, who are not in the work house, is an act of benev- 
olence, which the town accept, and acknowledge with gratitude 
and thankfulness. 7 

November 9lh. Newburyport purchased the county's interest in 
the court house, for seven hundred and fifty dollars. 

December 22d. Congress passed an act of embargo, by which 
all the ports of the United States were closed against the clearance 
of all vessels. Whatever may have been said or thought of the 
propriety or impropriety of this act of the general government, it is 
certain that the enforcement of the law occasioned great suffering 
everywhere, but particularly in commercial places. ' Thousands 
of seamen were thrown out of employment and the harbors of our 
sea-ports were filled with dismantled vessels.' In the language of 
Fairfield, * the grass-grown wharves were beaten with their decaying 
hulks, and the timid land-bird rested on their rotting shrouds.' The 
people of Newburyport were great sufferers by this measure, which 


met, both in Newbury and Newburyport, with great opposition, a 
large majority in both towns being opposed to the policy of the 
general government. The votes in Newbury were this year three 
hundred and fifty-five for Caleb Strong, and for James Sullivan one 
hundred and seventy-one, and in Newburyport, five hundred and 
ninety-two to two hundred and fifty-one. 


June 15th. Baptist meeting-house in Newburyport was dedicated. 

June 27th. Violent tornado, which did great damage. 

August 2d. The town of Newbury met, and, on August ninth, 
the town of Newburyport met, to take into consideration ' the dis- 
tressing situation of our country occasioned by the general embar- 
go,' and so forth. Each of the towns unanimously voted, to send 
a petition to the president of the United States, which was done. 
These petitions may be found in the town records, but are too long 
for insertion here. 

September 28th. The Andover institution was this day opened. 
Mr. William Bartlet having previously given twenty thousand dol- 
lars, Mr. Moses Brown ten thousand dollars, and Mr. John Norris 
ten thousand dollars, as a capital fund. The two former were of 
Newburyport, the latter of Salem. 


January '12th. Town of Newburyport had a meeting, and, after 
having passed a series of resolutions, they presented a memorial to 
the general court respecting the embargo, and other matters. On 
January twenty-third, the town of Newbury took the same course, 
with resolves and a memorial of like tenor. These resolves and 
memorials are of great length, and are written with much spirit and 
ability. They are too long for publication, and an abbreviation 
would not do them j ustice. 

February 9th. Newburyport * voted to establish one or more 
soup-houses for the relief of the poor.' 

March 1st. The embargo was repealed, but all trade and inter- 
course with France and England were interdicted. 

May 13th. The old town house in Newburyport was torn down. 

December 2Qth. Merrimac Bible Society was instituted. 

This year the baptist meeting-house was built, in Liberty street 


September 14th. There was another tornado in the westerly part 
of Newbury, with much rain. It carried off Mr. David Ordway's 
barn, and did much damage in Mr. Joseph Newell's wood lot. 


November 9th. In the evening, there was a severe shock of an 

In this year, there were built on the Merrimac river, twenty-one 
ships, thirteen brigs, one schooner, and seven others, the total ton- 
nage of which, was above twelve thousand tons.^ 

Newburyport Athenaeum was incorporated, and the town hall 
built. The Essex Merrimac bridge was rebuilt this year by a Mr. 
Templeman. It was the first chain bridge in New England. 


February 2d. A great snow storm commenced, and continued 
three days. It was piled up in reefs, in some places more than fif- 
teen feet.f 

February. First Baptist Society in Newbury and Newburyport 
was incorporated. 

May 31st. Friday. On this evening, about half past nine 
o'clock, commenced one of the most disastrous fires, with which 
Newburyport, or perhaps any town in the state, was ever visited. 
From a pamphlet, dated Newburyport, June fifth, 1811, I make the 
following extract. 


1 On Friday evening last, at half past nine o'clock, the citizens of this town 
were alarmed with the cry of fire, which proved to have taken effect at the 
place where they have so repeatedly been summoned in the course of the 
present season on a similar occasion ; and where it has for some time past been 
anxiously feared some vile incendiary intended to accomplish the purpose 
which is now effected. The fire commenced in an unimproved stable in 
Mechanic row, owned by David Lawrence, w r hich at the moment when the fire 
was discovered was found to be completely enveloped in flames. It soon 
extended to the market and to State street, and spread in such various direc- 
tions as to baffle all exertions to subdue it. In a few hours, it prostrated every 
building on the north side of Cornhill, and both sides of State street from 
Cornhill to the market ; it then proceeded into Essex street, on the north east 
side, to the house of captain James Kettle, where it .was checked into Mid- 
dle street as far as Fair street on the north-east side and within a few rods 
thereof on the south-west side into Liberty street within one house of Inde- 
pendent street, and down Water street as far as Hudson's wharf, sweeping off 
every building within that circle. The whole of Centre street was laid in 
ashes, and the whole range of buildings in Merchant's row on the Ferrywharf, 
also all the stores on the several wharves between the market and Marquand's 
wharf, including the latter : thus clearing a large tract of land of sixteen and a 
half acres in a part of the town the most compact, and containing a much 
larger proportion of the wealth of the town than any other part. 

' It is estimated that nearly two hundred and fifty buildings were burnt, most 
of which were stores and dwelling-houses ; in which number nearly all the 
dry goods stores in town are included ; four printing offices, being the whole 
number in town : and including the Newburyport Herald office ; the custom 
house ; the surveyor's office ; the post office ; two insurance offices, (the Union 
and the Phenix ;) the baptist meeting-house ; four attorney's offices ; four book- 
stores, the loss in one of which is thirty thousand dollars, and also the town 

* Newburyport Herald. t Lewis's History of Lynn. 


1 Blunt's building and the Phenix building, two large four story brick build- 
ings, seemed to present a barrier to the destructive element, and great hopes 
were entertained for a time that they would effectually restrain its rage ; but by 
a sudden change of the wind the flames were carried directly upon these im- 
mense piles, which they soon overtopped, and involved in the calamity, which 
threatened to become general. State street at this time presented a spectacle 
most terribly sublime ! The wind soon after its change blew strong : these 
buildings which were much me highest in the street threw the fire in awful 
columns many yards into the air, and the flames extended in one continued 
sheet of fire across the spacious area ! 

1 The large brick baptist meeting-house, in Liberty street, hi which many had 
deposited their goods, furniture, &c. as (from its distance and construction) a 
place of undoubted safety, with its contents shared and increased the awful 

i At two o'clock in the morning the fire seemed to rage in every direction with 
irresistible fury, and the inhabitants saw very little prospect of preserving any 
portion of the town. Every thing was accomplished which intelligent and 
ardent exertion could effect : but they were disheartened by perceiving those 
efforts apparently without success. About four the danger diminished, and at 
six the fire had in a great degree spent its fury. 

1 The scene, says a gentleman, who was present during the night, was the 
most truly terrible I have ever witnessed. At the commencement of the fire, 
it was a bright moon light night, and the evening was cool and pleasant. But 
the moon gradually became obscured and at length disappeared in the thick 
cloud of smoke which shrouded the atmosphere. The glare of light through- 
out the town was intense, and the heat that of a sultry summer noon. The 
streets were thronged with those whose dwellings were consumed, conveying 
the remains of their property to places of safety. The incessant crash of 
falling buildings, the roaring of chimneys like distant thunder, the flames 
ascending in curling volumes from a vast extent of ruins, the air filled with a 
shower of fire, and the feathered throng fluttering over their wonted retreats, 
and dropping into the flames ; the looing of the cows, and the confused noise 
of exertion and distress, united to impress the mind with the most awful 

1 The loss of property is immense, and cannot fall short of one million of 
dollars. Upwards of ninety families are driven from their habitations with the 
loss of a very considerable part of their furniture and clothing, and many of 
them deprived of the means of furnishing themselves with the necessaries of 
life. The scene of horror presented to view by the ravages of one night, beg- 
gars all description.' 

* Within a few months after the fire, the sufferers received in do- 
nations, about one hundred and twenty-eight thousand dollars.' ^ 

A splendid cornet was seen on the eleventh of October between 
Arcturus and Lyra, and continued visible several months. 


The baptist meeting-house was built this year in Congress street 
April fah. An embargo for ninety days was passed by congress, 
and on June nineteenth, war was declared by the United States 
against Great Britain. On June twenty-fifth the town of Newbury- 
port held a public meeting i to express their sentiments on the sub- 
ject of a war with Great Britain,' and on June twenty-ninth the 

* Holmes's annals. 


town of Newbury held a public meeting for the same purpose. 
The latter town ' passed at a very full meeting without a dissenting 
vote,' a series of resolutions in decided opposition to the war. The 
former reported an address ' to the executive department and the 
legislature of the commonwealth, expressive of their readiness to 
support them in any constitutional measures, which they might 
adopt for the safety and welfare of the people of the commonwealth 
and also expressive of their disapprobation of the late declaration 
of war.' The committee, chosen by Newburyport to draft the me-, 
morial, were Nessrs. Jeremiah Nelson, John Pierpont, Joseph Dana, 
William Bartlet, and William Fans. 

This year the Franklin library was instituted, and the Newbu- 
ryport bank, and the Mechanic's bank, incorporated. The Mem- 
mac bank was incorporated June twenty-fifth, 1795, which was the 
first in town. 


January 31st. Town of Newbury voted to petition the legislature 
for some relief from the ruinous effects of the unconstitutional em- 
bargo law, forced and imposed on us by the general government. 

March 26th. Merrimac river was frozen over and so continued 
about two hours. 

June 12th. The grist mills of Mr. Silas Pearson, Newbury, were 
destroyed by fire. It was supposed to be the work of an incendiary. 
Loss between three and four thousand dollars. 

l June l&h. Newburyport voted that the selectmen be requested 
to cause the bells of the town to be rung from eleven o'clock to 
twelve on the day of the fifteenth of June in commemoration of 
the great events in Europe.' 


February 13th. News that a treaty of peace had been made at 
Ghent, arrived in Newbury this day, and on the seventeenth it was 
ratified by the president. 

September 23d. American missionaries, Messrs. Bardwell, Rich- 
ards, Meigs, and Poor, sailed from Newburyport for Ceylon. 


April 1st. The meeting-house in Newbury, Belleville, was this 
day struck by lightning and consumed. 
This summer was an unusually cold one. 


July 12th. James Monroe, president of the United States, passed 
through Newbury and Newburyport. He was received with all 


those marks of honor and respect due to his personal worth as well 
as his exalted station. 


March 4th. Newbury voted to procure a lot of land to build a 
town house on. 

February 13th. The Howard Benevolent Society of Newbury- 
port was formed. 


The west part of Newbury was this year set off into a separate 
township, and incorporated by the name of Parsons, which was 
afterward changed to that of "West Newbury. 


The Newbury port Savings bank was incorporated. 


May 10th. Stephen M. Clark, of Newburyport, aged about 
seventeen years, was executed at Salem for the crime of arson. 

This year, the town of Newbury was divided into nine school 
districts, and, for the first and only time since the settlement of the 
town, the selectmen received no pay for their services. In 1822, 
the Marine Bible Society was formed in Newburyport, and in 1823, 
the Market hall was erected. It stands on what was once called 
the ' middle ship yard.' 


March. The town of Newburyport voted that the thanks 'of 
the town be given to John Porter, esquire, for his unparalleled 
exertions in collecting the whole taxes committed to him the past 

August 31st. The marquis Lafayette passed through Newbury 
and Newburyport. He arrived late in the evening in the midst of 
a heavy shower to town, where great preparations had been made to 
welcome the illustrious guest The next day thousands went to see 
him, and were highly gratified to see and grasp the hand of the man 
with whose name and history many of them had been so long familiar. 


This year the difficulty, which had so long existed between the 
town of Newburyport and the < proprietors' ' committee, was adjust- 


ed, the latter giving the former a deed of all the land owned by 
them within the limits of Newburyport for twelve hundred dollars. 
July 4th. John Adams, in his ninety -first year, and Thomas 
Jefferson, in his eighty-third year, died this day a remarkable coin- 
cidence. A eulogy on the characters of these distinguished men 
was delivered in Newburyport, by Caleb Gushing, esquire. 


February 6th. This morning, about one o'clock, as Mr. David 
Jackman and Mr. Frederick Canton were driving a heavily loaded 
team, drawn by four oxen and a horse, over Essex Merrimac bridge, 
the chains broke and precipitated them into the river. Both the 
men with the horse were saved, but the oxen were drowned. The 
morning was very cold, and the bridge had on it a large quantity of 
snow and ice. 

This summer the new bridge, connecting Newburyport with Sal- 
isbury, was erected. It was passable August twenty-seventh, but 
was not completed till October. The whole cost was sixty-six 
thousand dollars. 

June 9th. John Tilton, aged nearly eight years, son of Mr. Dan- 
iel L. Tilton, Marlborough street, was instantaneously killed by 
Lightning, while standing near a window. 


Merrimac bridge, connecting West Newbury with the Rocks' 
village in Haverhill, was finished this fall. It is nine hundred feet 
in length, has four stone piers, two abutments and a draw. The 
bridge before this was carried away by a freshet in April, 1818. 


This year a c breakwater,' for which an appropriation of thirty- 
two thousand dollars had been made in 1828 by congress, was 
commenced across Plum island river. It is nineteen hundred feet 
in length, and runs in *a northwest direction. It was not completed 
till 1831, after another appropriation had been made by congress. 
The main object, for which it was erected, has not been accom- 
plished, though it has been in some respects beneficial. 


April 5th. Newbury voted not to grant licenses to any persons 
to sell ardent spirits. 



The first number of the Liberator, an anti-slavery paper, was 
published in Boston, by two natives of Newburyport, William 
Lloyd Garrison and Isaac Knapp. 


January 6th. The New England Anti-slavery society was formed 
by twelve persons, of whom two were from Newburyport and one 
from Newbury. The following is the preamble to the constitution 
of the society. 

1 We, the undersigned, hold that every person of full age and sane mind has 
a right to immediate freedom from personal bondage of whatsoever kind, unless 
imposed by the sentence of the law for the commission of some crime. We 
hold that man cannot, consistently with reason, religion, and the eternal and 
immutable principles of justice, be the property of man. We hold that whoever 
retains his fellow man in bondage is guilty of a grievous wrong. We hold that 
mere difference of complexion is no reason why any man should be deprived of 
any of his natural rights, or subjected to any political disability. While we 
advance these opinions as the principles on which we intend to act, we declare 
that we will not operate on the existing relations of society by other than peace- 
ful and lawful means, and that we will give no countenance to violence or in- 

January 13th. About four o'clock, P. M., Mr. Henry Page, har- 
ness maker, was found dead in his shop in Liberty street, New- 
buryport, having been -twice stabbed by some person or persons 
unknown. All attempts to discover the murderer have hitherto 
proved ineffectual. 


Ocean bank of Newburyport incorporated. 


May 26th. This day, according to previous arrangements made 
by the citizens of the three towns that once constituted 'ould 
Newberry,' the two hundredth anniversary of the settlement of the 
town was celebrated. A salute of twenty-four guns was fired at 
sunrise, and a similar salute at sunset. At ten o'clock a procession 
was formed at the town house in Newbury, which moved at half 
past ten, escorted by the Newburyport artillery company, and the 
Byfield rifle company; went down the turnpike to High street, 
thence down High street to Federal street, thence down Federal to 
Middle street, thence through Market square, Broadway, and Merri- 
mac street, up Market street, through Berry street and Brown's 


square to Pleasant street church, where an address was delivered 
by the honorable Caleb Gushing, and an ode and hymn written for 
the occasion by the honorable George Lunt, were sung. After the 
services of the church were concluded, about seven hundred per- 
sons dined at the pavilion, erected for the purpose near the New- 
bury town house. The sentiments and speeches on the occasion, 
were, it is said, of a superior order. Lieutenant governor Arm- 
strong, the honorable Messrs. Everett, Phillips, Gushing, and Lunt, 
colonel Winthrop and colonel Swett of Boston, judge White of 
Salem, and several other gentlemen, addressed the company, which 
did not separate till sundown. In the evening the ladies gave a 
splendid tea party at the town hall in Newburyport, which was 
numerously attended, and which added no little eclat to the festivi- 
ties. The newspapers of the day furnish us with a long account 
of the toasts, sentiments, speeches, anecdotes, and so forth, which 
the celebration elicited, but I have no room for the narration. I 
can find room only for the following ode. 


Over the mountain wave, 
See where they come ; 
Storm-cloud and wintry wind 

Welcome them home ; 
Yet where the sounding gale 

Howls to the sea, 
There their song peals along, 
Deep-toned and free : 
Pilgrims and wanderers, 

Hither we come ; 
Where the free dare to be 
This is our home ! 

England hath sunny dales, 

Dearly they bloom ; 
Scotia hath heather-hills, 

Sweet their perfume ; 
Yet through the wilderness, 

Cheerful we stray ; 
Native land, native land, 
Home, far away ! 

Pilgrims and wanderers, 

Hither we come ; 
Where the free dare to be 
This is our home ! 

Dim grew the forest-path, 

Onward they trod ; 
Firm beat their noble hearts, 

Trusting in God ! 
Gray men and blooming maids, 

High rose their song ; 
Hear it sweep, clear and deep, 
Ever along: 

Pilgrims and wanderers, 

Hither we come ; 
Where the free dare to be 
This is our home ! 


Not theirs the glory-wreath 

Torn by the blast 5 
Heavenward their holy steps, 

Heavenward they past ; 
Green be their mossy graves ! 

Ours be their fame ; 
While their song peals along, 
Ever the same : 
Pilgrims and wanderers, 

Hither we come ; 
Where the free dare to be 
This is our home ! 

Thus ended the second centennial celebration of the settlement of 
Newbury ; the completion of the first century, in 1735, having been, 
according to tradition, duly noticed in the front yard of colonel Jo- 
seph Coffin's house, where his great grandson, the compiler of this 
work, now resides. 


May 24th. The town of Newbury voted to loan to the state, at 
five per centum, their portion of the surplus revenue. This was 
accordingly done, and though many attempts have been made to 
appropriate it to some other purpose, no motion to that effect has 
been successful. 


The population of Newbury, Newburyport, and West Newbury, 
has been, according to the census, as follows, namely : 

1764 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 

Newbury, 3972 4076 5176 3671 3771 3389 

Newburyport, 2282 4837 5946 7634 6858 6741 7124 

West Newbury, 1279 1448 1553 


The winter of 1843 was very severe, and the spring unusually 
backward. As late as the middle of April the snow in many 
places was several feet deep. 

April 13th. On this day in 1755 as well as this year, the ice 
broke up in the Merrimac. 

June 15th. Abner Rogers, a native of Newbury, who had been 
in the state's prison in Charlestown two years, and who had again 
been sentenced five and a half years from March twenty-eighth, 
1838, rushed upon the warden of the prison, Mr. Solomon Lincoln, 
and killed him with a shoe knife. After a long and patient investi- 
gation, the jury rendered their verdict, 'not guilty by reason of in- 
sanity.' He was then sent to the Worcester insane asylum. 

October 19th. ' This morning, about half past six o'clock, an 
hour after the workmen had commenced operations, the boiler of a 
six horse power engine in the patent cordage manufactory of 


Michael Wormsted & Son, on South and Marlborough streets, 
exploded. Mr. John Green, the engineer, who was probably stand- 
ing in front of the furnace, was instantly killed, his head being 
crushed into an almost shapeless mass. Mr. Lorenzo Ross, who 
was standing in the doorway of the engine room, was badly scald- 
ed, and his body completely blackened. He was taken up sense- 
less, but afterward revived, and it is thought may recover. The 
engine house was completely demolished, and the bricks, timbers, 
and boards thickly scattered around, to the distance of eighty or a 
hundred yards. The boiler was twenty feet long, and weighed 
over a ton and a half. The main body of it, being eight of the ten 
joints or plates, and weighing, probably, near twenty-eight hundred, 
pounds, was forced in a straight line, through a pile of heavy an- 
thracite coal, eight or ten feet in thickness, and also the end of the 
building against which the coal was piled, passing over the vacant 
lot between the ropewalk and the dwelling-house and out buildings 
next below it, on Marlborough street, and after striking the ground 
three or four times, prostrated a small shed, and leveled the fence 
on the street, which checked its progress so that it turned round 
and rested on the sidewalk, nearly on a parallel line with Marlbor- 
ough street, and at a distance of nearly three hundred feet from the 
engine house. 

1 A fragment of the boiler, straightened out, and weighing two 
hundred pounds or more, was thrown about forty yards in the field 
on the lower side of the engine house, and a smaller fragment, 
weighing seventy-five or a hundred pounds, was projected about 
forty yards in a straight line in the rear towards South street, and 
the head of the boiler weighing probably one hundred pounds, 
must have been elevated to a great height as it fell on the opposite 
side of the ropewalk, and within a few feet of the building, having 
passed over the roof.' Newburyport Herald. 

This was the first steam engine erected in Newbury, and had 
been in use five or six years. 


May 19^A. This day, Abner Rogers, whose insanity caused the 
death of Mr. Lincoln, lost his own life, undoubtedly from the same 
cause. The manner was this. ' Near the close of the evening ex- 
ercises he became impatient and requested his attendant to permit 
him to retire. His attendant replied that the services would soon 
be over, when not a moment elapsed before he sprang through the 
window with great force, taking out four panes with the sash/ The 
fall was about sixteen feet. He was taken up senseless and so 
remained until he died, which was the third day after his fall. 

Stuart Chase, esquire, was this year chosen town clerk of New- 
bury. Deacon Ezra Hale, who had for thirty-seven years officiated 
in that capacity, declined a re-election. A unanimous vote of thanks 
was given by the town 'for his long and faithful services as clerk, 


and so forth, and voted that it be entered on the town records by 
his successor in said office.' 

There are four cotton mills in Newburyport, built in 1886, 1839, 
1841, and 1844, of which I shall speak more particularly in the 

November 19th. This afternoon, the reverend Daniel Dana 
preached to a numerous audience, in the church in Federal street, a 
sermon in commemoration of his having been ordained the pastor 
of that church and congregation a half century before. 

The evening of this day was made the occasion of one of those 
festive meetings known in modern times by the name of ' donation 
visits.' Preparations had been making, for some time before, among 
the venerable pastor's numerous friends, to exhibit some substantial 
testimony of their regard. On this occasion, his house was literally 
crowded with those of all ages, who gladly came to show their re- 
spect for the good and eminent man, who, for half a century, had 
devoted himself, with untiring zeal, to his master's great business. 
Drawing toward the close of his labors, nothing could have been 
more gratifying to him, than to witness the respect and good will 
of the few, who had listened to his earliest instructions, mingled 
with the many, who had been favored by his later ministrations. It 
was, indeed, a cheerful and happy meeting. All were in good 
spirits. Plentiful refreshments were provided by the friends of him, 
who had thus been made a respected guest in his own house, and the 
music of the choir agreeably diversified the entertainment. The 
numerous party left behind them, in the hands of the committee, 
ample evidence of their sincere interest in the excellent pastor. 
They separated to their several homes, at a seasonable hour. All 
were sorry to leave, and none can ever forget the pleasing circum- 
stances of so interesting a scene. 

In token of his gratitude, the doctor puublished in the Newbury- 
port Herald the following card. 

1 Doctor Dana presents his grateful acknowledgments to those numerous 
friends of various congregations, who were pleased to honor his house with a 
visit on the evening of the fiftieth anniversary of his ordination. So extensive 
a manifestation of interest in his person and his ministerial labors^ is cheering 
to his heart, and its memory will cease only with his life. 

' The plan of a friendly congratulation was made subservient to the purpose 
of generous beneficence, a plan conceived with so much secrecy and executed 
with so much liberality, has rendered the kindness of his friends almost oppres- 
sive. He can never cease to implore for them that they may be rewarded in 
the richest blessings of time and eternity.' 

December 27th. A meeting-house for the first Christian union 
society of Newburyport, was this day raised in Court street, New- 
buryport, seventy-five feet in length, 'and forty-five in breadth. The 
church was formed May seventh, 1841. 


This page, gentle reader, closes, as you perceive, the annals of 
* ould Newberry,' and should you, without the perplexity that I have 
sometimes experienced, receive a tithe of the pleasure, in reading 
the preceding pages, that I have had in collecting, arranging, and 
abridging, the materials of which they are composed, I shall feel 
highly gratified with the result of my labors, and you will, for a 
short time at least, be quite a happy man. If, on the contrary, your 
anticipations have not been realized, and you are disappointed in 
the history, and dissatisfied with the manner in which it has been 
arranged, you can alter it to your liking, as there still exists an abun- 
dance of unpublished materials, amply sufficient for you to make 
another volume, for your own gratification, and the amusement of 
the public. You can also omit reading the following appendix, 
which is served up, as a kind of dessert, for those who have not 
left the table, either in satiety or disgust. 



A. Page 19. 

The following are the names of the most wealthy of the grantees, 
with the number of acres, which were granted them, affixed to their 
names. To each of the first settlers was granted a house lot of at 
least four acres, with a suitable quantity of salt and fresh meadow. 

Mr. Richard Dummer, . . 1080 Mr. James Noyes, . . . 124 

Mr. Henry Sewall, . . . 630 Mr. Thomas Parker, ... 90 

Mr. John Clark, . . ., 540 Captain Edmund Greenleaf, . 122 

Mr. John Woodbridge, . . .237 Mr. James Browne, . . . 159 

Mr. Edward Raw son, . . 581 Mr. Edward Woodman, . . 120 

Richard Kent, junior, . . .134 Mr. Nicholas Easton, ... 89 

William Moody, ... 92 Mr. Stephen Dummer, . . 386 

John Merrill, .... 96 Stephen Kent, .... 84 

Mr. John Cutting, ... 220 Nicholas Holt, .... 80 

To the other grantees, the number of acres varied from ten to eighty. 
Many of the later settlers were wealthy, who obtained the principal 
part of their land by purchase, such, for instance, as George Little, 
Robert Adams, captain William Gerrish, Richard Dole, Mr. John, Mr. 
Richard, and Mr. Percival Lowle, and a few others. 

B. Page 33. 




Question. How do the Scriptures prove themselves to be true? 

Jlnswer. By the holiness of the matter, by the majesty of the style, John7 ^. 14 39 
by the accomplishment of the Prophesies, by the efficacy of their 1 John's,* ' 
power on the hearts of men, besides the holy Ghost beareth. witness, l^ie' 26*10 9. 
helping us to discern the truth of them. i John 5,1.' 

Q. What is the sum of the Scriptures ? SKs^ 

Jl. A Doctrine of a godly life. 

Q. Wherein consists a godly life ? 

A. In the obedience of Faith. John6,40. 

Q. What is Faith ? 

Jl. Faith is an effectual assent to the Doctrine of the Scriptures, J John 4 ' 15 ' 3> 6 * 
especially concerning the Grace of God in Christ. 

Q. What doth the Scripture reveal concerning God? 

A. His Nature, and his Acts. 

Q. What is revealed concerning his Nature? 

A. His Essence, and his Persons. 

Q. How is the Essence of God made manifest ? 



1 John 5, 7. 
Slat. 28, 19. 

2 Cor. 13, 14. 

Acts 5, 3 4. 
1 Cor. 8, 6. 


Bom. 9, 22. 
1 Pet 2, 8. 

Mat 10, 29, 30. 
Acts 17, 28. 


Mark 16, 16. 

1 John 3, 4. 


Rom. 7,23. 
1 John 3, 4. 

Bom. 3, 19 23. 
Bom. 5, 12; 6,23. 

Rom. 3, 23 24. 

Heb. 12, 20. 
Kom.3, 20. 
John 15, 5. 

A. By his Names, and Attributes. 

Q. What are his Attributes ? 

A. His Independency, Unity, Immutability, Eternity, Infiniteness, 
Omnipresence, Omnipotency, Wisdom, Omnisciency, Holiness, Bles- 
sedness, Soveraignty, Goodness, Mercy, Meekness, Clemency, Justice 
and Verity. 

Q. How many Persons are there in the Godhead? 

A. Three, Father, Son, and Holy-Ghost; and every one of these is 
God, and yet there is but One God. 

Q. How many fold are the acts of God ? 

A. Twofold, eternal and temporal. 

Q. What are the eternal acts of God ? 

A. His Decrees. 

Q. How many fold are his Decrees ? 

A. Twofold, general and particular. 

Q. What is the general Decree of God ? 

A. An eternal act of God whereby he did determine to make, the 
World, and dispose of all things therein. 

Q. What are the particular Decrees of God ? 

A. Election and Reprobation. 

Q. What is Election ? 

A. An eternal act of God, whereby he did determine to glorifie 
himself in saving a certain number of persons through Faith in Christ. 

Q. What is Repro'bation ? 

A. An eternal act of God, whereby he did determine to glorifie 
himself in condemning a certain number of persons for their sins. 

Q. What are the Temporal acts of God ? 

A. Creation, Preservation and Government. 

Q. How many-fold is his Government ? 

A. Twofold : general and special. 

Q. What is the general Government ? 

A. A temporal act of God, whereby he doth dispose of all crea- 
tures according to a general Providence. 

Q. What is the special Government of God ? 

A. A temporal act of God whereby he doth dispose of the reason- 
able creature according to a special Covenant. 

Q. How many Covenants hath God made with man ? 

A. Two : The Covenant of the Law. and the Covenant of the 

Q. What is the Covenant of the Law ? 

A. A promise of Life on perfect and personal Obedience. 

Q. What is the Covenant of the Gospel ? 

A. A promise of Life upon Faith in Christ. 

Q. What is the Occasion of the Covenant of the Gospel ? 

A. Strains Sin. 

Q. What is Sin? 

A. A breach of Gods Law. 

Q. How many kinds of Sin are there ? 

A. Two : Original and Actual. 

Q. What is Original Sin ? 

A. A Being contrary to Gods Law. 

Q. What is Actual Sin ? 

A. A Doing contrary to Gods Law. 

Q. What are the effects of Sin ? 

A. Guilt and Punishment. 

Q. What is Guilt? 

A. A liableness to Punishment. 

Q. What is Punishment ? 

A. An infliction of evil for Sin; namely, Death temporal and 

Q. How may we escape eternal Death ? 

A. By the covenant of the Gospel only. 

Q. Can we not escape death by the Covenant of the Law? 

A. No : because we cannot perform the condition of it, which is 
perfect Obedience : yea by reason of the Fall of Adam, we cannot do 
any good thing. 

Q. Can we perform the condition of the Covenant of the Gospel ? 



A. Yes: because God has shewed us in his Scriptures, that he will 
help us through Faith in Christ to perform the condition of it. 

Q. What is Christ 1 

A. The Eternal Son of God, and both God and Man. 

Q. What are we to consider in Jesus Christ"? 

Jl. His Natures, his personal Union, and his Offices. ' 

Q. How many Natures hath Chiist? 

A. Two: the Nature of God, and the Nature of Man; otherwise 
called the Divine Nature and the Humane. 

Q. What is the personal union of Christ? 

A. The Subsistence of the Humane nature in the second person of 
the Deity. 

Q. What are the Offices of Christ? 
A. His Mediatorship, Kingship, Priesthood and Prophetship. 

Q. What is the work of Christs Office. 
A. Redemption. 

Q. What is Redemption ? 

A. A deliverance of the Elect from Sin and misery, by the price 
of Christs Obedience. 

Q. How many fold is Christs Obedience? 
A. Twofold, active and passive. 

Q. What is his active Obedience ? 
A. A Doing the will of God. 

Q. What is his passive Obedience ? 
A. His Suffering the Will of God, even to the Death of the Cross. 

Q. What is the Application of Redemption? 

A. A giving of the Spirit, in and with the graces of the Spirit. 

Q. "What are the graces of the Spirit ? 

A. Vocation, Justification, Adoption and Glorification. 

Q. What is Vocation ? 

A. A grace of the Spirit, whereby God doth give Faith and Repen- 
tance unto his elect ones. 

Q. What is Faith? 

A. A sight of the grace of the Gospel whereby we come to cleave 
to God in Christ above all things for Salvation. 

Or else a belief that God will pardon our sins in the way of Repen- 
tance for Christs sake. 

Q. Wkat is Repentance ? 

A. An overcoming purpose to forsake sin, with sorrow for sin. 

Q. What is Justification ? 

A. A grace of the Spirit whereby God doth accept and pronounce 
all those that are called, to be just unto eternal life. 

Q. What is Adoption ? 

A. A grace of the Spirit, whereby God doth accept and pronounce 
all those that are called, to be His Children, and heirs unto eternal life. 

Q. What is Glorification ? 

A. A grace of the Spirit, whereby God doth translate a man out of 
the misery of sin, into blessedness. 

Q. How is the Application of Redemption made known? 
A. By the experiencing of the graces of the Spirit, and by the wit- 
ness of the Spirit helping us to discern the truth of them. 

Q. What is the subject of Redemption ? 
A. The Church. 

Q. What are the means of applying Redemption ? 

A. They are especially publick Ministry and private duties. 

Q. What are the Ministerial Acts? 

A. Preaching of the Word, Prayer. Administration of the Sacra- 
ments, and Discipline. 

Q. W 7 hat is a Sacrament ? 

A. A visible sign instituted by God for the confirmation of the 

Q. How many Sacraments are there ? 
A. Two, Baptism and the Lords Supper. 

Q. What is the sign signifying in Baptism? 
A. Water, and the washing with water. 

Q. What is the thing signified ? 

A. The blood of Christ washing away our sins unto eternal life. 



John 1, 14. 
Heb. 2, 16. 

Isaiah 9, 6. 
Rom. 9. 5. 

PhiL 2,678. 

1 Tim. 2, 5. 
Zech. 9, 9. 
Psalm 110. 4. 
Deut 18, 15. 

Titus 2, 14. 



2 Tim. 1,9. 

Bom. 8, 30. 

Mat. 16, 28. 

Acts 2, 38. 
Mark 1,15. 

Psalm 37, 27. 
Zech. 12, 10. 
Hos. 14, 2 3. 

Bom. 8, 30. 
Rom. 8, 14 15 16 17 

Rom. 8, 30. 

IThes. 1,4567, 
Rom. 8, 15. 

Bom. 10, 13 1415. 

Mat, 28, 19. 
1 Tim. 2, 1. 
Mat 18, 17; 16, 19, 

1 Pet 3, 2L 
Rom. 6, 4. 



1 Cor. 11, 23 24 25 26 
John 6, 51. 

Mat 18, 17. 

Acts 20, 7. 

Mat. 24, 2. 
Hos. 13, 14. 

Mat. 22, 37 38. 

Mat. 22, 39 40. 
Horn. 13, 9. 

Psalm 73, 25. 
1 Cor. 13, 13. 


Heb. 12, 28. 

Mat. 28, 19. 

1 Cor. 11, 23 24. 
Mat. 28, 17. 

Heb. 12, 28. 

Psalm 132, 7 ; 110, 3. 

Psalm 141,2; 55, 17. 
Acts 20, 7. 

1 Pet 5, 5. 
Phil. 2, 3. 

Horn. 12, 16. 

1 Sam. 30, 26 31. 

2 Sam. 9,1. 
1 Pet. 2, 13. 

1 Cor. 13, 4. 
Luke 6, 36. 

Numb. 12, 3. 

1 Pet 3, 4. 
Luke 21, 19. 
CoL 1, 11. 

Tit. 3, 3. 

Q. What is the sign signifying in the Lords Supper ? 
A. The Bread and Wine : the Bread broken, and the Wine poured 
out, the giving and receiving of it. 

Q. What is the thing signified in the Lords Supper 1 
A. The Body of Qhrist broken on the Cross, his Blood shed for 
our sins, offered to sinners in the way of believing and received by 
Faith, for assurance of eternal life. 
Q. What is Discipline ? 

A. A Correction of scandalous Professors by Church Censures. 
Q. What is the season of attending the Publick Ministry? 
A. Especially on the first day of the week, or Lords Day. 
Q. When is Redemption consummated ? 

A. In the Resurrection at the last Judgment, at the second coming 
of Christ. 

Q. How many Commandments are there ? 
A, Ten. 

Q. Into how many Tables are the Commandments divided ? 
A. Into two Tables. 
Q. What doth the first Table contain ? 

A. Our duties towards God, or Duties of Religious Worship, in the 
four first Commandments. 

Q. What doth the second Table contain ? 
A. Our Duties towards the Creature, in the six last. 
Q. What is contained in the first Commandment? 
A. Natural Worship; in Faith, Hope, Love, Fear, hearing the 
Word and Prayer. 
Q. What is Hope ? 

A. A cleaving to God as our chiefest good, for Blessedness. 
Q. What is Love ? 

A. A cleaving to God as the chiefest good, and deserving all Glory. 
Q. What is Fear ? 

A. An admiring and adoring of Gods Holiness, and all his perfec- 

Q. What is contained in the "second Commandment ? 

A. Instituted Worship ; in Ministry, Sacraments, and Discipline. 

Q. What is contained in the third Commandment'? 

A. A due manner of Worship, in reverence, devotion and alacrity. 

Q. What is contained in the fourth Commandment ? 

A due time of Worship, as all due seasons, Morning and Eve- 

ning, especially on the Lords Day. 
Q. What is con 

contained in the fifth Commandment? 

. A due respect to the good name or dignity of our Neighbour, in 
humility, gratitude and obedience. 
Q. What is Humility? 

A. A grace which moderateth the love of excellency. 
Q. What is Gratitude ? 

A. A grace which disposeth us to recompense benefits. 
Q. What is obedience 1 

A. A grace which disposeth us to honour all such as are in author- 
ity, by being subject. 

Q. What is contained in the sixth Commandment? 
A. A due respect to the life of our Neighbour, in goodness, mercy, 
meekness, and patience. 
Q. What is Goodness? 

A grace which disposeth us to shew kindriess to all. 
What is Mercy? 



A grace which disposeth us to relieve all such as are in misery. 
What is Meekness ? 

A grace which moderateth anger and revenge. 

What is Patience ? 

A grace which moderateth grief in Affliction. 

What is contained in the seventh Commandment ? 
A. A due respect to the purity of our Neighbour, in temperance, 
chastity, modesty, gravity. 
Q. What is Temperance ? 

A, A grace which moderateth affection to all sensual pleasures. 
Q. What is Chastity? 



A. A grace which regulateth the lusts of the flesh. 

Q. What is Modesty? 

A. A grace which restrained us from wantonness. 

Q. What is Gravity? 

A. A grace which inclineth us to purity. 

Q. What is contained in the eighth Commandment? 

A. A due respect to the goods of our Neighbour, in righteousness, 
liberality, and frugality. 

Q. What is Righteousness ? 

A. A grace which inclineth us to give all men their due. 

Q. What is Liberality ? 

A. A grace which inclineth us to communicate our goods freely to 
our Neighbour. 

Q. What is Frugality ? 

A. A grace which inclineth us to be provident and diligent in our 

Q. What is contained in the ninth Commandment "? 

A. A due respect to the innocency of our Neighbour in verity and 

Q. What is Verity ? 

A. A grace which inclineth us to speak the truth for our Neigh- 
bours good. 

Q. What is Fidelity? 
. A, A grace which inclineth us to keep our Promises. 

Q. What is contained in the tenth Commandment ? 

ML. A due respect to the prosperity of our Neighbour, in rejoycing 
in his prosperity, and accepting our own portion with contentation. 

Q. What is Contentation r < 

A. A grace which inclineth us to accept our own portion, whether 
good or evil, with Thanksgiving. 

1 Thess. 4, 3 4 5. 



Mic. 6, i. 
Rom. 12, 18. 

Prov. 31,27. 


Psalm 15, 4. 
Bom. 12, 15. 

1 Tim. 6, 6. 
Heb. 13, 5. 

The preceding catechism is an exact transcript Crom the edition of 
1714, published in Boston by Bartholomew Green. It is the only copy 
I have ever seen in Newbury, and was found among the papers of 
Mr. Ichabod Coffin. As it was undoubtedly composed more than two 
hundred years ago, I have thought it worth preservation as a specimen 
of the style of the ' olden time,' and of the principles then inculcated on 
the rising generation. Its author, Mr. James Noyes, died the twenty- 
second of October, 1656, in his forty-eighth year. 

C. Page 38. 

For the list of graduates, and other information, see letter L 

D. Page 38. 

FROM 1635 TO 1700. 

From the proprietors' book of records, folio forty-four, I make the 
following extract. 

Mr. Richard Dummer, 
Mr. Henry Sewall, 
Mr. Edward Rawson, 
Mr. Stephen Dummer, 
Mr. Edmund Greenlea^ 
Mr. John Clarke, 
Mr. John Cutting, 
Henry Short, 

Mr. Thomas Parker, 
Mr. James Noyes, 
Mr. John Lowle, 
Mr. Percival Lowle, 
Mr. John Spencer, 
Mr. John Woodbridge, 
Mr. James Browne, 
Thomas Cromwell, 



Nicholas Holt, 
Henry Rolfe, 
John Merrill, 
Thomas Hale, 
Joseph Peasley, 
William Mors, 
John Goff, 
John Stevens, 
Anthony Short, 
John Pemberton, 
John Pike, senior, 
John Musselwhlte, 
John Emery, 
Anthony Somerby, 
Richard Bartlet, 
William Moody, 
William Franklin, 
Abraham Toppan, 
Henry Somerby, 
Walter Allen, 
Thomas Silver, 
Henry TTravers, 
Archelaus Woodman, 
Richard Knight, 
Mrs. [John] Oliver, 
Stephen Kent, 
Richard Badger, 
William Thomas, 
Widow f William] Stevens, 
John Kelly, 
Francis Plumer, 
Robert Cokew 
William PalrrTer, 
Thomas Coleman, 
Nathaniel Badger, 
William Berry, 
Mr. [Edward] Woodman, 
Richard Kent, junior, 

Richard Littlehale, 
Giles Badger, 
Samuel Scullard, 
John Osgood, 
Abel Hose, 
Joseph Carter, 
John Knight, 
Henry Lunt, 
Thomas Browne, 
John Hutchins, 
Daniel Thurston, 
John Poor, 
John Pike, junior, 
Henry Palmer, 
William Titcomb, 
Nicholas Batt, 
Thomas Smith, 
William White, 
Thomas Davis, 
William Ilsley, 
Samuel Gile, 
Thomas Dow, 
John Swett, 
Christopher Bartlet, 
Richard Browne, 
John Cheney, 
Anthony Morss, 
Nicholas Noyes, 
Nathaniel Weare, 
John Fry, 
John Bartlet, 
Richard Fitts, 
Thomas Blumfield, 
George Browne, 
John Bond, 
John Russ, 
Mr. [John] Miller. 
Ninety-one in all. 

' It is declared and ordered hereby, December seventh, 1642, according to the former 
intentions of the towne that the persons only abovementioned are acknowledged to be 
freeholders by the towne and to have proportionable right in all waste lands, commons 
and rivers undisposed, and such as by, from, or under them, or any of them or their 
heirs, have bought, granted and purchased from them, or any of them their right and 
title thereunto and none else.' 

The number of proprietors, ninety-one originally, was subsequently 
increased, either by grant or purchase, to one hundred and thirteen, to 
whom, and their heirs, belonged all unappropriated lands, and so forth, 
including Plum island, which was sold, in 1827, by the proprietors, to 
Moses Pettingell, esquire. Of the original proprietors, some returned 
to England, some removed to other towns, and some, who remained, 
sold their ' privilege of freehold,' as it was called, to others. 

Those, who are desirous of more minute information respecting the 
first settlers of Newbury, whether grantees or not, and do not place 
implicit faith in the almost universal tradition, that they are descended 
from one of just ' three brothers,' who came over with the first settlers, 
may gratify that curiosity, by examining the subsequent genealogy. It 
contains all the names, which are to be found ,on record in any of the 
town books prior \o 1700, with much additional information, which has 
been collected from various sources, with more care and labor, and at- 
tended with greater perplexity, than any other part of the book. Many 
people, I suppose, will look on the whole collection .of names, as so 


"much labor lost, and refer me to Paul's excellent advice to Titus, to 
' avoid foolish questions and genealogies, which are unprofitable and 
vain.' His advice to Timothy is more in accordance with my plan, for 
I have neither ' given heed to fables,' nor ' endless genealogies,' for 
mine end in 1700, sometimes in the middle of a family. Some, I pre- 
sume, will be disappointed in not finding the facts agree with their 
tradition, and others, perhaps, will be as much disappointed in not find- 
ing their ancestors' names at all. Such as I could find, I have inserted 
with as much correctness as the materials I have been able to obtain, 
would permit. 

Among such a mass of names and dates, mistakes must be expected, 
for accidents, we are told, will happen in the best families, all imagi- 
nable pains to the contrary, notwithstanding. Those, who would be 
better pleased with a short, comprehensive genealogy of the whole 
human race, and one, at the same time, free from error, must read the 
ninth chapter of Genesis : ' Shem, Ham and Japheth, and of them 
was the whole earth overspread.' As I have not room enough to trace 
the whole line of descent of the first settlers of Newbury from these 
1 three brothers,' the reader must be content with that portion of it, 
which he will find in the subsequent pages. 

ACREMAN, STEPHEN m. Sara Stickney 17 Dec. 1684. 

ACRES. HENRY m. Hannah Silver 13 March, 1674. Chil. Catharine, 17 March, 

1675. John, 2 Oct. 1678. 
ADAMS, ROBERT, tailor, from Devonshire, Salem 1638, Newbury 1640. His wife 

Eleanor d. 12 June, 1677. He d. 12 Oct. 16S2, ag. 81. His second wife Sara, widow 

of Henry Short he m. 6 Feb. 1678. She d. 24 Oct. 1697. Chil. Abraham, b. 1639, 

Isaac, 1648, Jacob, 23 April, 1649, another Jacob, 13 Sept. 1651, Hannah, 25 June, 

1650, Robert, Elizabeth, Joanna, Mary, and John. 
ADAMS, ABRAHAM son of Robert, m. Mary Pettingell 16 Nov. 1670. Chil. 

Robert, 12 May, 1674, Abraham, 2 May, 1676, d. 8 April, 1763 ag. 87, Isaac, 26 Feb. 

1679, Sara, 15 April, 1681, Matthew, 25 May, 1686, Israel, 25 Dec. 1688, Dorothy, 25 

Oct. 1691, Richard, 22 Nov. 1693. He d. 14 June, 1714, ag. 75. 
ADAMS, JACOB son of Robert, m. Anna Ellen 7 April, 1677. Chil. Dorothy, 26 

June, 1679, Rebecca, 26 Au. 1680. He d. in Suffield, Conn. Nov. 1717 ag. 63. 
ADAMS, ROBERT son of ^Robert, m. Rebekah Knight in 1695. Chil. Abraham, 

S July, 1696, Rebekah, 28 Jan. 1698, Mary, 3 March, 1700, Robert, 20 Nov. 1702. 
ADAMS, ARCHELAUS son of m. Sara March 18 March, 1698. Chil. 

Sara. 22 Jan. 1699, Mary, 29 Oct. 1701, John, 11 Oct. 1704. 
ALLEN, CHARLES m. Joanna Scott 1703. 
ALLEN. JOHN Chil. John, 28 Aug. 1656, Samuel, 8 April, 1658, Josepb, 18 March, 

1660, Benjamin, 30 Jan. 1662. 

ALLEN, WILLIAM, Salem, 1638. Salisbury from 1639 to 1650. 
ALLEN. WALTER Cbil Abigail, 1 Oct. 1641, Benjamin, 15 April, 1647. A 

Walter Allen d. in Charlestown S July, 1681. 
ALLY. THOMAS m. Sara Silver 9 Feb. 1671. 
' ALFORD, EDWARD was killed 14 July, 1683, by a fall in the ship that John Rolfe 


ANN1S, CURMAC alias Charles, b. in Enniskellen, Ireland, in 1638, came to New- 
bury, m. Sara Chase 15 May. 166*6. Chil. Charles , Priscilla, 8 Nov. 1677, 

Hannah, 15 Nov. 1679. Anne, 28 Dec. 1681, and probably others unrecorded. 
ANNIS, ABRAHAM m. Hannah . Chil Charles, 10 Feb. 1694. Hannah, 19 

Nov. 1698, John, 1 May, 1700, Stephen 1 Feb. 1702, Sara, 9 Sept. 1705. 
ANNIS, JOSEPH m. Dorothy . Chil. Dorothy, 1 Nov. 1692, Sara, 14 March, 

1694, Aquila, 14 June, 1695. Seaborn, 1 Jan. 1697, Hannah, 19 Nov. 1696, Abigail, 25 

Sept. 1700, Joseph, 14 Jan. 1703. 

APPLETON, SAMUEL of Ipswich, m. Mary Oliver of Newbury 8 Dec. 1656. 
ASLETT. JOHN m. Rebecca Ayres 8 Oct. 1648. 
ATKINSON, JOHN hatter, son of Theodore Atkinson of Bury in Lancashire, Eng. 

He was b. in Boston in 1636, was in Newbury 1663, and m. Sara Mirick 27 April, 

1664. Chil. Sara, 27 Nov. 1665, Thomas, 27 Dec. 1669, Theodore, 23 Jan. 1672, and 


drowned 24 July, 1685, Abigail, 8 Nov. 1673, Samuel, 16 Jan. 1676, Nathaniel, 29 

Nov. 1677, Elizabeth, 20 June, 1680, Joseph, 1 May, 1682. 
ATKINSON, JOHN jun. probably son of John, sen. m. Sara . Chil Thomas, 

16 March, 1694, John, 29 Oct. 1695, Theodore, 8 Oct. 1698. He m. widow Hannah 

Cheney 3 June 1700, who d. 5 Jan. 1705. Chil. Sara, 6 Nov. 1700, Hannah, 21 

Jan. 1703. 

AYER, JOHN m. Ruth Browne 31 Oct. 1698. Edith b. 8 April, 1702. 
AYER, OBADIAH had a son John b. 2 Mar. 1663. 
AYER, THOMAS had a son John b. 12 May, 1657. 

AYER, SAMUEL m. Abigail . His son Stephen b. 13 March, 1689. 

AYER, SAMUEL m. Sara . His son Jabez b. 27 Dec. 1690. 

AYER, THOMAS m. Hannah . Chil. Abraham, 18 June, 1688, Sara, 29 Aug. 

1690, Mehetabel, 5 April, 1693. 
BACHILER, REV. STEPHEN b. in England in 1561, came to Boston 5 June, 1632, 

went to Lynn, thence in Feb. 1636 to Ipswich, thence to Mattakeese, now Yarmouth, 

in 1637, thence to Newbury in 1638, thence to Hampton in 1639. From 1647 to 1650 

he lived in Portsmouth, thence to England, where he died at Hackney aged about 

100 years. Chil. Theodata, who m. Mr. Christopher Hussey, Deborah, who m. 

John Wing of Sandwich, , who m. a Sanborn, (and had three sons, John, Stephen, 

and William,) Nathaniel, Francis and Stephen. See Lewis's History of Lynn. 
BACHILER, JOHN of Reading, m. Sara Poore 10 Nov. 1696. 
BADGER, GILES Newbury, 1635. He d. 10 July, 1647. His wife Elizabeth was 

daughter of capt. Edmund Greenleaf. His son John was born 30 June, 1643. 
BADGER, RICHARD and NATHANIEL brothers to Giles, were in Newbury 1635. 

Nathaniel's wife was Hannah. 
BADGER, JOHN son of Giles, m. Elizabeth , who d. 8 April, 1669. His second 

wife Hannah Swett he m. 23 Feb. 1671. He d. 31 March, 1691, aged nearly 48. 

Chil. John, b. 4 April, 1664, and d. 29 July, John, b. 26 April, 1665, Sara, 25 Jan. 

1667, James, 19 March, 1669, Stephen, 13 Dec. 1671, Hannah, 3 Dec. 1673, Nathaniel, 
16 Jan. 1676, Mary, 2 May, 1678, Elizabeth, 30 April 1680, Ruth, 10 Feb. 1683, 
Abigail, 29 June. 1687, Lydia, 30 April, 1690. 

BADGER, JOHN son of John, m. Rebecca Brown 5 Oct. 1691. Chil. John, 20 
Jan. 1692, James, 10 Jan. 1693, Elizabeth, 5 Feb. 1695, Stephen, 1697, Joseph, 1698, 
Benjamin, 15 June, 1700, Dorothy, 5 June, 1709. 

BADGER, STEPHEN son of John, m. Mercy , and moved to Charlestown and 

had six children. 

BADGER, NATHANIEL probably son of John, m. Mary Lunt 27 March, 1693. 

Chil. John, 3 Jan. 1694, a son [probably Joseph] 29 Nov. 1695, Daniel, 27 March, 

1698, Mehetabel, Aug. 1700, Edmund, 2 April, 1703, Mary, 8 Sept. 1705, Maiy, 13 

1708, Samuel, 14 Aug. 1710, Anne, 25 Jan. 1712, Enoch, probably in 1714. 

He then moved to Norwich, Conn, where Henry was born 23 March, 1717. 

BAILEY, JOHN sen. weaver, from Chippenham, England, was shipwrecked at Pern- 
quid, now Bristol, Me. 15 Aug. 1635, went to Salisbury, thence to Newbury in 1650, 
where he died 2 Nov. 1651. 

BAILEY, JOHN jr. son of John sen. was born in 1613, came to Salisbury and New- 
bury, mar. Eleanor Emery, sister of John Emery sen. He died March 1691 aged 78. 
Chil. Rebecca, 1641, John, 18 May, 1643, and d. 22 June, 1663, Joshua d. 7 April, 

1652, Sara, 17 Aug. 1644, Joseph, 4 April, 1648, James, 12 Sept. 1650, Joshua, 17 Feb. 

1653, Isaac, 22 July, 1654, Rachel, 19 Oct. 1662, Judith, 3 Aug. 1665, and d. 20 Sept. 

1668, Rebecca. 

BAILEY, JOSEPH son of John, jun. m. Priscilla . About 1700 he moved to 

Arundel, Me. left in 1703, returned in 1714, and was there killed by the Indians, Oct. 

1723, aged 75. Chil. Rebecca, 25 Oct. 1675, Priscilla, 31 Oct. 1676, John, 16 Sept. 

1678, Joseph, 28 Jan. 1681, Hannah, 9 Sept. 1683, Daniel, 10 June, 1686, Mary, 9 June, 

1688, Judith, 11 Feb. 1690, Lydia, 25 Nov. 1695, Sarah, 14 Feb. 1698. 
BAILEY, MR. JAMES son of John, jun. m. Mrs. Mary Carr 17 Sept. 1672. Chil. 

Mary, 6 July, 1673, Isaac, 22 Oct. 1681. See appendix, letter C. 
BAILEY, ISAAC son of John, jun. m. Sara Emery 13 June, 1683, who died 1 April,' 

1694. He m. Rebecca Bartlet 5 Sept. 1700. Ch. Isaac, 30 Dec. 1683, Joshua, 30 

Oct. 1685, David, 12 Dec. 1687, Judith, 11 Feb. 1690, Sara, 11 Feb. 1692. 
BAILEY, JOHN son of , m. Mary Bartlet 2 July, 1700. Ch. John, 10 March, 

1701, Joseph, 11 Oct. 1702. 
BAKER, JOHN was dismissed from Boston church 24 Nov. 1640, thence to Acomen- 

ticus, thence to Boston again. See Winthrop, vol. 2, p. 29. 
BARBER, THOMAS m. Anne Chase 27 April, 1671. His son Thomas b. 16 Feb. 



BARTLET, JOHN sen. with four others of the same sirname came to Newbury 1635. 
He had a son John. His wife Joan d. 5 Feb. 1679. He died 13 April, 1678. 

BARTLET, JOHN jun. son of John, sen. m. Sara, daughter of John Knight 5 March, 
1660. Ch. Gideon, 18 Dec. 1(560, Mary, who d. 29 March, 1682. 

BARTLET, RICHARD sen. shoemaker, brother to John, sen. He died 25 May, 
1647. Ch. John, Christopher, Joanna, Samuel b. 20 Feb. 1646, Richard. 

BARTLET, RICHARD jr. son of John, sen. or Richard sen. m. Abigail . She 

d. 1 March, 1687. He d. 1698, aged 77. Ch. Richard, 21 Feb. 1649, Thomas, 7 
Sept. 1650, Abigail, March, 1653. John, 22 June, 1655, Hannah, 18 Dec. 1657, and d. 
17 June, 1676, Rebecca, 23 May/1661. 

BARTLET, CHRISTOPHER brother to Richard, jr. m. Mary 16 April, 

1645. Martha, 7 March, 1653. She d. 24 Dec. 1661. His second wife, Mary Hoyt, 
he m. 17 Dec. 1663. He died 15 March, 1670, aged 47. Ch. Mary, 15 Oct. 1647, 
who d. young, Anne, 28 Sept. 1650, Martha, March, 1653, Christopher, 11 June, 1655, 
Jonathan, 5 July, 1657, and d. 7 Dec. 1759, John, b. 13 Sept. and d. 28 Dec. 1665. 

BARTLET, SAMUEL son of Richard, sen. m. Elizabeth Titcomb 23 May, 1671, and 
d. 15 May 1732, aged 87. Ch. Elizabeth, 13 May, 1672, Abigail, 14 April, 1674, 
Samuel, 28 March, 1676, Sara, 7 July, 1678, Richard, 13 Feb. 1680, Thomas, 13 Aug. 

1681, Tirzah. 20 Jan. 1684, Lydia, 5 Nov. 1687. His wife Elizabeth d. 26 Aug. 1690. 
BARTLET, RICHARD son of Richard, jun. m. Hannah Emery 18 Nov. 1673. Ch. 

Hannah, 8 Nov. 1674, Richard, 20 Oct. 1676, John, 23 Sept. 1678, Samuel, 8 July, 

1680, and d. 20 Nov. 1685, Daniel, 8 Aug. 1682, Joseph, 18 Nov. 1686, Samuel, 2 May, 

1689, Stephen. 21 April, 163TTThomas, 14 July, 1695, Mary, 15 Sept. 1697. 
BARTLET, RICHARD m. Margaret Woodman, 12 April, 1699. Ch. Richard, 27 

June, 1700, Joseph, 18 Feb. 1702. 
BARTLET, THOMAS son of Richard, jun. m. Tirzah Titcomb 24 Nov. 1685. He 

d. 6 April, 1689. Ch. Elizabeth, 7 Aug. 1686, and d. 15 Oct. 1689, Tirzah, 29 March, 

BARTLET, JOHN son of Richard, jr. called 'John the tanner,' m. Mary Rust 29 

Oct. 1680. He d. 24 May, 1736, aged 81. Ch. Mary, 17 Oct. 1681. and d. 29 March, 

1682, John, 24 Jan. 1683, Mary, 27 April, 1684, Nathaniel, 18 April, 1685. Dorothy, 
23 Aug. 1686, Sara, 27 Nov. 1687, Hannah, 13 March, 1689, Nathan, 23 Dec. 1691, 
Abigail, 12 Aug. 1693, Alice, 18 March, 1695. 

BARTLET, NATHANIEL m. . Ch. James and Mary, Dec. 1679. 

BARTLET, RICHARD 3d m. Mary Ordway 18 Nov. 1702. 

BARTLET, CHRISTOPHER jun. m. Deborah Weed 29 Nov. 1677. Ch. Christo- 
pher, 26 Feb. 1679, Deborah, 23 June, 1680, Mary, 17 April, 1682. He d. 14 April, 

BARTLE"T, JOHN the 4th m. Prudence Merrill 25 Nov. 1702. 

BATT, MR. CHRISTOPHER, tanner, came from Salisbury, England, to Newbury 
about 16 , thence to Salisbury, where he resided from 1640 to 1650, thence to Boston, 
where he was accidentally shot by his own son, who was firing at a mark in his 
orchard 10 Aug. 1661. In his will, written in 1656, is the following remarkable ex- 
pression: 'knowing that I am at all tymes and in the most secure places and em- 
ployments subject to many accidents that may bring me to my end,' and so forth. 
Ch. John, b. in Salisbury 1641, Paul and Barnabas, 18 Feb. 1643, Christopher, Ann, 
who m. Edmund Angier. Rev. Samuel, who was a minister in England, Jane, who 
m. Dr. Peter Toppan of Newbury, Sarah, Abigail, Thomas, Timothy, Ebenezer, who 
d. 16 Aug. 1685, and Elizabeth, who died 6 July, 1652. Mr. Bait was sixty years old 
in 1661. His widow Ann was living in 1679. 

BATT, NICHOLAS 'linnen weaver from Devizes,' England, came with his wife- 
Lucy in the James to Boston, June 3, thence to Newbury. He d. 6 Dec. 1677. His 
widow Lucy d. 26 Jan. 1679. Ch. Sara, 12 June, 1640, and two other daughters. 

BEEDLE or BEDELL, ROBERT was b. in 1642. Ch. Thomas, 30 April, 1668, 
Elizabeth, 22 Nov. 1669, Judith. 29 March, 1671 and d. 10 July, 1673, Robert, 5 Jan. 
1675, Judith, 8 March, 1676, and d. 22 March, 1677, John, 23 April, 1678, Hannah d. 
13 Nov. 1678. 

BELCONGER, JOHN m. Mary or Sarah Kelly 12 April, 1666. His daughter Mary 
b. 7 Dec. 1666. 

BENTE, ROBERT d. 30 Jan. 1648. 

BERRY, WILLIAM Piscataqua 1632, Newbury 1635. 

BISHOP, JOHN carpenter, m. Rebecca, daughter of Richard Kent, and widow of 
Samuel Scullard, Oct. 1647. Ch. John, 19 Sept. 1648, Rebecca, 15 May, 1650, Jo- 
anna, 24 April, 1652, Hannah, 10 Dec. 1653, Elizabeth, 31 Aug. 1655, and d. 6 Dec. 
1656, Jonathan, 11 Jan. 1657, Noah, 20 June, 1658, David, 26 Aug. 1660. He removed 
to Woodbridge, N. J. and there died in Oct. 1684. 

BL AN CHARD, JOHN d. of the small pox 24 July, 1678. 


BINGLEY, WILLIAM m. Elizabeth Preston 27 Feb. 1660. His son William, 24 

Feb. 1662. 
BLUMFIELD, THOMAS sen. an early settler, died in 1639. Ch. Thomas and a 

' lame daughter.' 
BLUMFIELD. THOMAS jun. son of Thomas, sen. Ch. Mary, 15 Jan. 1642, Sarah, 

30 Dec. 1643,' John, 15 March, 1646, Thomas, 12 Dec. 1648, Nathaniel. 10 April, 1651, 

Ezekiel. 1 Nov. 1653. Rebecca, 1656, Ruth, 4 July, 1659, Timothy, 1 April, 1604. In 

1665, he moved to Woodbridge, N. J. Gov. Joseph Bloomfield, of that state, was one 

of his descendants. 
BOLTON, WILLIAM b. in 1630, m. Jane Bartlet 16 Jan. 1655. Ch. Mary, 25 Sept. 

1655. His wife Jane d. 6 Sept. 1659. He m. Mary Dennison, 22 Nov. 1659. Wil- 
liam, b. 27 May, 1665, Ruth, 1 Aug. 1667, Elizabeth, 23 May, 1672, and d. 17 June, 

1674, Elizabeth, 8 Nov. 1674, Sara, 5 April, 1677, Hannah, 18 July, 1679, Joseph, 8 

July, 16S2. William d. 30 March, 1694, Sara d. 30 March, 1694. 
BOND, JOHN m. Hester Blakely 5 Aug. 1649. After 1660 he was in Rowley, thence to 

Haverhill, where he d. 1675. Ch. John, 10 June, 1650, Thomas, 29 March and d. 23 

May, 1652, Joseph, 14 April, 1653, Hester, 3 Sept. 1655, Mary, 16 Dec. 1657, Abigail, 

6 Nov. 1660. 
BOYNTON, CALEB m. Mary Moore 24 June, 1672. His son William b. 24 July, 

BOYNTON, JOSHUA m. Hannah Barnet 9 April, 167S. His son William b. 26 May, 

BOYNTON, JOSHUA m. Sara Browne, April, 1678. Ch. Joshua, 4 May, 1679, and 

d. 29 Oct. 1770, a<red 92, John, 15 July, 1683. 
BRABROOK, JOHN came from Watertown, was nephew to Henry Short, d. in New- 

bury 28 June, 1662. His two sons were b. in Watertown in 1642 and 1643. 
BRAD ING, JAMES m. Hannah Rock 11 Oct. 1659. Son James b. 1662. 
BRADLEY, HENRY m. widow Judith Davis 7 Jan. 1696. .. . 
BRADSTREET, DR. HUMPHREY from Rowley, m. Sara &^-. Ch.- Dorothy, 

19 Dee. 1692, Joshua, 24 Feb. 1695, Sara, 14 Jan. 1697, Daniel, 13 Feb. 1701, He d. 

11 May, 1717. aged 
BRICKET, NATHANIEL m. and had ch. Nathaniel. 20 Dec. 1673, John, 3 

May, 1676, James and Mary, 11 Dec. 1679, Nathaniel, 23 'Sept. 1683, and was 

drowned 17 Oct. 1687. 

BRITTAIN, FRANCIS m. Hannah , son John b. 25 Dec. 1695. 

BOD WELL, HENRY b. in 1654, m. Bithia Emery, daughter of John Emery 4 May, 

1681. Bithia b. 2 June, 1682. 
BRYER. RICHARD m. Eleanor Wright 21 Dec. 1665. She d. 29 Aug. 1672. Ch. 

Richard, 19 Aug. 1667, Elizabeth, 11 May, 1669, Ruth, 27 Dec. 1670. 
BUSBY, NICHOLAS went from Newbury to Boston where he d. 28 Aug. 1657. 
BURBANK, JOHN m. Susanna Merrill 15 Oct. 1663. 
BROWNE], THOMAS weaver, came to Newbury in 1635 from Malford, England. His 

wife Mary d. 2 June 1655. Ch. Mary, 1635, Isaac and Francis. He d. by a fall 8 

Jan. 1687. aged 80. 
BROWNE, FRANCIS son of Thomas, m. Mary Johnson 21 Nov. 1653. Ch. 

Elizabeth, 17 Oct. 1654, Mary. 15 April, 1657, and d. 4 April, 1679, Hannah b.. and d. 

1659, Sara, 10 May, 1663, John, 13 May, 1665, Thomas, 1 July, 1667, and d. 2 March, 
1689, Joseph, 28 Sept. 1670, Francis, 17 March, 1674, Benjamin. 22 April, 1681. 

BROWNE, FRANCIS son of Francis, m. 31 Dec. 1679. He d. 1691 aged 59. 
BROWN, JOSEPH son of Francis m. Sara . Ch. Abigail, 6 April, 1695, 

Nathan, 18 June, 1697, Sara. 22 June, 1698, Nathaniel, 1 Aug. 1700. 
BROWN, JOHN son of Francis, m. Ruth Huse 20 Aug. 1683. Ch. John, 27 Oct 

1683, Isaac, 4 Feb. 1685. 
BROWNE, RICHARD Newbury, 1635. His wife Edith d. April, 1647. He m. 

widow Elizabeth Badger, 16 Feb. 1648. He d. 26 April, 1661. Ch. Joseph b. and 

d. young, Joshua, 10 April. 1642, Caleb, 7 May, 1645, Elizabeth, 29 March, 1649, 

Richard, 18 Feb. 1651, Edmund, 17 July, 1654, Sara, 7 Sept. 1657, Mary, 10 April, 


BROWNE, GEORGE brother to Richard, d. 1 April, 1642. 
BROWNE, MARGERY d. 26 March, 1651. 
BROWN, RICHARD son of Richard, m. Mary Jaques 7 May, 1674. His only son 

Richard b. 12 Sept. 1675. 
BROWN, REV. RICHARD son of' Richard, m. Mrs. Martha Whipple 22 April, 1703. 

Ch. Martha, 19 Feb. 1704, John, 2 March, 1706, William, 24 Jan. 1708, Mary, 31 

Dec. 1 709. 
BROWN, JOHN son of , m. Mary Woodman 20 Feb. 1660. Ch. Judith, 3 Dec. 

1660. Mary, 8 March, 1662. 

BROWN, JOSHUA son of Richard sen. m. Sara Sawyer 15 Jan. 1669. Ch. Joseph, 


18 Oct. 1669, Joshua, 18 May, 1671, Tristram, 21 Dec. 1672, Sara, 5 Dec. 1676, Ruth, 

29 Oct. 1678, Samuel, 4 Sept. 16S7. 
BROWN, ISAAC son of Thomas, m. Rebecca Bailey 22 Aug. 1661. He d. 13 May, 

1674. Ch. Ruth, 26 May, 1662, Thomas, 15 Sept. 1664, Rebecca, 15 March, 1667. 
BROWN, THOMAS sen. m. Elizabeth . Ch. Isaac b. and d. June, 1696, Sara, 

26 April, 1697. Mary, 14 Feb. 1699, Hannah. 29 June, 1700. 

BROWN. JOSEPH m. Lydia Emery 1696. Ch. Joseph, 1 Nov. 1699, Francis, 23 

June. 1702. 
BROWN. JAMES m. Hannah . Ch. Benjamin, 21 March, 1681, Abraham, 

1683. and d. 13 Jan. 1684, Joseph, 19 May, 1685, Hannah, 16 Nov. 1687, John d. 18 

Dec. 1690. 
BROWN. JAMES jun. m. Mary Edwards 28 April, 1694, who d. 5 May, 1700. He m. 

Rebekah Brown for his second wife. Ch. Elizabeth. 14 Oct. 1696, Sara, 8 Nov. 1701. 
BROWN, MR. JAMES came from Southampton in 1634. In 1656 he is called 'late 

teacher at Portsmouth.' 
BROWN, JAMES jun. son of , m. and had ch. Mary 25 May, 1663, Abigail, 24 

Oct. 1665, Martha, 22 Dec. 1667. 
BROWN, JOSHUA jun. son of Joshua sen. m. Elizabeth . Daughter Elizabeth, 

27 July, 1700. 

BROWN. JOSEPH m. Sara . Son Nathaniel, 1 Aug. 1700. 

C ALE F. MR. JOHN m. Deborah King of Boston, 1702. Ch. John. 3 June, 1703, 

Deborah. 21 Jan. 1705. 
CARR. JAMES b. 28 Apr. 1650, son of George Carr of Salisbury, who died in 1682. 

Hem. Mary Sears 14 Nov. 1677. Ch. Mary, 15 Dec. 1678, Hannah, 16 Oct. 1680, 

Sarah, 8 May, 1682, John, 26 Aug. 1684. Katharine. 24 Nov. 1686, James, April, 1689, 

Hepzibah, 24 April, 1692, Elizabeth, 24'March, 1694. 
CARTER. JOSEPH Newbury, 1636. 

CHADDOCK or CHADWICK, THOMAS m. Sara Woolcott 6 April. 1675. Daugh- 
ter Sara b. 3 Oct. 1675. 
CHANDLER, WILLIAM cooper, m. Mary , who d. 29 Oct. 1666. He m. Mary 

Lord 26 Feb. 1667. Ch. Hester, 28 Jan. 1652, William, Dec. 1667, Joseph, 19 Nov. 

1669, Samuel, 29 Feb. 1672, Mary. 18 May, 1674. His wife Mary d. 3 Oct. 1676. 

He d. 5 March, 1701 in his S5th year. His third wife Mary Carter he m. 16 

April, 1677. 
CHANDLER, SAMUEL son of William, m. Mercy , daughter Elizabeth b. 5 

Aug. 1695. 
CHANDLER, WILLIAM son of William, m. Hannah Huntington 29 Nov. 1692. 

Ch. John. 21 Nov. 1693, Joseph. 19 Oct. 1694, Mary, 5 Oct. 1696. 
CHANDLER, JOSEPH son of William, m. Mary Hall 10 Feb. 1700. Ch. Joseph 

and John, 23 April, 1701, Samuel, 3 March, 1703. 
CHASE, AQUILA mariner, from Cornwall, England, was in Hamplon 1640, Newbury 

1646. He m. Anne Wheeler of Hampton. He d. 27 Dec. 1670 aged 52. Ch. 

Sarah, . Anne, 6 July, 1647, Priscilla, 14 March, 1649, Mary, 3 Feb. 1651, Aquila, 

26 Sept. 1652, Thomas, 25 July, 1654, John, 2 Nov. 1655, Elizabeth, 13 Sept. 1657. 

Ruth, 18 March, 1660, andd. 30 May 1676, Daniel, 9 Dec. 1661, Moses, 24 Dec. 1663. 
CHASE, THOMAS son of Aquila, m. Rebecca Follansbee 22 Nov. 1677. Ch. 

Thomas, 15 Sept. 1680, Jonathan. 13 Jan. 1683. James, 15 Sept. 1685. Aquila, 15 July, 

1688, Ruth. 28 Feb. 1691, Mary, 15 Jan. 1695, Rebecca, 26 April, 1700. 
CHASE, AQUILA son of Aquila, m. . Ch. Esther, 18 Nov. 1674, Joseph, 

25 March. 1677, Priscilla, 15 Oct. 1681. 
CHASE. MOSES son of Aquila, m. Ann Follansbee 10 Nov. 1684. Ch. Moses and 

Daniel, 20 Sept. 1685, Moses, 20 Jan. 1688, Samuel. 13 May, 1690, Elizabeth, 25 Sept. 

1693, Stephen, 29 Aug. 1696, Hannah, 13 Sept. 1699, Joseph, 9 Sept. 1705. 
CHASE. JOHN son of Aquila, m. Elizabeth Bingley 23 May, 1677. Ch. William, 

3 Jan. 1679. Philip, 23 Sept. 1688, Charles, 
CHASE, DANIEL son of Aquila, m. Martha Kimball 25 May, 1683. Ch. Martha, 

18 Aug. 1684, Sarah, 18 July, 1688, Dorothy, 24 Jan. 1689, Isaac, 19 Jan. 1691. Lydia, 

1693, Mehetabel, 19 Jan. 1695, Judith, 19 Feb. 1697, Abner, 15 Oct. 1699, Daniel, 15 

Oct. 1702. 

CHASE, JOSEPH son of m. Abigail Tburston, 8 Nov. 1699. 

CHASE, THOMAS jr. m. Sara . Ch. Thomas, 20 Nov. 1700, Abel, 25 Feb. 

1702 Jonathan, 19 May, 1703. 

CHASE. JONATHAN, m. Joanna Palmer of Bradford, 1703. 
CHEATER. JOHN Newbury, 1644, thence to Wells, Maine. Ch. Hannah, 7 Aug. 

1644, Lydia, 12 Jan. 1648. 
CHISEMORE, DANIEL m. Cyprian . Ch. Sara, 10 Sept. 1696. Abigail, 15 

May, 1699. 

' 38 


CHENEY, JOHN shoemaker. Roxbury 1635. Newbury 1636. His wife was Mar- 
tha. Ch. Daniel, 1635, Sara, Feb.' 1637, Peter, 1639, Hannah, 16 Nov. 1642, 
Nathaniel, 12 Jan. 1645, and d. 24 April, 1684, Elizabeth, 14 Jan. 1648, John, Mary, 
and Martha. 

CHENEY, DANIEL son of John, m. Sara Bailey 8 Oct. 1665. Ch. Sara, 11 Sept, 
1666, Judith, 1668. Daniel, 31 Dec. 1670, Hannah, 3 Sept. 1673, Joseph, 10 July, 1676 T 
Eleanor, 29 March, 1679, James, 6 April, 1685, Daniel, sen. d. 10 Sept. 1694. 

CHENEY, PETER son of John, m. Hannah Noyes 14 May, 1663. Ch. Peter, 6 
Nov. 1663, Nicholas, 23 Dec. 1667, Mary, 2 Sept. 1671;, John, 10 May. 1666, Nathaniel, 
2 Oct. 1675, and d. 30 July, 1677, Jemima, 29 Nov. 1677, Eldad, 24 Oct. 1681, Han- 
nah, 13 Sept. 1683, Ichabod, 22 Sept. 1685. 

CHENEY, JOHN son of John, m. Mary Plumer 20 May, 1660. He d. 7 Jan. 1673, 
Ch. Mary, 29 March, 1661, Martha, 11 Sept. 1663, John, 29 Jan. 1669. 

CHENEY, "JOHN m. Mary Chute 7 March, 1694. Ch. Edmund, 29. June, 1696 r 
Martha, 30 July, 1700, Mary. 14 Nov. 1701. John, 23 May, 1705. 

CHENEY, PETER, jr. m. Mary . Ch. Nicholas, 14 March, 1693, and d. 7 

Aug. 1774, Benjamin, 6 Jan. 1699. 

CHENEY, DANIEL son of Daniel, jr. m. Hannah . Son Daniel b. 16 July. 1699.. 

CHENEY, JOHN m. Mary Chute 7 March, 1694. Ch. Edmund, 29 June, 1696,. 
Mary, 14 Nov. 1701. 

CHENEY, JOSEPH m. Sarah Wiswall 1702. 

CHUTE, LIONEL of Rowley, m. Ann Cheney 1702. 

CLARK, DR. JOHN b. in England 1598, came to Newbury 1638, moved to Boston 
1651, where he died in 1664 aged 66. His son John was also a physician in Boston. 

CLARK. MR. NATHANIEL sen. merchant, m. Elizabeth, daughter of Henry 
Somerby, 23 Nov. 1663. Ch. Nathaniel, 5 Dec. 1664, and d. 6 June, 1665, Nathaniel, 
13 March, 1666, Thomas, 9 Feb. 1668, John, 24 June, 1670, Henry, 5 July 1673, 
Daniel, 16 Dec. 1675, Sarah. 12 Jan. 1678, Josiah, 7 May, 1682, Elizabeth, 15 May, 
1684, Judith, Jan. 1687, Mary, 25 March, 1689. Having been wounded on board of 
the ship ' Six Friends ' in the expedition to Canada, he there died 25 Aug. 1690 aged 46. 
His widow Elizabeth m. Rev. John Hale of Beverly, 8 Aug. 1698. 

CLARK, NATHANIEL son of Nath. sen. m. Elizabeth Toppan, 15 Dec. 1685, 
Daughter Elizabeth b. 27 July, 1686. 

CLARK, THOMAS son of Nath. sen. m. Sara . Ch. Sara, 25 Dec. 1690, 

Thomas, 2 Sept. 1692, Nathaniel, 23 Oct. 1694, Martha, 12 April, 1696, Mary, 16 Aug. 
1698, Daniel, 26 Jan. 1701. 

CLARK, MR. HENRY, son of Nath. sen. m. Mrs. Elizabeth Greenleaf 7 Nov. 1695. 
Ch. Stephen, 21 Feb. 1697, Henry, 21 Nov. 1698, Judith, 15 Aug. 1700, Sara, 7 
May, 1702. 

CLARK, JONATHAN m. Lydia Titcomb, 15 May, 16S3. Ch. Oliver, 6 Feb. 1684, 
Samuel, 18 March, 1688, Jonathan, 24 May, 1689, Lydia, 17 May, 1691, Elizabeth, 10 
May, 1694. 

CLEMENS, ABRAHAM m. Hannah Gove 10 March, 1683. Son Edmund b. 3 
March, 1684. He then removed to Hampton, N. H. and had seven other children. 

CO ATE S, THOMAS and Martha had a son Philip b. 28 March, 1699. 

COLEMAN, THOMAS laborer, or ' Coultman ' as he himself wrote it, was born in 
1602, came from Marlboro, Wiltshire, England, to Newbury in the James, which 
arrived at Boston, 3 June 1635. His first wife Susanna d. 17 Nov. 1650. The same 
year he removed to Hampton and m. Mary, widow of Edmund Johnson 11 July, 1651, 
who died in Hampton 30 Jan. 1663. His third wife was Margery. After 1680 he 
moved to Nantucket, where he died in 1685 aged S3. Ch. Benjamin, 1 May, 1640, 
Joseph, 2 Dec. 1642, Isaac, 20 Feb. 1647, Joanna, John and Tobias. The last was 
the son of the third wife. 

COLEMAN, SUSANNA d. in Newbury, 2 Jan. 1643. 

COLEMAN, THOMAS m. Phebe Pearson, who d. 28 June, 1754. Ch. Dorcas, b. 
26th, and d. 27th April, 1703, John, 8 March, 1704. 

COLEMAN, EPHRAIM m. Susanna . Ch. Ephraim, 3 June, 1701, Hannah, 

10 March, 1703. 

COOPER, JOHN m. Sarah Salmon, 6 Jan. 1703. 

COFFIN, MR. TRISTRAM was born in 1609 in Brixham parish, town of Plymouth 
in Devonshire, Great Britain. He was the son of Peter and Joanna Coffin. Tristram 
m. Dionis Stevens, and after the death of his father, he came to New England in 
1642, bringing with him his mother, who died May 1661, ag. 77, his two sisters, Eu- 
nice and Mary, his wife and five children, Peter, Tristram, Elizabeth, James and 
John. He at first came to Salisbury, thence to Haverhill the same year, thence to 
Newbury about the year 1648, thence in 1654 or 5 he removed to Salisbury, where 
he signs his name ' Tristram CofFyn, commissioner of Salisbury.' In 1659, a com- 


pany was formed in Salisbury, who purchased nine-tenths of Nantucket, whither he 
removed in 1660 with his wife, mother and four of his children, James, John, Stephen, 
who was born in Newbury 11 May, 1652, and Mary, who was born in Haverhill 20 
Feb. 1645. He died 1681 aged 72. 

His son Peter was born in 1630, and resided, the principal part of his life, at Dover, N. 
H. In the Boston News Letter, I find the following : 

' On Monday 21 March 171 5 died at Exeter Hon. Peter Coffin esquire in the 85th year 
of his age, late judge of his majesty's superior court of judicature, and first member 
of his majesty's council of the province, a gentleman very serviceable both in church 
and state.' 

Hon. Peter Coffin had nine children. 

COFFIN, TRISTRAM b. in 1632, son of Tristram, merchant tailor, lived in New- 
bury, m. March 2, 1653, Judith Somerby, widow of Henry Somerby, and daughter of 
captain Edmund Greenleaf. Ch. Judith, b. 4 Dec. 1653, Deborah, Nov. 10, 1655, 
Mary, Nov. 12, 1657, James, April 22. 1659, John, Sept. 8, 1660, and d. May 13, 1677, 
Lydia, April 22, 1662, Enoch, Jan. 21 1663, and d. Nov. 12, 1675, Stephen, Aug. 18, 
1664, Peter, July 27, 1667, Nathaniel, 22 March, 1669. Tristram, jr. d. 4 Feb. 1704, 
aged 72. Judith, his widow, died 15 Dec. 1705, aged 80, leaving 177 descendants. 

COFFIN, JAMES son of Tristram, sen. 12 Aug. 1640, m. Mary Severance, of Sal- 
isbury, 3 Dec. 1663, moved to Nantucket and had fourteen children. He d. 28 July, 
1720, aged 80 years wanting 14 days. 

COFFIN, JOHN son of Tristram, sen. b. in Haverhill 13 Oct. 1647, (his first son John 
having died in Haverhill 30. 1642,) m. Deborah Austin, and had seven children in 
Nantucket. He d. 1711, aged 64. 

COFFIN, STEPHEN son of Tristram, sen. b. in Newbury 10 May, 1652, m. Mary- 
Bunker and had eight or nine children, and was living in May, 1728. He d. 1735, 
aged 83. 

COFFIN, MARY dau. of Tristram, b. in Haverhill, m. Nathaniel Starbuck of Nan- 
tucket and had six children. She died in 1717. 

COFFIN, ELIZABETH, daughter of Tristram, sen. b. in England, and m. Stephen 

Tristram Coffin's sister Eunice m. William Butler, and sister Mary m. Alexander 
Adams of Boston. 

COFFIN, JAMES son of Tristram, jun. m. Florence Hook, Nov. 16 1685. Ch.Wu- 
dith, 7 Oct. 1686, Elizabeth, , Sarah, Aug. 20, 1689, Mary, Jan. 18. 1691, Lydia, 

1692, Tristram. 19 Oct. 1694, Daniel, May 10, 1696, Eleanor, May 16, 1698, Joanna, 
2 May, 1701. James and Florence, Jan. 1, 1705. 

COFFIN, .STEPHEN son of Tristram, jun. m. Sarah Atkinson, 1685, and d. 31 Aug. 

1725. Ch. Sarah, May 16, 1686, Tristram, 14 Jan. 1688, Tristram, 6 March, 1689, 

Lydia. 21 July, 1691, Judith, 23 Feb. 1693, John, 20 Jan. 1695. 
COFFIN, PETER son of Tristram, jun. m. Apphia Dole, and moved to Gloucester. 

Ch. Hannah, March 3, 1688, Judith, Oct. 9, 1693. Tristram, Aug. 10, 1696. Richard, 

, Sarah, August 24, 1701, Apphia, , Apphia, . 

COFFIN, HON. NATHANIEL son of Tristram, jun. m. Sarah Dole, March 29 

1693. He died 20 Feb. 1748. Ch. John, Jan. 21, 1694, Enoch, 7 Feb. 1696, Apphia, 
June 9, 1698, Brocklebank Samuel, 24 Aug. 1700, Joseph, Dec. 30, 1702, Jane. 5 Aug. 
1705, Edmund, 19 March, 1708, Moses, 11 June, 1711. The posterity of Tristram, 
jun. in 1705, was 177. in 1722. 319, and in 1728, 446. 

The family of Tristram Coffin, sen. and their descendants, have been unusually pro- 
lific. ' The first grandchild of Tristram Coffin was Stephen Greenleaf, who was born 
15 Aug. 1652. He well remembered his great grandmother, and lived to see his great 
grandchildren, and transmitted the following account of the increase of said family 
at two different periods, from August, 1652, to August, 1722, and from August, 1722, 
to May, 1728, a period of five years and nine months, : reckoning only children by 

1722 1728 

Peter, 118 83 50 102 

Tristram, 319 225 127 336 

Elizabeth Greenleaf, 251 206 89 259 

James, 187 162 106 241 

Mary Starbuck, 119 90 36 117 

John, 64 52 17 69 

Stephen, 19 53 19 64 

1138 871 444 1128 



The first column shows the number, who were born before August, 1722, the second, 
the number then living, the third, the number, which had been added between Au- 
gust, 1722, and May, 1728, and the fourth, the number living in May, 1728. The 
whole number of his descendants, which were born between 1652 and 1728, was 
1582, of which 1128 were living in May, 1728. 

COKER, ROBERT yeoman, born in 1606, came to Newbury with the first settlers 
and d. 19 May, 1680, aged 74. His wife Catherine d. 2 May, 1678, Ch. Joseph, 6 
Oct. 1640. Sara. 24 Nov. 1643, Benjamin, 30 June, 1650, Hannah. 15 Jan. 1645. 

COKER, JOSEPH son of Robert, m. Sara Hathorne 13 April, 1665. Ch. Sara, who 
d. 30 Nov. 1667, Benjamin, 11 March, 1671, Sara, 28 Nov. 1676, Hathorne, 25 April, 
1679. His wife Sara d. 8 Feb. 1688. 

COKER, BENJAMIN son of Robert, m. Martha Perley 31 May, 1678. Ch. Benja- 
min, 13 Sept. 1680, Hannah, 10 March, 1683, Moses, 4 Aug. 1686, Sara, 13 April, 
1688, Mary, 18 Sept. 1691, Mercy, 22 Oct. 1693, John, 9 June, 1698, Judith, 9 June, 

COKER, MR. BENJAMIN jr. son of Joseph, m. Mrs. Ann Price 24 Nov. 1692. Ch. 
Mary, 14 May, 1 693, Joseph, 23 Dec. 1694, Elizabeth, 2 Feb. 1699, Sara, 19 Feb. 
1701, Anne, 3 March, 1703. 

COTTLE, WILLIAM son of Edward, of Salisbury, came to Newbury. Ch. Ezra, 
5 May, 1662, Ann, 12 July, 1663, Susanna, 16 Aug. 1665. He d. 30 April, 1668. 

COTTLE, EZRA son of William, m. Mary Woodbridge 6 July, 1695. Ch. William, 
27 July, 1696, Mary, 31 March, 1698, Edmund, 15 Feb~ 1700. 

COURTEOUS, WILLIAM d. 31 Dec. 1654. 

CROMLON alias CROMWELL, GILES an early settler in Newbury. His first 

wife d. 14 June, 1648. He m. Alice Wiseman 10 Sept. 1648, who d. 6 June, 

1669. Ch. Argentine, who m. Benjamin Cram 25 Nov. 1662, and Philip, who 
was a butcher in Salem. Giles d. 25 Feb. 1673. 

CROMWELL, JOHN born in 1636 m. Joan Butler 2 Nov. 1662. 

CROMWELL, THOMAS born in 1617, was in Newbury in 1637, moved to Hamp- 
ton in 1639, and died in Boston in 1649. 

CUTTING, CAPT. JOHN from London, settled in Charlestown, thence to Newbury, 
about 1642. He d. 20 Nov. 1659. His widow, Mary Miller, d. 6 March, 1663. Ch. 
Sarah, wife of James Brown, and Mary, wife of Samuel Moody. 

DAVIS, THOMAS sawyer of Marlborough, Eng. m. Christian ' in England, was 
in Newbury, 1641, in 1642 in Haverhill, where he died in 1683, aged 80. His poster- 
ity are numerous. 

DAVIS, JOHN an early settler, married . Ch. Mary, 6 Oct. 1642, John, 

15 Jan. 1645, Zachary, 22 Feb. 1646, Jeremy, 21 June, 1648, Mary, 12 Aug. 1650, 
Cornelius, 15 April. 1653, Ephraim, 29 Sept. 1655. He d.,12 Nov. 1675. 

DAVIS, JOHN son of John, m. Sara Carter 8 April, 1681. Ch. Mary, 23 March, 
1683, Sara. 13 July, 1685, John, son of John and Mary, b. 29 July, 1692. 

DAVIS, CORNELIUS son of John, m. Sara . -Ch. Samuel, 11 April, 1689, Ju- 
dith, 2 June, 1691, Cornelius, 9 Oct. 1693, James, 5 April, 1695 and d. in 1697, Eliz- 
abeth, 15 July, 1697. His wife Sara d. 6 March, 1696. He m. Elizabeth Hidden in 

DAVIS, EPHRAIM son of John, m. Elizabeth . Ch. Elizabeth, 7 April, 1690, 

John, 17 May, 1692, Mary, 20 July, 1694, Ephraim, 20 March. 1697, Joseph, 16 Nov. 

DAVIS, ZACHARY son of John, m. Judith Brown, 4 Feb. 1681. Ch. Judith, 7 
Sept. 1684 and d. 9 Dec. 1702, Elizabeth, 26 April, 1687. 

DAVIS. WILLIAM of Haverhill, m. Mary Kelly 31 Dec. 1700. 

DANFORTH, WILLIAM was born in London in 1653, and came to Newbury as 

early as 1667. He m. , who died 18 Oct. 1678. His second wife was Sarah 

Thurlow. Ch. William, Mary, .Richard. 31 Jan. 1680, John, 8 Dec. 1681, and d. 
Oct. 1, 1772, aged 92, J